This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Quercus nigra digitata Marsh. Arb. Am. 121. 1785. Quercus triloba Michx. Hist. Chen. Am. pl. 26. 1801. Q. falcata Michx. Hist. Chen. Am. 16. pl. 28. 1801. Quercus digitata Sudw. Gard. & For. 5: 99. 1892.
A tree, with maximum height of about 95°, and trunk diameter of 5°. Leaves dark green and glabrous above, gray-tomentulose beneath, deeply pinnatifid into 3-7 linear or lanceolate, often falcate, acuminate, entire or dentate lobes; teeth and apices bristle-tipped; terminal lobes commonly elongated; styles slender; fruit maturing during the second autumn; cup saucer-shaped with a turbinate base, 5"-7" broad, its bracts ovate, obtuse, appressed; acorn subglobose or depressed, about twice as high as the cup.
Q. falcata pagodaefolia Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 2: 605.
1824. Q. pagodaefolia Ashe, Bot. Gaz. 24: 375. 1897.
A tree, attaining a maximum height of about 100°, with a trunk diameter up to nearly 50, the thick, close, scaly bark grayish-brown, the young twigs velvety-pubescent. Leaves ovate to oblong in outline, 6'-12' long, dark green and shining above, pale and persistently tomentose beneath, 5-11-lobed, the lobes and teeth bristle-tipped, the petiole 2' long or less; styles long, spreading; fruit maturing the second autumn, very short-stalked; cup shallowly top-shaped, its scales oblong, pubescent; acorn subglobose, about 5" long and twice as long as the cup.
Borders of swamps and streams, Massachusetts to Florida, Illinois, Missouri and Arkansas.
Quercus rubra nana Marsh. Arb. Am. 123. 1785. Quercus ilicifolia Wang. Amer. 79. pi. 6. f. 17. 1787. Quercus nana Sarg. Gard. & For. 8: 93. 1895.
A shrub or rarely a small tree, often forming dense thickets, maximum height about 250, and trunk diameter 6'; bark gray, nearly smooth. Leaves mostly obovate, 2'-5' long, short-petioled, dark green and glabrous above, grayish-white tomentu-lose beneath, 3-7-lobed, the lobes triangular-ovate, acute, bristle-tipped; styles recurved; fruit maturing the second autumn; cup saucer-shaped, 4"-6" broad, with a turbinate or rounded base; its bracts lanceolate, appressed; acorn globose-ovoid, more or less longer than the cup.
In sandy or rocky soil, Maine to Ohio, North Carolina and Kentucky. Wood hard, strong, light brown. May. Acorns ripe Oct.-Nov. Holly, bitter or barren oak. Bitter-bush or black scrub-oak. Dwarf black-oak.
A hybrid of this, presumably with Q. coccinea, was found by Dr. Robbins at Uxbridge, Mass.