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An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1 | by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown



The Present work is the first complete Illustrated Flora published in this country. Its aim is to illustrate and describe every species, from the Ferns upward, recognized as distinct by botanists and growing wild within the area adopted, and to complete the work within such moderate limits of size and cost as shall make it accessible to the public generally, so that it may serve as an independent handbook of our Northern Flora and as a work of general reference, or as an adjunct and supplement to the manuals of systematic botany in current use.

TitleAn Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol1
AuthorNathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown
PublisherCharles Scribner's Sons
Year1913
Copyright1913, Nathaniel L. Britton and Helen C. Brown
AmazonAn Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set.

An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions

From Newfoundland To The Parallel Of The Southern Boundary Of Virginia, And From The Atlantic Ocean Westward To The 102d Meridian

By Nathaniel Lord Britton, Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D. Director-In-Chief Of The New York Botanical Garden; Professor In Columbia University

And Hon. Addison Brown, A.B., LL.D. President Of The New York Botanical Garden

The Descriptive Text Chiefly Prepared By Professor Britton, With The Assistance Of Specialists In Several Groups', The Figures Also Drawn Under His Supervision

Second Edition - Revised And Enlarged In Three Volumes

Vol. I.

Ophioglossaceae To Polygonaceae

Ferns To Buckwheat

By Nathaniel L. Britton and Helen C. Brown,

-Symbols Used
0 is used after figures to indicate feet. ' is used after figures to indicate inches. is used after figures to indicate lines, or twelfths of an inch. over syllables indicates the accent, and the s...
-Introduction
The Present work is the first complete Illustrated Flora published in this country. Its aim is to illustrate and describe every species, from the Ferns upward, recognized as distinct by botanists and ...
-Area
The area of the work extends from the Atlantic Ocean westward, in general, to the I02d Meridian, a little beyond that of Gray's Manual, so as to include the whole of the State of Kansas; and northward...
-Figures
Within the above area there are over 4600 recognized species, more than three times the number in Bentham's Illustrated Handbook of the British Flora. To illustrate all these in a work of moderate siz...
-The Classification Of Plants
The Plant Kingdom is composed of four subkingdoms, divisions or primary groups: 1. Thallophyta, the Algae, Fungi and Lichens. 2. Bryophyta, the Mosses and Moss-allies. 3. Pteridophyta, the Ferns an...
-Systematic Arrangement
The Nineteenth Century closed with the almost unanimous scientific judgment that the order of nature is an order of evolution and development from the more simple to the more complex. In no department...
-Nomenclature
The names of genera and species used in this work are in general accordance with the Code of Nomenclature recommended by the Nomenclature Commission of the Botanical Club of the American Association f...
-Types Of Genera And Species
The critical study of plants, resulting in the present knowledge by botanists of many more genera and species than formerly, has made necessary more exact definition and determination of both genera a...
-English Names Of Plants
The general desire for some English name for the different plants described has been met so far as possible. All names in common use have been inserted, so far as they have come to the authors' knowle...
-Pronunciation
In botanical names derived from Greek or Latin words, their compounds, or derivatives, the accent, according to the ordinary rule, is placed upon the penultimate syllable, if it is long in Latin quant...
-The Use Of Capital Letters
In accordance with the recommendations of the Nomenclature Commission of the Botanical Club of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, specific or varietal names derived from persons,...
-Keys
A general Key of the Orders and Families has been prepared by Dr. Britton according to the method followed in the Keys to the genera and species. This general Key has been elaborated on the natural me...
-Assistance And Cooperation
In the preparation of both the first edition and of the second we have had valued cooperation from many botanists, which is here gratefully acknowledged. The late Professor Thomas C. Porter contribute...
-Draughtsmen
Most of the drawings for the first edition were executed by Mr. F. Emil; he made all the figures of the Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae, and nearly all of the Monocotyledones, with the exception of those o...
-Abbreviations Of The Names Of Authors
A. Benn. Bennett, Arthur. A. Br. Braun, Alexander. Adans. Adanson. Michel. Ait. Aiton, William. Ait. f. Aiton, William Townsend. All. Allioni, Carlo. Anders. Andersson, Nils Johan. Andr. Andrews,...
-Abbreviations Of The Names Of Authors. Continued
Auguste. Loud. Loudon, John Claudius. Lour. Loureiro, Juan. Mack. Mackenzie, Kenneth K. MacM. MacMillan, Conway. Marsh. Marshall, Humphrey. Mars. Marsson, Theodor. Mart. Martens, Martin. Mart. & Gal. ...
-Glossary Of Flora Special Terms
Acaulescent With stem subterranean, or nearly so. Accumbent Cotyledons with margins folded against the hypocotyl. Achene A dry one-seeded indehiscent fruit with the pericarp tightly fitting aroun...
-Glossary Of Flora Special Terms. Part 2
Cut about halfway to the midvein. Clinandrium Cavity between the anther-sacs in orchids. Cochleate Like a snail shell. Coma Tuft of hairs at the ends of some seeds. Commissure The contiguous s...
-Glossary Of Flora Special Terms. Part 3
Ferruginous Color of iron-rust. Fetid Ill-smelling. Fibrillose With fibres or fibre-like organs. Filament The stalk of an anther; the two forming the stamen. Filamentous Composed of thread-li...
-Glossary Of Flora Special Terms. Part 4
Macrospore The larger of two kinds of spores; borne by a plant, usually giving rise to a female prothallium. Marcescent Withering but remaining attached. Medullary Pertaining to the pith or medul...
-Glossary Of Flora Special Terms. Part 5
Pollinia. The pollen-masses of the Orchid and Milkweed Families. Polygamous Bearing both perfect and imperfect flowers. Polypetalous With separate petals. Pome The fleshy fruit of the Apple Fami...
-Glossary Of Flora Special Terms. Part 6
Stipe The stalk of an organ. Stipitate Provided with a stipe. Stipules Appendages to the base of a petiole, often adnate to it. Stipulate With stipules. Stolon A basal branch rooting at the n...
-General Key To The Orders And Families
Subkingdom PTERIDOPHYTA. 1: 1-54. Spores developing into flat or irregular prothallia, which bear the reproductive organs (antheridia and archegonia); flowers and seeds none. i. Spores produced in s...
-General Key To The Orders And Families. Part 2
Epiphytes; leaves scurfy. Fam. 17. Bromeliaceae. 1: 456. Terrestrial or aquatic herbs; leaves not scurfy. Perianth of 2 series of parts, the outer (sepals) green, the inner (petals) colored. Fam. 1...
-General Key To The Orders And Families. Part 3
Capsule 1-celled; petals mostly present. Sepals 2. Fam. 22. Portulacaceae. 2: 35. Sepals 5 or 4, distinct or united. Sepals distinct; ovary sessile. Fam. 23. Alsinaceae. 2:41. Sepals united; ovary...
-General Key To The Orders And Families. Part 4
a. Flowers regular. Pistils usually several or numerous (one only in Cercocarpus and some species of Alchemilla and Aphanes; in Sanguisorba, Poteridium and Poterium). Carpels distinct, sometimes adna...
-General Key To The Orders And Families. Part 5
A fringed crown in the throat of the calyx; our species vines; stamens 5; ovary free from the calyx. Fam. 91. Passifloraceae. 2:564. No crown; our species herbs; stamens numerous; ovary adnate to the...
-General Key To The Orders And Families. Part 6
tt Ovary 1, compound (2-divided in Dichondra; in Boraginaceae and Labiatae mostly deeply 4-lobed around the style) flowers regular or irregular; stamens mostly adnate to the middle of the corolla-tube...
-Subkingdom Pteridophyta. Ferns And Fern-Allies
Plants containing woody and vascular tissues in the stem and producing spores asexually, which, on germination, develop small mostly flat green structures called prothallia (gametophyte). On these are...
-Family 1. Ophioglossaceae Presl, Tent. Pterid. 6. 1836. Adder's-Tongue Family
Succulent plants consisting of a short fleshy rootstock bearing one or several leaves and numerous fibrous often fleshy roots. Leaves erect or pendent, consisting of a simple, palmately or dichotomous...
-1. Ophioglossum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1062. 1753
Small terrestrial plants, with small, erect, fleshy, often tuberous, rootstocks bearing fibrous naked roots and 1-6 slender, erect leaves, these consisting usually of a short, cylindric common stalk, ...
-2. Botrychium Sw. Schrad. Journ. Bot. 18002: 8. 1801
Fleshy terrestrial plants, with stout erect rootstocks, bearing clustered, fleshy, often corrugated roots and 1 or sometimes 2 or 3 erect leaves, these consisting of a short cylindric wholly or partia...
-2. Botrychium Sw. Schrad. Journ. Bot. 18002: 8. 1801. Part 2
1. Botrychium Simplex E. Hitchcock. Hitchcock's Or Little Grape-Fern Fig. 4 B. simplex E. Hitchcock, Amer. Journ. Sci. 6: 310. 1823. Leaves 2'-6' long, slender and variable, the common stalk usuall...
-2. Botrychium Sw. Schrad. Journ. Bot. 18002: 8. 1801. Part 3
5. Botrychium Neglectum Wood. Wood's Grape-Fern Fig. 8 Botrychium neglectum Wood, Class Book Bot. ed. 2, 635. 1847. B. matricariaefolium of most American writers. Leaves 2 -12 long, often very fles...
-2. Botrychium Sw. Schrad. Journ. Bot. 18002: 8. 1801. Part 4
9. Botrychium Silaifolium Presl. Leathery Grape-Fern Fig. 12 B. silaifolium Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 76. 1825. Botrychium ternatum subvar. intermedium D. C. Eaton, Ferns N. Am. 1: 149. 1878. B.occiden...
-Family 2. Osmundaceae R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1: 161 1810
Royal Fern Family. Large ferns with creeping or suberect rootstocks. Stipes winged at the base, the blades 1-2-pinnate or tripinnatifid, with free mostly forked veins extending to the margins. Sporang...
-1. Osmunda [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1063. 1753
Tall swamp or lowland ferns, the leaves in large crowns, long-stalked, the blades bipinnatifid or bipinnate, with regularly forked prominent veins, the fertile portions much contracted and devoid of c...
-Family 3. Hymenophyllaceae Gaud, In Freyc. Voy. 262. 1826. Filmy-Fern Family
Membranaceous, mostly tropical small ferns, with slender often filiform creeping or rarely suberect rootstocks, the leaves usually much divided, the leaf-tissue pellucid, usually of a single layer of ...
-1. Trichomanes L. Sp. Pi. 1097. 1753
Blades entire, pinnatifid or lobed, or several times pinnately divided. Indusium tubular or funnel-shaped, truncate or sometimes broadly two-lipped, the sporanges sessile, mostly upon the lower portio...
-Family 4. Schizaeaceae Reichenb. Consp. 39. 1828
Climbing Fern Family. Plants with erect, simple, pinnate or dichotomous, or vine-like, twining, elongate leaves, with stalked, alternate, paired and mostly palmately lobed or pinnate leafy divisions. ...
-1. Schizaea J. E. Smith, Mem. Acad. Turin 5: 419. Pl. 19. F. 9. 1793
Mostly small plants, with erect or recurved slender filiform simple or dichotomously divided or cleft leaves. Sporanges in 2 rows along the close slender segments of small pinnate terminal spikes and ...
