This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Light green. Culms 1°-3° tall, erect, smooth and glabrous, from a running rootstock; sheaths shorter than the internodes, smooth; ligule a short membranous ring; blades erect, prominently nerved, rough on both surfaces, acuminate, the culm leaves 3'-8' long, 2"-3" wide, the basal leaves about one-half as long as the culms; spikes 3'-8' long, strict; spikelets 5"-8" long, 3-7-flowered, a little compressed, appressed to the rachis which is hispidulous on the margins; empty scales lanceolate, equalling or somewhat shorter than the spikelet, acuminate and often awn-pointed, 5-7-nerved, the nerves hispidulous; flowering scales 5-nerved, roughish toward the apex, usually awn-pointed.
Glaucous. Culms rigid, slender, erect, 1 1/2°-3° tall, from a running rootstock; sheaths shorter than the in-ternodes, smooth and glabrous; ligule wanting; blades erect, acuminate, 5'-8' long, 2" or less wide, smooth beneath, glaucous above, scabrous on the margins; spikes long-exserted, 3-5' long, 4-sided; spikelets crowded, 6"-10" long, 6-11flowered, appressed to the 4-angled articulated rachis, the angles hispidulous; empty scales lanceolate, 5" long, rough on the keel, 5-7-nerved; flowering scales lanceolate, keeled, rough toward the apex, acute, awn-pointed or short-awned.
Sandy beaches, coast of Maine. Introduced from Europe. July-Aug.
Div. Agrost. 4: 33, in part. 1897.
Pale green, glaucous. Culms 1 1/2°-4° tall, erect, from a slender creeping rootstock, smooth and glabrous; sheaths shorter than the internodes, smooth; ligule a short membranous ring; blades erect, 2'-8' long, 2"-4" wide, acuminate, very-scabrous above, smooth beneath, becoming involute when dry; spike long-exserted, strict, 4'-8' long; spikelets crowded, divergent from the rachis, compressed, lanceolate when closed, ¥-1' long, 6-12-flowered; empty scales acuminate, awn-pointed, shorter than the spikelet, hispidulous on the keel; flowering scales 5"-6" long, acute or awn-pointed, glabrous or sparsely pubescent.
Moist land, Manitoba and Minnesota to British Columbia, south to Missouri and Texas.