This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Rumex altissimus Wood, Class-book, 477. 1853. Rumex Brittannica Meisn. in DC. Prodr. 14: 47. 1856. Not L. 1753.
Perennial, glabrous, rather pale green; stem stout, erect, simple or sparingly branched above, grooved, 2°-4° tall. Leaves lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate (sometimes ob-lanceolate), 2-10' long, acute at both ends, papillose; panicle rather open; racemes slightly interrupted in fruit; flowers densely whorled; calyx light green, 1" long, winged in fruit; pedicels slender, jointed near the base, as long as the wings; wings triangular-cordate, 2"-2 1/2" long, usually one of them only bearing an ovoid tubercle; achene 1 1/2" long, dark red, smooth, shining, its faces concave.
Along streams and in swamps, Connecticut to Iowa, Nebraska, Maryland and Texas. Pale dock. April-June.
Rumex Patientia L. Sp. PI. 333. 1753.
Perennial, glabrous, stem erect, simple or sparingly branched, grooved, 2°-5° tall. Lower leaves ovate-lanceolate, long-petioled, 4'-16' long, the upper oblong-lanceolate or oblong-elliptic, acute or obtusish, the uppermost lanceolate; fruiting panicle dense; racemes erect, somewhat interrupted in fruit; flowers densely whorled; calyx green; pedicels slender, 2-4 times as long as the calyx-wings, jointed below the middle; wings orbicular-cordate, 2"-3" long, one of them bearing a prominent but small ovoid callosity; achene 1 1/2" long, light brown, smooth, shining, its faces concave, its angles obscurely margined.
In waste places, Newfoundland and Ontario to Wisconsin, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and Kansas. Also in the Far West. Naturalized from Europe. Passions. Monk's-rhubarb. May-June.
Rumex Britannica L. Sp. PI. 334. 1753.
Rumex Hydrolapathum var. ? americanum A. Gray,
Man. Ed. 2, 377. 1856. R. orbiculatus A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 420. 1867.
Perennial, glabrous, dark green, stem stout, erect, more or less branched, grooved, 3°-6° tall. Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, the lower 1°-2° long, long-petioled, the upper 2'-6' long, short-petioled; fruiting panicle dense; racemes nearly erect, more or less interrupted; flowers densely whorled; calyx light green; pedicels slender, conspicuously jointed above the base, 1/2-2 times as long as the calyx-wings; wings broadly cordate, 3" long, irregularly denticulate, each bearing a callosity; achene ovoid-oblong, or oblong, 2" long, pointed at both ends, brown, smooth, shining, its faces concave, its angles slightly margined.
In swamps and wet soil, Newfoundland and New Brunswick to Ontario, Minnesota, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Illinois and Kansas. Horse-sorrel. July-Aug.