-2. Lygodium Sw. Schrad. Journ. Bot. 18002: 106. 1801
Twining vine-like ferns. Leaves elongate, the rachis wiry and flexuous; leafy parts consisting of the stalked palmately lobed or pinnate (or compound) secondary pinnae, borne in pairs upon short stalk...
-Family 5. Polypodiaceae R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1: 145. 1810. Fern Family
Leafy plants of various habit, the rootstocks horizontal and often elongate, or shorter and erect, the leaf-blades simple, once or several times pinnate or pinnatifid, or decompound, coiled in vernati...
-1. Onoclea L Sp. Pi. 1062. 1753
Coarse lowland ferns with leaves of two very dissimilar sorts borne separately upon a creeping rootstock, the sterile ones foliaceous and suberect, withering with frosts, the fertile ones rigidly erec...
-2. Matteuccia Todaro, Giorn. Sci. Nat. Palermo 1: 235. 1866. [Struthiopteris Willd. 1809, Not Weiss, 1770.]
Coarse lowland ferns with dissimilar leaves in a close crown upon a stout ascending rootstock. Sterile leaves tall, in a complete circle, the shorter fertile leaves appearing late in the season, borne...
-3. Woodsia R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1: 158. 1810
Small or medium-sized ferns, growing in rocky places, the rootstocks in dense tufts. Leaves numerous, the stipes often jointed above the base and separable, the blades 1-2-pinnate or deeply 3-pinnatif...
-3. Woodsia R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1: 158. 1810. Continued
2. Woodsia Alpina (Bolton) S. F. Gray. Alpine Woodsia Fig. 24 Acrostichum alpinum Bolton, Fil. Brit. 76. 1790. Acrostichum hyperboreum Liljeb. Kgl. Vetensk. Akad. Nya Handl. 14: 201. 1793. Woodsia...
-4. Dennstaedtia Bernh. Schrad. Journ. Bot. 18002: 124. 1801. [Dicksonia In Part Of Some Authors, Not L'Her. 1788.]
Mostly medium-sized ferns, with slender wide-creeping hairy rootstocks and scattered 2-3-pinnate erect leaves, 2-6 high. Sori marginal, terminal upon the free veinlets, the sporanges cluster...
-5. Filix Adans. Fam. Pi. 2: 20, 558. 1763. [Cystopteris Bernh. Schrad. Neues Journ. Bot. 12: 26. 1806.]
Delicate rock ferns with slender stipes, 2-4-pinnate blades, and roundish sori borne on the backs of the veins. Indusium membranous, hood-like, attached by a broad base on its inner side and partly un...
-6. Polystichum Roth, Romer's Arch. Bot. 21: 106. 1799
Coarse and usually rigid erect ferns of harsh texture, with pinnatifid to quadripinnatifid leaves borne typically in a crown upon a suberect or decumbent rootstock, the stipe not jointed to it. Steril...
-6. Polystichum Roth, Romer's Arch. Bot. 21: 106. 1799. Continued
3. Polystichum Scopulinum (D. C. Eaton) Maxon. Eaton's Shield-Fern Fig. 35 Aspidium aculeatum var. scopulinum D. C. Eaton, Ferns N. Am. 2: 125. pl. 62, f. 8. 1880. P. scopulinum Maxon, Fern Bull. 8...
-7. Dryopteris Adans. Fam. Pi. 2: 20, 550. 1763. [Aspidium Sw. Schrad. Journ. Bot. 18002: 29, In Part. 1801.]
Mainly woodland ferns, commonly of upright habit, the fertile and sterile leaves usually similar, not jointed to the rootstock. Blades 1-3-pinnate or dissected, with veins free in northern species, un...
-7. Dryopteris Adans. Aspidium Sw. Schrad. Part 2
1. Dryopteris Noveboracensis (L.) A. Gray. New York Fern Fig. 37 Polypodium noveboracense L. Sp. PI. 1091. 1753. Aspidium noveboracense Sw. Schrad. Journ. Bot. 18002: 38. 1801. Dryopteris noveborac...
-7. Dryopteris Adans. Aspidium Sw. Schrad. Part 3
4. Dryopteris Fragrans (L.) Schott. Fragrant Shield-Fern Fig. 40 Polypodium fragrans L. Sp. PI. 1089. 1753. Aspidium fragrans Sw. Schrad. Journ. Bot. 18002:35. 1801. Dryopteris fragrans Schott, Ge...
-7. Dryopteris Adans. Aspidium Sw. Schrad. Part 4
7. Dryopteris Goldiana (Hook.) A. Gray. Goldie's Fern Fig. 43 Aspidium Goldianum Hook. Edinb. Philos. Journ. 6: 333. 1822. Dryopteris Goldiana A. Gray, Man. 631. 1848. Rootstock stout, ascending, ...
-7. Dryopteris Adans. Aspidium Sw. Schrad. Part 5
10. Dryopteris Spinuldsa (Muell.) Kuntze. Spinulose Shield-Fern Fig. 46 Polypodium spinulosum Muell. Fl. Fridr. 113. f. 2. 1767. Aspidium spinulosum Sw. Schrad. Journ. Bot. 18002: 38. 1801. Dryopte...
-7. Dryopteris Adans. Aspidium Sw. Schrad. Part 6
13. Dryopteris Boottii (Tuckerm.) Underw. Boott's Shield-Fern Fig. 49 Rootstock stout, ascending. Stipes 8'-12' long, covered below with thin pale-brown scales; blade of fertile leaves elongate-oblo...
-7. Dryopteris Adans. Aspidium Sw. Schrad. Part 7
14. Dryopteris Phegopteris (L.) C. Chr. Long Beech-Fern Fig. 50 Polypodium Phegopteris L. Sp. PI. 1089. 1753. Phegopteris polypodioides Fee, Gen. Fil. 243. 1850-52. Phegopteris Phegopteris Underw.; ...
-7. Dryopteris Adans. Aspidium Sw. Schrad. Part 8
17. Dryopteris Robertiana (Hoffm.) C. Chr. Scented Oak-Fern Fig. 53 Polypodium Robertianum Hoffm. Deutschl. Fl. 2: [add. 4]. 1795. Phegopteris Robertiana A. Br.; Aschers. Fl. Brand. 2: 198. 1859. ...
-8. Anchistea Presl, Epim. Bot. 71. 1851
Coarse swamp ferns with wide-creeping prostrate or underground rootstocks, the leaves scattered and rigidly erect, the blades long-stalked and deeply bipinnatifid, the fertile ones similar in outline ...
-9. Lorinseria Presl, Epim. Bot. 72. 1851
Swamp ferns of medium size, with dimorphous leaves, the sterile ones spreading, with deeply pinnatifid blades, the veins copiously anastomosing; fertile leaves rigidly erect, the pinnae somewhat folia...
-10. Phyllitis Ludwig, Inst. Hist. Phys. Reg.-Veg., Ed. 2, 142. 1757. [Scolopendrium Adans. Fam. Pi. 2: 20. 1763.]
Small or medium-sized ferns with deltoid, oblong or strap-shaped mostly entire leaves, and linear elongate sori almost at right angles to the midrib and contiguous in pairs, one on the upper side of a...
-12. Asplenium.L.Sp.Pl. 1078. 1753
Large or small ferns of various habitat, with simple lobed or 1-3-pinnatifid or pinnate mostly uniform leaves, the veins free; scales of the rootstock firm, with thick-walled cells. Sori straight or s...
-12. Asplenium.L.Sp.Pl. 1078. 1753. Part 2
1. Asplenium Ebenoides R. R. Scott. Scott's Spleenwort Fig. 58 Asplenium ebenoides R. R. Scott, Journ. Roy Hort. Soc. 87. 1866. Rootstock short, chaffy, with dark, shining scales. Stipes tufted, 1 ...
-12. Asplenium.L.Sp.Pl. 1078. 1753. Part 3
4. Asplenium Platyneuron (L.) Oakes. Ebony Spleenwort Fig. 61 Acrostichum platyneuros L. Sp. PI. 1069. 1753. Asplenium cbencum Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 462. 1789. Asplenium platyneuron Oakes; D. C. Eaton,...
-12. Asplenium.L.Sp.Pl. 1078. 1753. Part 4
7. Asplenium Pycnocarpon Spreng. Narrow-Leaved Spleenwort Fig. 64 Asplenium angustifolium Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 265. 1803. Not Jacq. 1786. Asplenium pycnocarpon Spreng. Anleit. 3: 112. 1804. Athyr...
-13. Athyrium Roth, Romer's Arch. Bot. 21: 105. 1799
Medium-sized or large ferns with greenish succulent stipes and 1-3-pinnate or pinnatihd blades; veins free; scales of the rootstock delicate, of thin-walled cells. .Sori usually curved, oblong to line...
-14. Adiantum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 1094. 1753
Graceful ferns of rocky hillsides, woods and ravines, with much divided leaves, the stipes and branches slender or filiform, rigid, polished, usually dark-colored and shining. Sori appearing marginal,...
-15. Pteridium Scop. Fl. Carn. 169. 1760
Coarse ferns of open or partially shaded situations, the triangular or deltoid-ovate compound blades borne upon stout stipes, these scattered upon a slender freely branched woody rootstock creeping un...
-16. Cryptogramma R. Br. App. Franklin's Journ. 767. 1823
Small mainly alpine or boreal ferns with dimorphous leaves, the stipes greenish or straw-colored, the blades 2-3-pinnate, the fertile exceeding the sterile. Sori borne at or near the ends of the free ...
-17. Pellaea Link, Fit Hort. Berol. 59. 1841
Rock-loving small or medium-sized ferns, with nearly uniform leaves, the blades 1-3-pinnate, smooth, the fertile divisions commonly narrower than the sterile. Sori roundish or elongate, on the free ve...
-18. Cheilanthes Sw. Syn. Fil. 126. 1806
Small rock-loving ferns, mostly with pubescent, tomentose or scaly leaves, the blades uniform, 1-3-pinnate, the divisions often minute and bead-like. Sori terminal upon the veins, marginal, roundish a...
-19. Notholaena R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1: 145. 1810
Small rock-loving ferns, mainly of arid or semi-arid regions, the blades of various shape, 1-4-pinnate, the under surfaces hairy, densely tomentose or scaly, or in some species covered with a white or...
-20. Polypodium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1082. 1753
Mainly shade-loving species of various habit, commonly epiphytic in the humid tropics, the leaves articulate to the creeping or ascending rhizome at the base of the stipe, the blades ranging from simp...
-Family 6. Marsileaceae R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1: 166. 1810. Marsilea Family
Perennial herbaceous plants rooting in mud, with slender creeping root-stocks and 2- or 4-foliolate or filiform leaves. Asexual propagation consisting of sporo-carps borne on peduncles which rise from...
-1. Marsilea L. Sp. Pi. 1099. 1753
Marsh or aquatic plants, the leaves commonly floating on the surface of shallow water, slender-petioled, 4-foliolate. Peduncles shorter than the petioles, arising from their bases or more or less adna...
-Family 7. Salviniaceae Reichenb. Consp. 30. 1828. Salvinia Family
Small floating plants with a more or less elongated and sometimes branching axis bearing apparently 2-ranked leaves. Sporocarps soft, thin-walled, borne 2 or more on a common stalk, 1-celled, with a c...
-1. Salvinia Adans. Fam. Pi. 2: 15. 1763
Floating annual plants with slender stems bearing rather broad 2-ranked leaves, these finely papillose on the upper surface. Sporocarps globose, depressed, 9-14-sulcate, membranous, arranged in cluste...
