This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Quercus Muhlenbergii Engelm. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 3: 391. 1877.
A tree with close or flaky bark, much resembling the chestnut; maximum height about 1600, and trunk diameter 3 1/20. Leaves oblong, lanceolate or obovate, apex acuminate or acute, base narrowed or rounded, coarsely toothed, when mature dark green and shining above, pale gray-tomentulose and prominently veined beneath, 4'-6' long, 1'-2 1/2' wide; petioles slender, 1/2'-1' long; fruit sessile or very short-peduncled, maturing the first season; cup hemispheric, 5"-8" broad, its bracts floccose, ovate, acute or cuspidate, appressed; acorn ovoid, 6"-10" high, about twice as high as the cup.
In dry soil, preferring limestone ridges, Vermont and Ontario to Minnesota, Nebraska, Alabama and Texas. Wood hard, strong, dense, close-grained, durable, dark brown; weight per cubic foot 54 lbs. May-June. Acorns ripe Oct.-Nov., edible. Pin-, shrub-, scrub-, chinkapin- or yellow chestnut-oak.
Quercus prinoides Willd. Neue Schrift. Ges. Nat. Fr.
Berlin 3: 397. 1801. Q. prinoides rufescens Rehder, Rhodora 9: 61. 1907.
A shrub, 2°-15° tall, sometimes tree-like, the bark gray, the twigs glabrous or pubescent. Leaves obovate, coarsely toothed, when mature bright green and somewhat shining above, gray-tomentulose beneath, 2 1/2'-5' long, 2'-3' wide, mostly acute or short-acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, the teeth short, triangular, subacute or obtuse; petioles slender, 3"-9" long; fruit sessile, maturing the first season; cup hemispheric, thin, about 1/2 broad and one-half as high, its bracts floccose, triangular-ovate or oblong-lanceolate, appressed; acorn ovoid, obtuse, 2-3 times as long as the cup; seed sweet.
Quercus virginiana Mill. Gard. Diet. Ed. 8, no. 16. 1768. Quercus virens Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 356. 1789.
A tree, with rough brown bark, attaining a maximum height of about 6o° and trunk diameter of 7o, but often shrubby, the young shoots puberulent. Leaves evergreen, coriaceous, oblong, elliptic or oblanceolate, apex obtuse, base narrowed or rounded, entire or with a few bristle-tipped teeth, bright green and glabrous above, pale green and puberulent or becoming glabrous beneath, 1'-3' long; petioles stout, 1"-3" long; fruit peduncled, maturing the first season; peduncle 1/4'-1' long; cup turbinate, 5"-8" broad, its bracts closely appressed; ovate or lanceolate; acorn ovoid-oblong, about twice as high as the cup; seed not edible; cotyledons united.
In dry soil, Virginia to Florida, Texas and Mexico, mostly near the coast. Also in Cuba. Wood very hard; tough, close-grained and dense; color yellow-brown; weight per cubic foot 59 lbs. March-April. Acorns ripe Sept.-Oct.