This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
333. 1822. Dryopteris Goldiana A. Gray, Man. 631. 1848.
Rootstock stout, ascending, chaffy. Leaves up to 5 1/2° long, in a crown; stipes io'-i8' long, densely covered below with large lanceolate usually dark lustrous scales; lamina 2°-4° long, 10'-16' broad, ovate to oblong, short-acuminate, nearly glabrous, dark green above, nearly 2-pinnate; pinnae 6'-9' long, l'-2' broad, broadly lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, broadest above the base, acuminate, pinnatifid almost to the midrib; segments about 20 pairs, narrowly oblong, acute or subacute, subfalcate, serrate, the teeth appressed; sori 6-10 pairs, near the midrib, distinct; indusia glabrous, nearly orbicular, the sinus narrow.
Polypodium marginale L. Sp. PI. 1091. 1753. Aspidium marginale Sw. Syn. Fil. 50. 1806. Dryopteris marginalis A. Gray, Man. 632. 1848.
Rootstock stout, woody, ascending, densely covered with bright brown shining scales, the leaves borne in a crown. Stipes 4'-10' long, chaffy below; blades ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, chartaceo-coriaceous, 6'-2 1/2° long, nearly or quite 2-pinnate, acuminate, usually a little narrowed at the base; pinnae numerous, sessile or nearly so, glabrous, 2'-.5' long, the lowermost unequally deltoid-lanceolate, those above lanceolate to broadly oblong-lanceolate, acuminate; segments oblong or lanceolate, obtuse or subacute, subfalcate or falcate, sub-entire, crenate or pinnately lobed, partially adnate or the lowermost distinct; sori distant, close to the margin; indusia orbicular-reniform, glabrous.
In rocky woods and on banks Nova Scotia to British Columbia, south to Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, Kansas and Oklahoma. Ascends to 5000 ft. in Virginia. Leaves evergreen. July-Aug. Marginal Shield-fern.
Polypodium Filix-mas L. Sp. PI. 1090. 1753.
Aspidium Filix-mas Sw. Schrad. Journ. Bot. 18002: 38.
1801. Dryopteris Filix-mas Schott, Gen. Fil. 1834.
Rootstock stout, woody, ascending or erect, chaffy. Leaves up to 40 high, in an erect crown; stipes 4'-10' long, densely chaffy below; blades nearly evergreen, 1°-3° long, 6'-11' broad, broadly oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, narrowed at the base, nearly or quite 2-pin-nate; pinnae narrowly deltoid-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, acuminate; segments adnate, oblong, obtuse and biserrate, or partially adnate, ovate-oblong, acutish and deeply incised; sori numerous, large, nearer the midvein than the margin; indusia orbicular-reniform, glabrous.
In rocky woods, Newfoundland and Labrador to Alaska, south to Vermont, northern Michigan, South Dakota, Arizona and California. Aug. Also in Greenland. Numerous related forms of wide distribution are referred to this species; the type is European. The rootstock of this and the preceding species furnish the drug Filix-mas used as a vermifuge. Basket-fern. Male shield-fern. Shield-roots. Bear's-paw-roots. Sweet or knotty brake.