-2. Azolla Lam. Encycl. 1: 343. 1783
Minute moss-like reddish or green floating plants, with pinnately branched stems covered with minute imbricated 2-lobed leaves, and emitting rootlets beneath. Sporocarps of two kinds borne in the axil...
-Family 8. Equisetaceae Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 281. 1803. Horsetail Family
Rush-like perennial plants, with mostly hollow jointed simple or often much-branched grooved stems, provided with a double series of cavities and usually with a large central one, the branches vertici...
-1. EQUISETUM [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 1061. 1753
Characters of the family. [Name ancient, signifying horse-tail, in allusion to the copious branching of several species.] Called also Toad-pip, Tad-pipe. About 25 specie...
-1. EQUISETUM [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 1061. 1753. Part 2
1. Equisetum Arvense L. Field Horsetail Fig. 89 Equisetum arvense L. Sp. PI. 1061. 1753. Stems annual, provided with scattered stomata, the fertile appearing in early spring before the sterile. Fer...
-1. EQUISETUM [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 1061. 1753. Part 3
5. Equisetum Littorale Kuehl. Shore Horsetail Fig. 93 Equisetum littorale Kuehl. Beitr. Pflanz. Russ. Reichs, 4: 91. 1845. Stems annual, very slender, all alike, 8'-18' high, slightly roughened, 6-...
-1. EQUISETUM [Tourn.] L. Sp. PI. 1061. 1753. Part 4
9. Equisetum Laevigatum A. Br. Smooth Scouring-Rush Fig. 97 Equisetum laevigatum A. Br.; Engelm. Amer. Journ. Sci. 46: 87. 1844. Stems 1-5 high, simple or little branched, pale green, ann...
-Family 9. Lycopodiaceae Michx. Fl. Bon Am. 2: 281. 1803. Club-Moss Family
Somewhat moss-like, erect or trailing terrestrial herbs with numerous small lanceolate or subulate simple leaves, sometimes oblong or roundish, arranged in 2-many ranks, the stems often elongated, usu...
-1. Lycopodium L. Sp. Pi. 1100. 1753
Perennial plants with evergreen 1-nerved leaves arranged in 4-16 ranks. Sporanges coriaceous, flattened, reniform, 1-celled, situated in the axils of ordinary leaves or in those of the upper modified,...
-1. Lycopodium L. Sp. Pi. 1100. 1753. Part 2
1. Lycopodium Selago L. Fir Club-Moss Fig. 100 Lycopodium Selago L. Sp. PL 1102. 1753. Stems rigidly erect from a short slender curved base, several times dichotomous, the densely folia-ceous verti...
-1. Lycopodium L. Sp. Pi. 1100. 1753. Part 3
5. Lycopodium Adpressum (Chapm.) Lloyd & Underw. Chapman's Club-Moss Fig. 104 Lycopodium inundatum var. adpressum Chapm. Fl. So. States, ed. 2. 671. 1883. Lycopodium adpressum Lloyd & Underw. Bull....
-1. Lycopodium L. Sp. Pi. 1100. 1753. Part 4
8. Lycopodium Annotinum L. Stiff Club-Moss Fig. 107 Lycopodium annotinum L. Sp. PI. 1103. 1753. Stems prostrate, creeping, 1-3 or more long, stiff, rarely pinnately branching, leafy, with...
-1. Lycopodium L. Sp. Pi. 1100. 1753. Part 5
12. Lycopodium Clavatum L. Running-Pine. Club-Moss Fig. 111 Lycopodium clavatum L. Sp. PI. 1101. 1753. Main stems prostrate, extensively creeping (3-9) along the ground, branching horizon...
-1. Lycopodium L. Sp. Pi. 1100. 1753. Part 6
15. Lycopodium Tristachyum Pursh. Ground-Pine Fig. 114 L. tristachyum Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 653. 1814. Lycopodium chamaecyparissus A. Br. in Doll, Rhein. Fl. 36. 1843. Horizontal stems extensively c...
-Family 10. Selaginellaceae Underw. Native Ferns 103. 1881
Terrestrial, annual or perennial, moss-like plants with branching stems and scale-like leaves, which are,many-ranked and uniform, or 4-ranked and of two types spreading in two planes. Sporanges 1-cell...
-1. Selaginella Beauv. Prodr. Aetheog. 101. 1805. Characters Of Family. [Name Diminutive Of Selago, An Ancient Name Of Some Lycopodium.}
About 340 species, widely distributed, most abundant in the tropics. Besides the following some five others occur in western North America. Type species: Lycopodium sclaginoides L. Stem-leaves ...
-Family 11. Isoetaceae Underw. Native Ferns, 104. 1881
Aquatic or marsh plants rooting in the mud, with a short buried 2-lobed or 3-lobed trunk (stem) sending out abundant roots and sending up a compact tuft of rush-like leaves. Sporanges sessile in the a...
-1. Isoetes L. Sp. Pi. 1100. 1753
Submerged, amphibious or uliginous plants with a cluster of elongated awl-shaped leaves rising from a more or less 2-3-lobed fleshy short stem, the leaves with or without peripheral bast-bundles, with...
-1. Isoetes L. Sp. Pi. 1100. 1753. Part 2
1. Isoetes Macrospora Durieu. Lake Quill-Wort Fig. 118 Isoetes macrospora Durieu, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 11: 101. 1864. Isoetes heterospora A. A. Eaton, Fernwort Papers 8. 1900. Submerged or rar...
-1. Isoetes L. Sp. Pi. 1100. 1753. Part 3
5. Isoetes Saccharata Engelm. Sugary Quill-Wort Fig. 122 Isoetes saccharata Engelm. in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 676. 1867. Amphibious or uliginous with a flat depressed trunk. Leaves 10-30, green, pal...
-1. Isoetes L. Sp. Pi. 1100. 1753. Part 4
9. Isoetes Dodgei A. A. Eaton. Dodge's Quillwort Fig. 126 Isoetes Dodgei A. A. Eaton, Fern Bull. 6: 6. 1898. Isoetes canadensis A. A. Eaton, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 23: 650. 1901. Plant amphibious fr...
-1. Isoetes L. Sp. Pi. 1100. 1753. Part 5
13. Isoetes Butleri Engelm. Butler's Quillwort Fig. 130 Isoetes Butleri Engelm. Coult. Bot. Gaz. 3: 1. 1878. Terrestrial from a subglobose trunk. Leaves 8-60, bright green, paler at the base, trian...
-Subkingdom Spermatophyta. Seed-Bearing Plants
Plants producing seeds which contain an embryo formed of one or more rudimentary leaves (cotyledons), a stem (hypocotyl, radicle), and a terminal bud (plumule), or these parts sometimes undifferentiat...
-Class 1. Gymnospermae
Ovules (macrosporanges) naked, not enclosed in an ovary, this represented by a scale or apparently wanting. Pollen-grains (microspores) dividing at maturity into two or more cells, one of which gives ...
-Family 1. Pinaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 313. 1836
Pine Family. Conifers. Resinous trees or shrubs, mostly with evergreen narrow entire or scale-like leaves, the wood uniform in texture, without tracheae, the tracheids marked by large depressed disks,...
-1. Pinus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1000.. 1753
Evergreen trees with two kinds of leaves, the primary ones linear or scale-like, deciduous, the secondary ones forming the ordinary foliage, narrowly linear, arising from the axils of the former in fa...
-1. Pinus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1000.. 1753. Part 2
1. Pinus Strobus L. White Pine. Weymouth Pine Fig. 131 Pinus Strobus L. Sp. PI. 1001. 1753. A large forest tree, reaching a maximum height of over 2250 and a trunk diameter of 10 1/2, the bark...
-1. Pinus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1000.. 1753. Part 3
4. Pinus Scopulorum (Engelm.) Lemmon. Rock Pine Fig. 134 P. pondcrosa scopulorum Engelm. in Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cal. 2: 126. 1880. P. scopulorum Lemmon Gard. & For. 10: 183. 1897. A large tree, a...
-1. Pinus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1000.. 1753. Part 4
7. Pinus Echinata Mill. Yellow Pine. Spruce Pine Fig. 137 Pinus echinata Mill. Gard. Dict. Ed. 8, No. 12. 1768. Pinus mitis Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 204. 1803. A forest tree, reaching a maximum heigh...
-1. Pinus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1000.. 1753. Part 5
10. Pinus Rigida Mill. Pitch Pine. Torch Pine Fig. 140 Pinus rigida Mill. Gard. Diet. Ed. 8, No. 10. 1768. A forest tree reaching a maximum height of about 80 and a trunk diameter of 30, the b...
-2. Larix [Tourn.] Adans. Fam. Pi. 2: 480. 1763
Tall trees with horizontal or ascending branches and small narrowly linear deciduous leaves, without sheaths, in fascicles on short lateral scaly bud-like branchlets. Aments short, lateral, monoecious...
-3. Picea Link, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1827: 179. 1827-1830
Evergreen conical trees, with linear short 4-sided leaves spreading in all directions, jointed at the base to short persistent sterigmata, on which they are sessile, falling away in drying, the bare t...
-4. Tsuga Carr. Trait. Conif. 185. 1855
Evergreen trees with slender horizontal or drooping branches, flat narrowly linear scattered short-petioled leaves, spreading and appearing 2-ranked, jointed to very short sterigmata and falling away ...
-5. Abies [Tourn.] Hill, Brit. Herb. 509. 1756
Evergreen trees with linear flat scattered sessile leaves, spreading so as to appear 2-ranked, but in reality spirally arranged, not jointed to sterigmata, and commonly quite persistent in drying, the...
-6. Taxodium L. C. Rich. Ann. Mus. Paris, 16: 298. 1810
Tall trees with horizontal or drooping branches, and alternate spirally arranged sessile linear or scale-like leaves, deciduous in our species, spreading so as to appear 2-ranked, some of the twigs co...
-7. Thuja L. Sp. Pi. 1002. 1753
Evergreen trees or shrubs with frond-like foliage, the leaves small or minute, scale-like, appressed, imbricated, opposite, 4-ranked, those of the ultimate branchlets mostly obtuse, those of some of t...
-8. Chamaecyparis Spach, Hist. Veg. 11: 329. 1842
Evergreen trees, similar to the Thujas, with minute opposite appressed 4-ranked scalelike leaves, or those of older twigs subulate, and small monoecious terminal aments. Stami-nate aments as in Thuja,...
-9. Juniperus L. Sp. Pi. 1038. 1753
Evergreen trees or shrubs with opposite or verticillate, subulate or scale-like, sessile leaves, commonly of 2 kinds, and dioecious or sometimes monoecious, small short axillary or terminal aments. Le...
-9. Juniperus L. Sp. Pi. 1038. 1753. Continued
3. Juniperus Virginiana L. Red Cedar. Savin Fig. 156 Juniperus virginiana L. Sp. PI. 1039. 1753. A tree, reaching a maximum height of about 100 and a trunk diameter of 50, conic when young, bu...
-Family 2. Taxaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 316. 1836. Yew Family
Trees or shrubs, resin-bearing except Taxus. Leaves evergreen or deciduous, linear, or in several exotic genera broad or sometimes fan-shaped, the pollen-sacs and ovules borne in separate clusters or ...
