This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Small herbs, with fibrous or sometimes rather fleshy-fibrous roots, bearing a pair of opposite green leaves near the middle, and 1 or 2 small scales at the base of the stem. Flowers in terminal racemes, spurless. Sepals and petals nearly alike, spreading or reflexed, free. Anther without a lid, erect, jointed to the column. Pollinia 2, powdery, united to a minute gland. Capsule ovoid or obovoid. [Greek, the eyebrow.]
About 12 species, natives of the north temperate and arctic zones. Besides the folowing, another occurs in northwestern North America. Type species: Ophrys ovata L,
Lip broadly wedge-shaped, retuse or 2-lobed at the apex.
Leaves oval; pedicels and ovaries glandular.
Leaves reniform; pedicels and ovaries glabrous.
Lip oblong or linear.
Lip broad, 2-cleft 1/4- 1/3 its length; base auricled.
Lip 2-cleft about 1/2 its length.
Lip twice as long as the petals, with lateral teeth.
Lip 4-8 times as long as the petals, with auricles at the base.
Stem 4'-10' high, glandular-pubescent above the leaves. Leaves smooth, round-oval or ovate, obtuse or cuspidate at the apex, sometimes slightly cordate or reniform at the base, 3-9-nerved. Raceme 1 1/2'-3' long, loosely 3-12-flowered; flowers greenish yellow, pedicels filiform, bracted, 3"-4" long; petals and sepals linear-lanceolate, much shorter than the lip; lip broadly wedge-shaped, with 2 obtuse lobes at the dilated apex, generally with a tooth on each side at base; column elongated, but shorter than- the lip, a little incurved, with 2 short projecting wings above the anther; capsule obovoid, about 3" long.
In woods, Newfoundland to Alaska and California, south to Vermont and Michigan. June-Aug.
Listera reniformis Small, Bull. Torr. Club 24: 334.
1897. Not D. Don. L. Smallii Wiegand, Bull. Torr. Club 26: 169. 1890. O. Smallii House, Bull. Torr. Club 32: 379. 1905.
Perennial, deep green. Stems erect, 4'-12' tall, slender, glabrous below, densely glandular-pubescent above; leaves reniform, or ovate-reniform, 5"-14" broad, apiculate or short-acuminate, pubescent beneath, cordate or subcordate, sessile; racemes 3/4-4' long; bracts lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 1 1/2"-2 1/2" long, acute; pedicels 2"~4" long; sepals oblong or linear-oblong, about \\" long, reflexed; corolla greenish, the lip wedge-shaped, 3"-31 /2" long, with 2 prominent teeth near the base, sharply cleft, the segments obtuse; capsules oval, 2"-2 1/2" long.
In damp thickets in the mountains. Pennsylvania to Virginia and North Carolina. Also in eastern Asia. Formerly confused with the preceding species. Spring and summer.