This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Juglans Pecan Marsh. Arb. Am. 69. 1785.
Carya olivaeformis Nutt. Gen. 2: 221. 1818.
A large slender tree, with somewhat roughened bark, maximum height of 1700 and trunk diameter 6°. Young twigs and leaves pubescent; mature foliage nearly glabrous; bud-scales few, small, valvate; leaflets 11 - 15, falcate, oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, short-stalked, inequilateral, acuminate,4'-7'long; staminate aments sessile or nearly so in the axils of leaf-scars near the end of twigs of the preceding season or sometimes on the young shoots, 5'-6' long; bract of the staminate calyx linear, much longer than the broadly oblong lateral lobes; fruit oblong-cylindric, 1 1/2'-2 1/2' long; husk thin, 4-valved; nut smooth, oblong, thin-shelled, pointed, 2-celled at base, dissepiments thin, very astringent; seed delicious.
Juglans alba minima Marsh. Arb. Am. 68. 1785.
Juglans cordiformis Wang. Nordam. Holz. 25, pl. 10, f. 25.
1787. Carya amara Nutt. Gen. 2: 222. 1818. Hicoria minima Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 15: 284. 1888. Hicoria cordiformis Britton, N. A. Trees 228. 1908.
A slender tree, sometimes 100° high, with trunk 3° in diameter, the bark close and rough. Bud-scales 6-8, small, valvate, caducous, young foliage puberulent, becoming nearly glabrous; leaflets 7-9, sessile, long-acuminate, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 3'-6' long, 1/2'-11 /2' wide, the lateral ones falcate; staminate aments slightly pubescent, peduncled in 3's at the bases of shoots of the season or sometimes on twigs of the previous year; lobes of the staminate calyx about equal, the bract narrower; fruit subglobose, narrowly 6-ridged 1'-1 1/2' in diameter; husk thin, tardily 4-valved; nut little compressed, not angled, short-pointed, 9'-12" long, thin-shelled; seed very bitter.
In moist woods and swamps, Quebec to southern Ontario, Minnesota, Florida and Texas. Ascends to 3500 ft. in Virginia. Wood hard and strong, dark brown; weight per cubic foot 47 lbs. Bitter pignut. Bitter or pig-hickory. May-June. Fruit ripe Sept.-Oct.
A swamp tree, attaining a maximum height of about 100° and a trunk diameter of 30, the bark close, the young foliage pubescent, becoming nearly glabrous when mature. Leaflets 9-13, lanceolate, or the terminal one oblong, long-acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, 3-5' long, 1/2'-1' wide, the lateral strongly falcate; staminate aments and calyx as in the preceding species; fruit oblong, ridged, 1'-1 1/2' long, pointed; husk thin, tardily splitting; nut oblong, thin-shelled, angular; seed bitter.
In wet woods and swamps, Virginia to Florida, west to Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas and Texas. Wood soft, strong, dense, dark brown; weight per cubic foot 46 lbs. Bitter pecan. Water-bitternut. March-April. Fruit ripe Sept.-Oct.