-1. Taxus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1040. 1753
Evergreen trees or shrubs, with spirally arranged short-petioled linear flat mucronate leaves, spreading so as to appear 2-ranked, and axillary and solitary, sessile or subsessile very small aments; s...
-Class 2. Angiospermae
Ovules (macrosporanges) enclosed in a cavity (the ovary) formed by the infolding and uniting of the margins of a modified rudimentary leaf (carpel), or of several such leaves joined together, in which...
-Sub-Class I. Monocotyledones
Embryo of the seed with but a single cotyledon and the first leaves of the germinating plantlet alternate. Stem composed of a ground-mass of soft tissue (parenchyma) in which bundles of wood-cells are...
-Family 1. Typhaceae J. St. Hil. Expos. Fam. 1: 60. 1805
Cat-tail Family. Marsh or aquatic plants with creeping rootstocks, fibrous roots and glabrous erect, terete stems. Leaves linear, flat, ensiform, striate, sheathing at the base. Flowers monoecious, de...
-1. Typha [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 971. 1753. Characters Of The Family. [Name Ancient.]
About 10 species, of temperate and tropical regions. Type species: Typha latifolia L. Spikes with the pistillate and staminate usually contiguous, the former without bractlets; stigmas ...
-Family 2. Sparganiaceae Agardh, Theor. Syst. Pi. 13. 1858
Bur-reed Family. Marsh or pond plants with creeping rootstocks and fibrous roots, erect or floating simple or branched stems, and linear alternate leaves, sheathing at the base. Flowers monoecious, de...
-1. Sparganium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 971. 1753
Characters of the family. [Greek, referring to the ribbon-like leaves.] About 22 species, of temperate and cold regions. Besides the following, 3 others occur in western North America. Type species: ...
-1. Sparganium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 971. 1753. Part 2
1. Sparganium Eurycarpum Engelm. Broad-Fruited Bur-Reed Fig. 161 Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 2, 430. 1856. Stem stout, 3-8 high, branching. Leaves linear, flat, sli...
-1. Sparganium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 971. 1753. Part 3
5. Sparganium Simplex Huds. Simple-Stemmed Bur-Reed. Black-Weed Fig. 165 Sparganium erection L. Sp. PI. 971. 1753. Sparganium simplex Huds. Fl. Aug. ed. 2. 401. 1788. Stem rather stout, 1 1/...
-1. Sparganium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 971. 1753. Part 4
9. Sparganium Multipedunculatum (Morong) Rydb. Many-Stalked Bur-Reed Fig. 169 Sparganium simplex multipedunculata Morong, Bull. Torrey Club 15: 79. 1888. Sparganium multipedunculatum Rydb. Bull. To...
-1. Sparganium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 971. 1753. Part 5
12. Sparganium Hyperbdreum Laest. Northern Bur-Reed Fig. 172 Sparganium natans submuticum Hartm. Handb. Skand. Fl. ed. 4: 312. 1843. Sparganium hyperboreum Laest.; Beurl. Oefvers. Vet. Akad. Foerh....
-Family 3. Zannichelliaceae Dumort. Anal.Fam. 61. 1829. Pondweed Family
Perennial marine or fresh-water plants with floating or submerged leaves, or both. Leaf-blades petioled or sessile, capillary or expanded into a proper blade, or rarely reduced to terete phyllodes. Fl...
-1. Potamogeton L. Sp. Pi. 126. 1753
Leaves alternate or the uppermost opposite, often of 2 kinds, submerged and floating, the submerged mostly linear, the floating coriaceous, lanceolate, ovate or oval. -Spathes stipular, often ligulate...
-1. Potamogeton L. Sp. Pi. 126. 1753. Part 2
1. Potamogeton Natans L. Common Floating Pondweed Fig. 174 Potamogeton natans L. Sp. PI. 126. 1753. Stems 2-4 long, simple or sparingly branched. Floating leaves thick, the blade ovate, o...
-1. Potamogeton L. Sp. Pi. 126. 1753. Part 3
4. Potamogeton Pulcher Tuckerm. Spotted Pondweed Fig. 177 Potamogeton pulcher Tuckerm. Am. Journ. Sci. 45: 38. 1843. Stems simple, terete, black-spotted, 1-2 long. Floating leaves usually...
-1. Potamogeton L. Sp. Pi. 126. 1753. Part 4
7. Potamogeton Americanus Cham. & Schl. Long-Leaved Pondweed Fig. 180 Potamogeton ftuitans Roth, Fl. Germ. 1: 72. 1788? Potamogeton americanus Cham. & Schl. Linnaea, 2: 226. 1827. Potamogeton lonch...
-1. Potamogeton L. Sp. Pi. 126. 1753. Part 5
10. Potamogeton Varians Morong. Spat-Ulate-Leaved Pondweed Fig. 183 Potamogeton gramineus var. (?) spathulaeformis Robbins in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 487. 1867. Potamogeton varians Morong; Fryer, Jour...
-1. Potamogeton L. Sp. Pi. 126. 1753. Part 6
13. Potamogeton Lucens L. Shining Pondweed. Cornstalk-Weed Fig. 186 Potamogeton lucens L. Sp. PI. 126. 1753. Stems thick, branching below and often with masses of short leafy branches at the summit...
-1. Potamogeton L. Sp. Pi. 126. 1753. Part 7
16. Potamogeton Mysticus Morong. Mystic Pond Pondweed Fig. 189 Potamogeton mysticus Morong, Coult. Bot. Gaz. 5: 50. 1880. Whole plant very slender and delicate, stems irregularly branching above, n...
-1. Potamogeton L. Sp. Pi. 126. 1753. Part 8
19. Potamogeton Compressus L. Eel-Grass Pondweed Fig. 192 Potamogeton compressus L. Sp. PI. 127. 1753. Potamogeton zosteraefolius Schum. Enum. PI. Saell. 50. 1801. Stems much flattened, sometimes w...
-1. Potamogeton L. Sp. Pi. 126. 1753. Part 9
22. Potamogeton Obtusifolius Alert. & Koch. Blunt-Leaved Pondweed Fig. 195 Potamogeton compressus Wahl. Fl. Suec. 1: 107. 1824. Not L. 1753. Potamogeton obtusifolius Mert. & Koch, Deutsch. Fl. 1: ...
-1. Potamogeton L. Sp. Pi. 126. 1753. Part 10
25. Potamogeton Vaseyi Robbins. Vasey's Pondweed Fig. 198 Potamogeton Vaseyi Robbins in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 485. 1867. Potamogeton Vaseyi var. latifolius Morong, Mem. Torr. Club, 3: Part 2, 44. 18...
-1. Potamogeton L. Sp. Pi. 126. 1753. Part 11
28. Potamogeton Gemmiparus (Robbins) Morong. Thread-Like Pondweed Fig. 201 Potamogeton pusillus var. (?) gemmiparus Rob-bins in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 489. 1867. Potamogeton gemmiparus Morong, Coult....
-1. Potamogeton L. Sp. Pi. 126. 1753. Part 12
31. Potamogeton Filiformis Pers. Filiform Pondweed Fig. 204 Potamogeton filiformis Pers. Syn. I: 152. 1805. Potamogeton filiformis Macounii Morong; Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 4: 88. 1888. Stems from a r...
-1. Potamogeton L. Sp. Pi. 126. 1753. Part 13
34. Potamogeton Interruptus Kitaibel. Interrupted Pondweed Fig. 207 Potamogeton interruptus Kitaibel in Schultes, OEst. Fl. Ed. 2, 328. 1814. Potamogeton flabellatus Bab. Man. Bot. Ed. 3, 343. 1851...
-2. Ruppia L. Sp. Pi. 127. 1753
Slender, widely branched aquatics with capillary stems, slender alternate 1-nerved leaves tapering to an acuminate apex, and with membranous sheaths. Flowers on a capillary spadix-like peduncle, naked...
-3. Zannichellia L. Sp. Pi. 969. 1753
Stems, flowers and leaf-buds all at first enclosed in a hyaline envelope, corresponding to the stipule in Potamogeton. Staminate and pistillate flowers in the same axil; the staminate solitary, consis...
-Family 4. Naiadaceae (Lindl.) Asch. Linnaea 35: 160. 1867
Submerged marine or fresh-water herbs with fibrous roots and slender, branching stems. Internodes spiny or unarmed. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled, the blades linear, spiny on the margins or t...
-1. Naias L. Sp. Pi. 1015. 1753
Characters of the family. Slender, branching, submerged aquatics. Flowers sessile or pedicelled. Sterile flowers with a double perianth, the exterior one entire or 4-horned at the apex, the interior o...
-Family 5. Zosteraceae Demort. Anal. Fam. 65, 66. 1829
Eel-grass Family. Perennial marine plants with creeping rootstocks and flattened, branching stems. Leaves all alternate, 2-ranked, linear, flat or complicate, acute or obtuse at the apex and sheathing...
-1. Zostera L. Sp. Pi. 968. 1753
Marine plants with slender rootstocks and branching compressed stems. Leaves 2-ranked, sheathing at the base, the sheaths with inrlexed margins. Spadix linear, contained in a spathe. Flowers monoeciou...
-Family 6. Scheuchzeriaceae Agardh, Theor. Syst. Pi. 44. 1858. Arrow-Grass Family
Marsh herbs with rush-like leaves and small spicate or racemose perfect flowers. Perianth 4-6-parted, its segments in two series, persistent or deciduous. Stamens 3-6. Filament's very short or elongat...
-1. Triglochin L. Sp. Pi. 338. 1753
Marsh herbs with basal half-rounded ligulate leaves with membranous sheaths. Flowers in terminal spikes or racemes on long naked scapes. Perianth-segments 3-6, concave, the 3 inner ones inserted highe...
-2. Scheuchzeria L. Sp. Pl. 338. 1753
Rush-like bog perennials with creeping rootstocks, and erect leafy stems, the leaves elongated, half-rounded below and flat above, striate, furnished with a pore at the apex and a membranous ligulate ...
-Family 7. Alismaceae Dc. Fl. Franc. 3: 181. 1805. Water-Plantain Family
Aquatic or marsh herbs, mostly glabrous, with fibrous roots, scapose stems and basal long-petioled sheathing leaves. Inflorescence racemose or paniculate. Flowers regular, perfect, monoecious or dioec...
-1. Alisma L. Sp. Pl. 342. 1753
Perennial or rarely annual herbs with erect or floating leaves, the blades several-ribbed, the ribs connected by transverse veinlets, or seemingly pinnately veined. Scapes short or elongated. Inflores...
-2. Helianthium Engelm.; Britton, Man. Ed. 2, 54. 1905
Annual or perennial scapose marsh or aquatic herbs. Leaves erect or ascending, or floating, narrow and gradually narrowed into the petiole or broad and deeply cordate at the base, 3-several-ribbed. Sc...
-3. Echinodorus Rich.; Engelm. In A. Gray, Man. 460. 1848
Perennial or annual herbs with long-petioled, elliptic, ovate or lanceolate often cordate or sagittate leaves, 3-9-ribbed and mostly punctate with dots or lines. Scapes often longer than the leaves; i...
-4. Lophotocarpus T. Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. X. 1888
[Lophiocarpus Miquel, Fl. Arch. Ind. 1: Part 2, 50. 1870. Not Turcz. 1843.] Perennial, bog or aquatic herbs with basal long-petioled sagittate or cordate leaves, simple erect scapes bearing flowers in...
-5. Sagittaria L. Sp. Pi. 993. 1753
Perennial aquatic or bog herbs, mostly with tuber-bearing or nodose rootstocks, fibrous roots, basal long petioled nerved leaves, the nerves connected by numerous veinlets, and erect, decumbent or flo...
-5. Sagittaria L. Sp. Pi. 993. 1753. Part 2
1. Sagittaria Longirostra (Micheli) J. G. Smith. Long-Beaked Arrow-Head Fig. 231 Sagittaria sagittaefolia var. longirostra Micheli in DC. Monog. Phan. 3: 69. 1881. Sagittaria longirostra J. G. Smit...
-5. Sagittaria L. Sp. Pi. 993. 1753. Part 3
4. Sagittaria Brevirostra Alack. & Bush. Short-Beaked Arrow-Leaf Fig. 234 Sagittaria variabilis diversifolia Engelm. in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 493. 1867. Sagittaria brevirosta Mack. & Bush, Rep. Mo. ...
-5. Sagittaria L. Sp. Pi. 993. 1753. Part 4
8. Sagittaria Ambigua J G. Smith. Kansas Sagittaria Fig. 238 Sagittaria ambigua J. G. Smith, Ann. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 6: 48. pl. 17. 1894. Monoecious, glabrous, scape erect or ascending, simple or ...
-5. Sagittaria L. Sp. Pi. 993. 1753. Part 5
12. Sagittaria Cristata Engelm. Crested Sagittaria Fig. 242 Sagittaria cristata Engelm.; Arthur, Proc. Davenport Acad. 4: 29. 1882. Monoecious, scape slender, erect, 1-21 high, simple, be...
-5. Sagittaria L. Sp. Pi. 993. 1753. Part 6
15. Sagittaria Platyphylla (Engelm.) J. G. Smith. Ovate-Leaved Sagittaria Fig. 245 Sagittaria graminea var. platyphylla Engelm. in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 494. 1867. Sagittaria platyphylla J. G. Smith...
-Family 8. Vallisneriaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 54. 1829. Tape-Grass Family
Submerged or floating aquatic herbs, the leaves various. Flowers regular, mostly dioecious, appearing from an involucre or spathe of 1-3 bracts or leaves. Perianth 3-6-parted, the segments either all ...
-1. Philotria Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 2: 175. 1818
[Elodea Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 2c. 1803. Not Elodes Adans. 1763.] Stems submerged, elongated, branching, leafy. Leaves opposite or whorled, crowded, 1-nerved, pellucid, minutely serrulate or entire. F...
-1. Philotria Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 2: 175. 1818. Continued
2. Philotria Angustifolia (Muhl.) Britton. Narrow-Leaved Water-Weed Fig. 249 Serpicula verticillata angustifolia Muhl. Cat. PI. Am. Sept. 84. 1813. ?Serpicula occidentalis Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 33. ...
-2. Vallisneria L
Sp. PI. 1015. 1753. Aquatic dioecious submerged perennials, with long grass-like floating leaves. Staminate flowers with a 2-3-parted spathe on a short scape, numerous, nearly sessile on a conic rece...
-Family 9. Hydrocharitaceae Aschers. Frog's-Bit Family
Aquatic or mud-inhabiting herbs, with broad or narrow leaves borne on a very short stem. Flowers regular, monoecious or dioecious, arising from spathes of distinct or united bracts. Perianth superior,...
-1. Limnobium L. C. Richard, Mem. Inst. Paris, 32: 66. Pl. 8. 1811
Aquatic, stoloniferous herbs, the leaves fascicled at the nodes, petioled, broad, cordate. Flowers monoecious, white, arising from sessile or stipitate, 2-leaved, membranous spathes. Perianth 6-parted...
-Family 10. Gramineae Juss. Gen. 28. 1789. Grass Family
Annual or perennial herbs, of various habit, rarely shrubs or trees. .Culms (stems) generally hollow, but occasionally solid, the nodes closed. Leaves sheathing, the sheaths usually split to the base ...
-1. Tripsacum L. Syst. Nat. Ed. 10. 1261. 1759
Tall perennial monoecious grasses with thick rootstocks, rather broad flat leaves and spicate or racemose inflorescence. Spikelets 1- or 2-flowered, in terminal or axillary, solitary or clustered, elo...
-2. Coelorachis Brongn. In Duperr. Voy. Coq. Bot. Phan. 64. 1829
Mostly tall perennials, with narrow flat leaves and cylindric jointed spikes, terminal and from the upper axils. Spikelets in pairs at each node of the excavated rachis, one sessile and perfect, the o...
-3. Miscanth'Us Anderss. Oefv. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Forh. 1855: 165. 1856
Tall erect perennial grasses, with usually flat leaf-blades, and terminal ample commonly hairy panicles. Spikelets 1-flowered, unequally pedicellate, arranged in pairs along the continuous branches of...
-4. Erianthus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 54. 1803
Tall generally robust perennial grasses, with long flat leaves, and perfect flowers in terminal panicles. Spikelets generally with a ring of hairs at the base, 2 at each node of the jointed rachis, on...
-4. Erianthus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 54. 1803. Continued
2. Erianthus Contortus Ell. Spiral-Awned Beard-Grass Fig. 259 Erianthus contortus Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 40. 1816. Erianthus saccharoides contortus Hack, in DC Monog. Phan. 6: 131. 1889. Culms 3...
-5. Schizachyrium Nees, Agrost. Bras. 331. 1829
Annual or perennial grasses, tufted or from rootstocks, with flat or involute leaf-blades, and spikelike racemes, singly disposed, terminating the culm or its branches. Internodes of the articulated r...
-6. Andropogon L. Sp. Pi. 1045. 1753
Perennial grasses with usually long narrow leaves, and terminal and axillary racemes. Spikelets in pairs at each node of the jointed hairy rachis, one sessile and perfect, the other with a pedicel, st...
-6. Andropogon L. Sp. Pi. 1045. 1753. Part 2
1. Andropogon Glomeratus (Walt.) B. S. P. Bushy Beard-Grass Fig. 264 Cinna glomerata Walt. Fl. Car. 59. 1788. Andropogon macrourum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 56. 1803. Andropogon glomeratus B. S. P. P...
-6. Andropogon L. Sp. Pi. 1045. 1753. Part 3
4. Andropogon Ternarius Michx. Silvery Beard-Grass Fig. 267 Andropogon ternarius Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 57. 1803. Andropogon argenteus Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 148. 1817. Not DC. 1813. Andropogon a...
-6. Andropogon L. Sp. Pi. 1045. 1753. Part 4
7. Andropogon Chrysocomus Nash. Yellow-Haired Beard-Grass Fig. 270 Andropogon chrysocomus Nash, in Britton, Man. 70. 1901. A tall usually stout grass, with extravaginal innovations. Culms 2-5&...
-7. Amphilophis Nash, In Britton, Man. 71. 1901
Perennial grasses with usually flat leaf-blades and showy, often silvery white, panicles, the axis short or elongated. Racemes usually numerous, the internodes of the rachis and the pedicels with mani...
-8. Sorghastrum Nash, In Britton, Man. 71. 1901
Generally tall perennial grasses, with long narrow flat leaves and terminal decompound panicles. Sessile spikelets consisting of 4 scales, the two outer indurated and shining, the inner hyaline, the f...
-9. Holcus L. Sp. Pi. 1047. 1753-[Sorghum Moench, Meth. 207. 1794.]
Annual or perennial grasses with long broad flat leaves and terminal ample panicles. Spikelets in pairs at the nodes, or in 3's at the ends of the branches, one sessile and perfect, the others pedicel...
-10. Nazia Adans. Fam. Pi. 2: 31. 1763
[Tragus Hall. Hist. Stirp. Helv. 2: 203. 1768. Lappago Schreb. Gen. 55. 1789.] Annual grasses, diffusely branched, with flat leaves and 1-flowered deciduous spikelets, either solitary or in clusters o...
-11. Syntherisma Walt. Fl. Car. 76. 1788. [Digitaria Scop. Fl. Cam. Ed. 2, 1: 52. 1772. Not Heist. 1763.]
Annual grasses with flat leaves, and spikelets borne in pairs or sometimes in 3' s, in secund racemes which are digitate, in whorls, or approximate at the summit of the culm. Racemes with the rachis...
-Syntherisma Walt. Fl. Car. 76. 1788. [Digitaria Scop. Fl. Cam. Ed. 2, 1: 52. 1772. Not Heist. 1763.]. Continued
2. Syntherisma- Villosum Walt. Southern Slender Finger-Grass Fig. 279 Syntherisma villosum Walt. Fl. Car. 77. 1788. Culms densely tufted, 6-4 1/2 tall; sheaths, at least the lower ones, hirsut...
-12. Leptoloma Chase, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 19: 191. 1906
Perennial tufted grasses, with flat leaf-blades, and diffuse panicles, which break away when mature and act as tumble-weeds. Spikelets 1-flowered, solitary, or rarely in pairs. Scales 4, or sometimes ...
-13. Eriochloa H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 1: 94. 1815. [Helopus Trin. Fund. Agrost. 103. 1820.]
Perennial grasses with flat leaves, and short-pedicelled spikelets borne in secund spikes, which form a terminal panicle. Spikelets with an annular callus at the base and articulated to the pedicel. S...
-14. Anastrophus Schlecht. Bot. Zeit. 8: 681. 1850
Perennial grasses, often with long creeping stolons which are thickly clothed with leaves bearing short blades, and erect stems. Spikes 1-sided, in pairs at the summit of the stem, or sometimes with a...
-15. Paspalum L. Syst. Ed. 10, 2: 855. 1759
Perennial grasses of various habit, with generally flat leaves and i-flowered spikelets borne in 2 rows in 1-sided spikes, which are single, in pairs, or panicled. Spikelets oblong to orbicular, flat ...
-15. Paspalum L. Syst. Ed. 10, 2: 855. 1759. Part 2
1. Paspalum Mucronatum Muhl. Water Paspalum Fig. 288 Paspalum paniculatum Walt Fl. Car. 75. 1788. Not L. 1759. Paspalum mucronatum Muhl. Cat. 8. 1813. Ceresia fluitans Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 109....
-15. Paspalum L. Syst. Ed. 10, 2: 855. 1759. Part 3
5. Paspalum Ciliatifolium Michx. Ciliate-Leaved Paspalum Fig. 292 Paspalum ciliatifolium Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. I: 44. 1803. A tufted branching perennial, with flat leaf-blades, which are glabrous exc...
-15. Paspalum L. Syst. Ed. 10, 2: 855. 1759. Part 4
9. Paspalum Setaceum Michx. Slender Paspalum Fig. 296 Paspalum setaceum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 43. 1803. Stems 8'-21/2 tall, slender. Sheaths and blades very pubescent, the latter 3'-8' long, ...
-15. Paspalum L. Syst. Ed. 10, 2: 855. 1759. Part 5
13. Paspalum Plenipilum Nash. Many-Haired Paspalum Fig. 300 Paspalum laeve pilosum Scribn. Bull. Univ. Tenn. Exp. Sta. 7: 34. 1894. Not P. pilosum Lam. 1791. Paspalum plenipilum Nash, in Britton, ...
-15. Paspalum L. Syst. Ed. 10, 2: 855. 1759. Part 6
17. Paspalum Difforme Le Conte. Le Conte's Paspalum Fig. 304 Paspalum difforme Le Conte, Journ. de Phys. 91: 284. 1820. A perennial, usually glaucous, grass, with short flat leaf-blades, and large ...
-16. Echinochloa Beauv. Agrost. 53. 1812
Usually tall grasses, commonly annuals, with broad leaf-blades, and a terminal inflorescence consisting of 1-sided racemes. Spikelets 1-flowered, singly disposed, or in smaller racemes or clusters on ...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753
Annuals or perennials of various habit, foliage and inflorescence. Spikelets 1-2-flow-ered, when 2-flowered the lower one staminate only. Scales 4, awnless, the 3 lower membranous, empty, or the third...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 2
1. Panicum Hemitomon Schult. Maiden-Cane. Simpson's-Grass Fig. 311 Panicum hemitomon Schult. Mant. 2: 227. 1824. Panicum carinatum Torr. Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 1: 137- 1835. Not Presl, 1830. Panic...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 3
5. Panicum Capillare L. Witch-Grass. Tumble-Weed Fig. 315 Panicum capillare L. Sp. PI. 58. 1753. Culms erect or ascending, 1-2 tall, simple or sometimes sparingly branched. Sheaths papill...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 4
9. Panicum Flexile (Gattinger) Scribn. Wiry Witch-Grass Fig. 319 Panicum capillare var. flexile Gattinger, Tenn. Fl. 94. 1887. Panicum flexile Scribn. Bull. Torr. Club, 20: 476. 1893. Culms erect,...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 5
13. Panicum Virgatum L. Switch-Grass. Wild Red-Top Fig. 323 Panicum virgatum L. Sp. PI. 59. 1753. P. virgatum var. cubense Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 233. 1866. Panicum virgatum var. obtusion Wood, Am....
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 6
16. Panicum Condensum Nash. Dense Panic-Grass Fig. 326 Panicum condensum Nash, in Small, Fl. SE. U. S. 93. 1903. Culms 2 1/2-4 1/2 tall; sheaths smooth and glabrous; ligule 1/2 wide; bla...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 7
20. Panicum Perlongum Nash. Long-Stalked Panic-Grass Fig. 330 Panicum perlongum Nash, Bull. Torrey Club 26: 575. 1899. Culms 8'-16' tall, simple; sheaths hirsute with long ascending hairs; blades e...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 8
24. Panicum Ciliatum Ell. Dwarf Panic-Grass Fig. 334 P. ciliatum Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 126. 1817. Plant yellowish green. Culms tufted, 4'-7' tall, simple, glabrous; sheaths shorter than the inte...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 9
28. Panicum Aciculare Desv. Grisebach's Panic-Grass Fig. 338 Panicum aciculare Desv.; Poir. in Lam. Encycl. 4: 274. 1816. ?Panicum neuranthum Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 232. 1866. Culms tufted, slender...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 10
32. Panicum Polyanthes Schultes. Small-Fruited Panic-Grass Fig. 342 Panicum polyanthes Schultes, Mant. 2: 257. 1824. Panicum microcarpon Muhl. Gram, 111, June, 1817. Not Ell. Jan. 1817. Culms gener...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 11
36. Panicum Lucidum Ashe. Bog Panic-Grass Fig. 346 P. lucidum Ashe, Journ. Mitch. Sci. Soc. 15: 47. 1898, Culms slender, smooth and glabrous, 1 1/2-3 longr at length much elongated, dich...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 12
39. Panicum Annulum Ashe. Ringed Panic-Grass Fig. 349 P. annulum Ashe, Journ. E. Mitch. Sci. Soc. 15: 58. 1898. Culms 16'-2 1/2 tall, glabrous or sparingly pubescent, tufted, finally branched,...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 13
43. Panicum Paucipilum Nash. Purple Panic-Grass Fig. 353 P. paucipilum Nash, Bull. Torr. Club, 26: 573. 1899. Plant usually purple. Culms 2-3 1/2 tall, finally somewhat branched, smooth a...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 14
46. Panicum Leucothrix Nash. Roughish Panic-Grass Fig. 356 P. leucothrix Nash, Bull. Torr. Club, 24: 41. 1897. Culms 1-2 tall, densely tufted, erect, appressed papillose-hirsute, finally ...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 15
50. Panicum Praecocius Hitchc. & Chase. Early-Branching Panic-Grass Fig. 360 P. praecocius Hitch. & Chase, Rhodora, 8: 206. 1906. Culms 6-18' tall, slender, branching almost at once, the secondary ...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 16
53. Panicum Owenae Bicknell. Mrs. Owen's Panic-Grass Fig. 363 Panicum Owenae Bicknell, Bull. Torr. Club, 35: 185. 1908. Culms tufted, erect or ascending, 6'-1 tall, villous-puberulent below, l...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 17
57. Panicum Commonsianum Ashe. Commons' Panic-Grass Fig. 367 P. Commonsianum Ashe, Journ. E. Mitch. Sci. Soc. 15: 55. 1898. Culms tufted, 12'-20' tall, pubescent below with long nearly appressed ha...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 18
60. Panicum Nashianum Scribn. Nash's Panic-Grass Fig. 370 Panicum Nashianum Scribn. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric. Div. Agrost. 7: 79. 1897. P. patulum Hitchc. Rhodora, 8: 209. 1906. Culms tufted, glabr...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 19
63. Panicum Oligosanthes Schult. Few-Flowered Panic-Grass Fig. 373 P. pauciftorum Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 120. 1817. Not R. Br. 1810. P. oligosanthes Schult. Mant. 2: 256. 1824. Culms tufted, ere...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 20
67. Panicum Scoparium Lam. Velvety Panic-Grass Fig. 377 Panicum scoparium Lam. Encycl. 4: 744. 1797. P. pubcsccns Lam. Encycl. 4: 748. 1797. P. viscidum Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 123. pl. 7. f. 3. ...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 21
71. Panicum Ashei Pearson. Ashe's Panic-Grass Fig. 381 P. Ashei Pearson, Journ. E. Mitch. Sci. Soc. 15: 35. 1898. Culms tufted, 8'-16' tall, erect, usually sparingly branched, rarely much-branched ...
-17. Panicum L. Sp. Pi. 55. 1753. Part 22
75. Panicum Boscii Poir. Bosc's Panic-Grass Fig. 385 P. Boscii Poir. Encycl. Suppl. 4: 278. 1816. P. latifolium Walt. Fl. Car. 73. 1788. Not L. 1753. Panicum Walteri Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 4...
-18. Sacciolepis Nash, In Britt. Man. 89. 1901
Perennial grasses with flat leaf-blades and terminal contracted panicles. Spikelets numerous, 1-flowered, articulated to the pedicels below the empty scales, readily deciduous when mature. Scales 4, t...
-19. Steinchisma Raf. In Bull. Bot. Seringe 220. 1830
Perennial tufted grasses, with flat leaf-blades, and loose open panicles. Spikelets 1-flowered, articulated to the pedicels below the empty scales, the outer 3 scales membranous, the first scale short...
-20. Amphicarpon Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 2: 175. 1818
Erect perennial grasses, with flat leaf-blades and spikelets of two kinds; one kind borne in terminal panicles, deciduous without perfecting fruit; the other solitary, terminating subterranean peduncl...
-21. Chaetochloa Scribn. Bull. U. S. Dep. Agr. Agrost. 4: 38. 1897
[Setaria Beauv. Agrost. 113. 1812. Not Ach. 1798.] Mostly annual grasses with erect culms, flat leaf-blades, the inflorescence in spike-like panicles. Spikelets 1-flowered, or rarely with a second ...
-Chaetochloa Scribn. Bull. U. S. Dep. Agr. Agrost. 4: 38. 1897. Continued
2. Chaetochloa Glauca (L.) Scribn. Yellow Foxtail. Pigeon-Grass Fig. 391 Panicum glaucum L. Sp. PI. 56. 1753-Setaria glauca Beauv. Agrost. 51. 1812. Chamaeraphis glauca Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 767. 18...
-22. Cenchrus L. Sp. Pl 1049. 1753
Annual or perennial grasses with usually flat leaves. Inflorescence in spikes. Spikelets subtended by a spiny involucre which is deciduous with them at maturity. Scales 4; the first hyaline; the secon...
-23. Zizaniopsis Doell & Aschers. In Mart. Fl. Bras. 2: Part 2, 12. 1871
Tall aquatic monoecious grasses, with long flat leaf-blades and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets 1-flowered, the staminate borne at the top of the branches, the pistillate at the base. Scales 2, ne...
-24. Zizania L. Sp. Pl 991. 1753
A tall aquatic monoecious grass with long flat leaf-blades and an ample panicle. Spikelets 1-flowered, the pistillate borne on the upper branches of the panicle, the staminate on the lower. Scales 2, ...
-25. Homalocenchrus Mieg, In Soc. Phys.-Med. Basil, Act. Helv. 4
307. 1760. [Leersia Soland.; Sw. Prod. 21. 1788. Not Hedw. 1782.] Marsh grasses with flat narrow generally rough leaf-blades, and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets 1-flowered, perfect, strongly ...
-26. Phalaris L. Sp. Pi. 54. 1753
Annual or perennial grasses with flat leaf-blades, the inflorescence spike-like, capitate or a narrow panicle. Spikelets crowded, 1 -flowered. Scales 5, the first and second about equal in length, str...
-27. Anthoxanthum L. Sp. Pi. 28. 1753
Fragrant annual or perennial grasses, with flat leaf-blades and spike-like panicles. Spike-lets 1-flo\vered, narrow, somewhat compressed. Scales 5; the two outer acute or produced into a short awn, th...
-28. Savastana Schrank, Baier. Fl. 1
337. I789. [Hierochloe J. G. Gmel. Fl. Sib. 1: 101. 1747.] Aromatic perennial grasses, with flat leaf-blades and contracted or open panicles. Spikelets 3-flowered, the terminal flower perfect, the ...
-29. Milium L. Sp. Pi. 61. 1753
Annual or perennial grasses, with flat leaf-blades and terminal lax panicles. Spikelets i-flowered. Scales 3, obtuse, not awned; the outer about equal; the third thin-membranous, at length rigid, glab...
-30. Eriocoma Nutt. Gen. 1: 40. 1818
Perennial tufted grasses, with usually involute leaves and a contracted or open panicle. Spikelets 1-flowered. Scales 3; outer 2 membranous, glabrous; third scale firmer, becoming hard in fruit, dense...
-31. Oryzopsis Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 51. 1803. [Urachne Trin. Fund. Agrost. 109. 1818.]
Usually tufted grasses, with flat or convolute leaves and paniculate inflorescence. Spike-lets 1-flowered, broad. Scales 3; the two lower about equal, obtuse or acuminate; the third scale shorter or a...
-Oryzopsis Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 51. 1803. [Urachne Trin. Fund. Agrost. 109. 1818.]. Continued
3. Oryzopsis Asperifolia Michx. White-Grained Mountain-Rice Fig. 416 Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 51. 1803. Urachne asperifolia Trin. Unifl. 1: 174. 1824. Culms glabrous, 10'-20' ta...
-32. Stipa L. Sp. Pl 78. 1753
Generally tall grasses, the leaf-blades usually convolute, rarely flat, the inflorescence paniculate. Spikelets 1-flowered, narrow. Scales 3; the two outer narrow, acute or rarely bearing an.awn, the ...
-32. Stipa L. Sp. Pl 78. 1753. Continued
2. Stipa Viridula Trin. Feather Bunch-Grass Fig. 419 Stipa viridula Trin. Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. (VI.) 2: 39. 1836. -Stipa spartea Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 237. 1840. Not Trin. 1831. Glabrous, culm...
-33. Aristida L. Sp. Pi. 82. 1753
Grasses varying greatly in habit and inflorescence. Leaf-blades narrow, often involute-setaceous. Spikelets narrow, 1-flowered. Scales 3, narrow, the two outer carinate; the third rigid and convolute,...
-33. Aristida L. Sp. Pi. 82. 1753. Part 2
1. Aristida Dichotoma Michx. Poverty-Grass. Fig- 423 Aristida dichotoma Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 41. 1803. Culms 6'-2 tall, erect, slender,, dichotomously branched, smooth or roughened. Sheaths m...
-33. Aristida L. Sp. Pi. 82. 1753. Part 3
5. Aristida Fasciculata Torr. Triple-Awned Beard-Grass. Needle-Grass Fig. 427 Aristida fasciculata Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1: 154. 1824. Aristida dispersa Trin. & Rupr. Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. (VI.) 5...
-33. Aristida L. Sp. Pi. 82. 1753. Part 4
9. Aristida Oligantha Michx. Few-Flowered Aristida Fig. 431 Aristida oligantha Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 41. 1803. Glabrous, culms 1-2 tall, erect, slender, dichot-omously branched, smooth o...
-33. Aristida L. Sp. Pi. 82. 1753. Part 5
13. Aristida Lanosa Muhl. Woolly Triple-Awned Grass Fig. 435 Aristida lanata Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 1: 453. 1810. Not Forsk. 1775. Aristida lanosa Muhl. Gram. 174. 1817. Culms 2-4 ...
-34. Muhlenbergia Schreb.; Gmel. Syst. Nat. 2: 171. 1791. [Vaseya Thurb. Proc. Acad. Phila. 1863: 79. 1863.]
Mostly perennial grasses, with flat or convolute leaves and paniculate inflorescence. Rootstocks often scaly. Spikelets 1-flowered, very rarely 2-flowered. Scales 3, very rarely 4; the outer ones empt...
-34. Muhlenbergia Schreb. Vaseya Thurb. Part 2
1. Muhlenbergia Schreberi Gmel. Nimble Will. Dropseed- Or Wire-Grass. Satin-Grass Fig. 439 M. Schreberi Gmel. Syst. Nat. 2: 171. 1791. M. diffusa Willd. Sp. PI. 1: 320. 1798. Glabrous, culms 1...
-34. Muhlenbergia Schreb. Vaseya Thurb. Part 3
5. Muhlenbergia Racemosa (Michx.) B.S.P. Wild Timothy. Satin-Grass Fig. 443 Agrostis racemosa Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 53. 1803. Muhlenbergia glomerata Trin. Unifl. 191. 1824. Muhlenbergia racemosa B....
-34. Muhlenbergia Schreb. Vaseya Thurb. Part 4
8. Muhlenbergia Ambigua Torr. Minnesota Drop-Seed Fig. 446 Muhlenbergia ambigua Torr. Nicollet's Rep. 164. 1843. Glabrous, culms 1 tall or lower, erect, branched, smooth. Sheaths shorter than ...
-34. Muhlenbergia Schreb. Vaseya Thurb. Part 5
12. Muhlenbergia Cuspidata (Torr.) Nash. Prairie Rush-Grass Fig. 450 Vilfa cuspidata Torr.; Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 238. 1840. Sporobolus cuspidatus Wood, Bot. & Fl. 385. 1870. Sporobolus brevifolius...
-35. Brachyelytrum Beauv. Agrost. 39. 1812
A tall grass with flat leaves and a narrow panicle. Spikelets 1-flowered, narrow, the rachilla produced beyond the flower and sometimes bearing a minute scale at the summit. Scales 3; the outer small ...
-36. Heleochloa Host, Gram, 1: 23. Pl. 29, 30. 1801. [Crypsis Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 166. 1791. Not Ait. 1789.]
Perennial tufted grasses with flat leaves and spicate or paniculate inflorescence. Spike lets 1-flowered. Scales 3; the 2 outer empty, somewhat unequal, membranous, acute, ciliate keeled; the third sc...
-37. Phleum L. Sp. Pi. 59. 1753
Annual or perennial grasses with flat leaf-blades and spicate inflorescence. Spikelets 1-flowered. Scales 3; the 2 outer empty, membranous, compressed, keeled, the apex obliquely truncate, the midnerv...
-38. Alopecurus L. Sp. Pi. 60. 1753
Annual or perennial grasses with erect or decumbent culms, usually flat leaf-blades, and spicate inflorescence. Spikelets 1-flowered, flattened; scales 3, the 2 lower empty, acute, sometimes short-awn...
-38. Alopecurus L. Sp. Pi. 60. 1753. Continued
2. Alopecurus Geniculatus L. Marsh Foxtail Fig. 459 Alopecurus geniculatus L. Sp. PI. 60. 1753. Glabrous or very nearly so, culms 6'-18' tall, usually decumbent at the base, simple or sparingly bra...
-39. Phippsia R. Br. Suppl. App. Parry's Voy. 285. 1824
A low annual tufted grass, with flat leaf-blades and spike-like panicles. Spikelets l-flowered; scales 3; the 2 outer empty, minute, the first often wanting; the third scale thin-membranous, keeled. P...
-40. Sporobolus R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1: 169. 1810
Perennial or rarely annual grasses, with flat or convolute leaf-blades and open or contracted panicles. Spikelets generally small, 1-flowered, occasionally 2-3-flowered. Scales in the 1-flowered spike...
-Sporobolus R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. Part 2
1. Sporobolus Vaginaefldrus Torr. Sheathed Rush-Grass Fig. 464 Vilfa vaginaeflora Torr.; A. Gray, Gram, and Cyp. No. 3. 1834 Sporobolus vaginaeflorus Torr.; Wood, Classbook, 775. 1861, Sporobolus m...
-Sporobolus R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. Part 3
4. Sporobolus Canovirens Nash. Grey-Green Rush-Grass Fig. 467 Sporobolus canovirens Nash, in Britt. Man. 1042. 1901. Culms 1-3 tall, erect; leaf-blades 10' long or less, 1/2-1 1/2 wide,...
-Sporobolus R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. Part 4
8. Sporobolus Angustus Buckley. Dense Rush-Grass. Smut-Grass Fig. 471 S. indicus Nash, in 111. Fl. Ed. 1, 1: 154. 1896. Not. R. Br. 1810. S. angustus Buckley, Proc. Phila. Acad. 1862: 88. 1863. Gl...
-Sporobolus R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. Part 5
12. Sporobolus Argutus (Nees) Kunth. Pointed Dropseed-Grass Fig. 475 Vilfa arguta Nees, Agrost. Bras. 2: 395. 1829. Sporobolus argutus Kunth, Enum. 1: 215. 1833. Culms 1 tall or less, erect, o...
-Sporobolus R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. Part 6
15. Sporobolus Cryptandrus (Torr.) A Gray. Sand Dropseed Fig. 478 Agrostis cryptandra Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1: 151. 1824. Sporobolus cryptandrus A. Gray, Man. 576. 1848. Culms 1 1/2-3 1/2...
-Sporobolus R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. Part 7
18. Sporobolus Torreyanus (Schultes) Nash. Flat-Stemmed Dropseed Fig. 481 Agrostis compressa Torr. Cat. PI. N. Y. 91. 1819. Not Willd. 1790. A. Torreyana Schult. Mant. 2: 203. 1824. Sporobolus comp...
-41. Polypogon Desf. Fl. Atl. 1: 66. 1798
Mostly annual grasses, with decumbent or rarely erect culms, flat leaf-blades and spikelike panicles. Spikelets 1-flowered; scales 3; the 2 outer empty, each extended into an awn; third scale smaller,...
-42. Arctagrostis Griseb. In Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 4: 434. 1853
Perennial grasses with flat leaves and contracted panicle. Spikelets 1-flowered. Scales 3; the 2 outer empty, unequal, somewhat acute, membranous; the third scale exceeding the second, subtending a pa...
-43. Cinna L. Sp. Pl 5. 1753
Tall grasses with flat leaf-blades and panicled spikelets. Spikelets 1-flowered. Scales 3; the 2 outer empty, keeled, acute; the third scale similar, but usually short-awned on the back, subtending a ...
-44. Agrostis L. Sp. Pi. 6. 1753
Annual or perennial tufted grasses with flat or bristle-like leaves and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets 1-flowered. Scales 3; the 2 outer empty, membranous, keeled, acute; the third shorter, obtus...
-44. Agrostis L. Sp. Pi. 6. 1753. Part 2
1. Agrostis Alba L. Red-Top. Fiorin. Herd's-Grass Fig. 487 Agrostis alba L. Sp. PI. 63. 1753. Agrostis vulgaris With. Bot. Arr. Brit. PI. Ed. 3, 132. 1796. A. alba var. aristata A. Gray, Man. 578....
-44. Agrostis L. Sp. Pi. 6. 1753. Part 3
4. Agrostis Elliottiana Schultes. Elliott's Bent-Grass Fig. 490 Agrostis arachnoides Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 134. 1817. Not Poir. 1810. Agrostis Elliottiana Schultes, Mant. 2: 202. 1824. Culms 5'...
-44. Agrostis L. Sp. Pi. 6. 1753. Part 4
7. Agrostis Borealis Hartm. Red Bent-Grass Fig. 493 Agrostis rubra L. Sp. PI. 62. 1753. Agrostis borealis Hartm. Scand. Fl. Ed. 3, 17. 1838. A. rupestris Chapm. Fl. S. States, 551. 1860. Not All. ...
-44. Agrostis L. Sp. Pi. 6. 1753. Part 5
11. Agrostis Altissima (Walt.) Tuckerm. Tall Bent-Grass Fig. 497 Cornucopiae altissima Walt. Fl. Car. 74. 1788. Agrostis altissima Tuckerm. Am. Journ. Sci. 45: 44. 1843. Agrostis elata Trin. Mem. Ac...
-45. Calamagrostis Adans. Fam. Pi. 2: 31. 1763. [Deyeuxia Clarion; Beauv. Agrost, 43. Pl. P. F. 9, 10. 1812.]
Generally perennial grasses, of various habit, with flat leaf-blades and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets 1-flowered, the rachilla usually prolonged beyond the flower and pubescent. Scales 3; the 2...
-Calamagrostis Adans. Deyeuxia Clarion. Beauv. Agrost. Part 2
1. Calamagrostis Pickeringii Gray. Pickering's Reed-Grass Fig. 500 C. sylvatica var. breviseta A. Gray, Man. 582. 1848. C. Pickeringii A. Gray, Man. Ed. 2, 547. 1856. C. breviseta Scribn. Mem. Torr....
-Calamagrostis Adans. Deyeuxia Clarion. Beauv. Agrost. Part 3
5. Calamagrostis Langsdorfii (Link) Trin. Langsdorf's Reed Bent-Grass Fig. 504 Arundo Langsdorfii Link. Enum. 1: 74. 1821. C. Langsdorfii Trin. Unifl. 225. pl. 4. f. 10. 1824. Culms 2- 4...
-Calamagrostis Adans. Deyeuxia Clarion. Beauv. Agrost. Part 4
9. Calamagrostis Inexpansa A. Gray. Bog Reed-Grass Fig. 508 C. confinis A. Gray, Man. Ed. 2, 547. 1856. Not Nutt. 1818. Calamagrostis inexpansa A. Gray; Torr. Fl. U. S. 2: 445. 1843. Culms 1 1/2&de...
-46. Ammophila Host. Gram. Austr. 4: 24. Pl. 41. 1809
Tall perennial grasses with flat leaf-blades, convolute above, and dense spike-like panicles. Spikelets 1-flowered, the rachilla prolonged beyond the flower and hairy. Scales 3, rigid, chartaceous, a...
-47. Calamovilfa Hack. True Grasses 113. 1890
Tall grasses with stout horizontal rootstocks, elongated leaf-blades, which are involute at the apex, and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets 1-flowered; rachilla not prolonged beyond the flower. Scal...
-48. Apera Adans. Fam. Pl 2: 495. 1763
Annual grasses with narrow flat leaf-blades, and ample open or contracted panicles. Spikelets i-flow-ered, small, the rachilla prolonged beyond the flower into a bristle. Scales 3; the 2 outer empty, ...
-49. Nothoholcus Nash. [Holcus L. Sp. Pi. 1047, In Part. 1753.]
Annual or perennial grasses with flat leaf-blades and spike-like or open panicles. Spike-lets deciduous, 2-flo\vered; lower flower perfect, upper staminate. Scales 4; the 2 lower empty, membranous, ke...
-50. Aspris Adans. Fam. 2: 496. 1763. [Aira L. Sp. Pi. 63, In Part. 1753.]
Mostly annual grasses with narrow leaf-blades and contracted or open panicles. Spikelets small, 2-flowered, both flowers perfect. Scales 4; the 2 lower empty, thin-membranous, acute, subequal, persist...
-51. Deschampsia Beauv. Agrost. 91. Pl. 18. F. 3. 1812
Perennial grasses with flat or involute leaf-blades, and contracted or open panicles. Spikelets 2-flowered, both flowers perfect, the hairy rachilla extended beyond the flowers.or rarely terminated by...
-52. Trisetum Pers. Syn. 1: 97. 1805
Mostly perennial tufted grasses, with flat leaf-blades and spike-like or open panicles. Spikelets 2-4-flowered, the flowers all perfect, or the uppermost staminate; rachilla glabrous or pilose, extend...
-53. Avena L. Sp. Pi. 79. 1753
Annual or perennial grasses, with usually flat leaf-blades and panicled spikelets. Spike-lets 2-many-flo\vered, or rarely 1-flo\vered; lower flowers perfect, the upper often staminate or imperfect. Sc...
-53. Avena L. Sp. Pi. 79. 1753. Continued
2. Avena Sativa L. Oats Fig. 527 Avena sativa L. Sp. PI. 79. 1753. A glabrous annual. Culms up to 30 tall; blades flat, up to 1 long and 1/2' wide, acuminate; panicle 4'-9' long, its branches ...
-54. Arrhenatherum Beauv. Agrost. 55. P1. 11. F. 5. 1812
Tall perennial grasses, with flat leaf-blades and contracted or open panicles. Spikelets 2-flowered; lower flower staminate, upper perfect; rachilla extended beyond the flowers. Scales 4, the 2 lower ...
-55. Danthonia Dc. Fl. Fran. 3: 32. 1805
Mostly perennial grasses, with flat or convolute leaf-blades and contracted or open panicles. Spikelets 3-many-flowered, the flowers all perfect, or the upper staminate; rachilla pubescent, extending ...
-55. Danthonia Dc. Fl. Fran. 3: 32. 1805. Continued
2. Danthonia Compressa Austin. Flattened Wild Oat-Grass Fig. 533 Danthonia compressa Austin; Peck, Rept. Reg. N. Y. State Univ. 22: 54. 1869. Danthonia Alleni Austin, Bull. Torr. Club 3: 21. 1872. ...
-56. Capriola Adans. Fam. Pl 2: 31
1763. [Cynodon Rich.; Pers. Syn. 1: 85. 1805.] Perennial grasses with short flat leaf-blades and spicate inflorescence, the spikes digitate. Spikelets 1-flowered, secund. Scales 3; the 2 lower ...
-57. Spartina Schreb.; Gmel. Syst. 123. 1791
Perennial glabrous grasses, with long horizontal rootstocks, flat or involute leaves, and an inflorescence of one-sided spreading or erect alternate spikes. Spikelets 1-flowered, narrow, deciduous, bo...
-57. Spartina Schreb.; Gmel. Syst. 123. 1791. Continued
2. Spartina Cynosuroides (L.) Roth. Salt Reed-Grass Fig. 539 Dactylis cynosuroides L. Sp. Pl. 71. 1753. Trachynotia polystachya Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 64. 1803. T. cynosuroides Michx. Fl. Bor. Am....
-58. Campulosus Desv. Bull. Soc. Philom. 2: 189. 1810
[Ctenium Panzer, Deutsch. Akad. Muench. 1813: 288. pl. 13. 1814.] Tall pungent-tasted grasses, with flat or convolute narrow leaves and a curved spicate inflorescence. Spikelets borne pectinately in ...
-59. Chloris Sw. Prodr. 25. 1788
Mostly perennial grasses with flat leaf-blades and spicate inflorescence, the spikes solitary, few, or numerous and verticillate or approximate. Spikelets 1-flowered, arranged in two rows on one side ...
-60. Gymnopogon Beauv. Agrost. 41. Pl. 9. F. 3. 1812
Perennial grasses with flat and usually short rigid leaf-blades and numerous slender alternate spikes. Spikelets 1-flowered, almost sessile, the rachilla extended and bearing a small scale which is us...
-61. Schedonnardus Steud. Syn. Pl Gram. 146. 1855
An annual grass with branching culms, narrow leaf-blades and slender spikes arranged along a common axis. Spikelets 1-flowered, sessile and alternate on the rachis. Scales 3; the 2 lower empty, narrow...
-62. Bouteloua Lag. Var. Cienc. Y Litter. 2: Part 4, 134. 1805
Annual or perennial grasses with flat or convolute leaf-blades and numerous spikelets in one-sided spikes. Spikelets 1-2-flowered, arranged in two rows on one side of a flat rachis, the rachilla exten...
-63. Atheropogon Muhl.; Willd. Sp. Pi. 4: 937. 1806
Perennial grasses with narrow flat leaf-blades and an inflorescence composed of numerous short scattered 1-sided spreading or reflexed spikes. Spikelets 1-flowered, crowded in 2 rows, sessile, imbrica...
-64. Beckmannia Host, Gram. Austr. 3: 5. Pl. 6. 1805
A tall erect grass with flat leaf-blades and erect spikes borne in a terminal panicle. Spike-lets 1-2-flowered, globose, compressed. Scales 3 or 4; the 2 lower empty, membranous, saccate, obtuse or ab...
-65. Eleusine Gaertn. Fruct. & Sem. 1: 7. Pl. 1. 1788
Tufted annual or perennial grasses, with flat leaf-blades and spicate inflorescence, the spikes digitate or close together at the summit of the culm. Spikelets several-flowered, sessile, closely imbri...
-66. Dactyloctenium Willd. Enum. 1029. 1809
Annual grasses with flat leaf-blades and spicate inflorescence, the spikes in pairs or digitate. Spikelets several-flowered, sessile, closely imbricated in two rows on one side of the rachis which is ...
-67. Leptochloa Beauv. Agrost. 71. Pl 15. F. 1. 1812
Usually tall annual grasses, with flat leaf-blades and numerous spikes forming a simple panicle. Spikelets usually 2-many-flowered, flattened, alternating in two rows on one side of the rachis. Scales...
-68. Acamptoclados Nash, In Small, Fl. Se. U. S. 139. 1903
Perennial tufted grasses with stiff culms and a panicle composed of scattered distant widely spreading rigid branches. Spikelets scattered and distinct, singly disposed in two rows, sessile, 4-6-flowe...
-69. Bulbilis Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 4: 190. 1819. [Buchloe Engelm. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 1: 432. Pl. 14. Figs. 1-17. 1859.]
A perennial stoloniferous monoecious or apparently dioecious grass with flat leaf-blades and spicate inflorescence. Staminate spikelets borne in two rows on one side of the rachis, the spikes at the s...
-70. Munroa Torr. Pac. R. R. Rept. 4: 158. 1856
Low diffusely branched grasses, with flat pungently pointed leaf-blades crowded at the nodes and the ends of the branches. Spikelets in clusters of 3-6, nearly sessile in the axils of the floral leave...
-71. Phragmites Trin. Fund. Agrost. 134. 1820
Tall perennial reed-like grasses, with broad flat leaf-blades and ample panicles. Spikelets 3-several-flowered, the first flower often staminate, the others perfect; rachilla articulated between the f...
-72. Sieglingia Bernh. Syst. Verz. Pfl. Erf. 40. 1800
Perennial tufted grasses with flat leaf-blades and a narrow simple panicle. Spikelets few, 3-5-flowered, the rachilla internodes short. Scales 5-7, the lower 2 empty, equalling or nearly as long as th...
-73. Tridens R. & S. Syst. 2: 34. 1817. [Tricuspis Beauv. Agrost. 77. 1812. Not Pers. 1807.]
Usually perennial grasses, with flat or involute leaf-blades, and the inflorescence composed of open or contracted and sometimes spike-like panicles. Spikelets 3-many-flowered, the flowers perfect or ...
-74. Erioneuron Nash, In Small, Fl. Se. U. S. 143. 1903
Perennial tufted grasses, with thick linear leaf-blades having thickened white margins, and dense contracted almost capitate panicles. Spikelets several-many-flowered; empty basal scales 2, narrow, ac...
-75. Triplasis Beauv. Agrost. 81. 1812
Grasses with narrow, flat or involute leaf-blades and contracted or open panicles. Spike-lets shortly pedicelled, 2-6-flowered, the glabrous rachilla articulated between the flowers, the internodes ve...
-76. Redfieldia Vasey, Bull. Torr. Club 14: 133. 1887
A tall perennial grass, with long narrow leaf-blades and an ample panicle. Spikelets 1-3-flowered, the flowers all perfect. Empty scales 2, about equal, shorter than the spikelet, 1-nerved; flowering ...
-77. Diplachne Beauv. Agrost. 80. Pl 16. F. 9. 1812
Tufted grasses, with narrow flat leaf-blades and long slender spikes arranged in an open panicle, or rarely only one terminal spike. Spikelets several-flowered, narrow, sessile or shortly pedicelled, ...
-78. Aira L. Sp. Pi. 63. 1753. [Molinia Schrank, Baier. Fl. 1: 100. 1780.]
Perennial tufted grasses, with narrow flat leaf-blades and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets 2-4-flowered. Two lower scales empty, somewhat obtuse or acute, unequal, shorter than the spikelet; flowe...
-79. Rhombolytrum Link, Hort. Berol. 2: 296. 1823
Perennial grasses, with usually flat leaf-blades, and a narrow contracted spike-like panicle. Spikelets numerous. Scales several, the outer 2 empty ones 1-nerved, the flowering scales broad, rounded a...
-80. Eragrostis Beauv. Agrost. 70. Pl. 14. F. 11. 1812
Annual or perennial grasses, rarely dioecious, from a few inches to several feet in height, the spikelets in contracted or open panicles. Spikelets 2-many-flowered, more or less flattened. Two lower s...
-Eragrostis Beauv. Agrost. Part 2
1. Eragrostis Capillaris (L.) Nees. Lace-Grass. Tiny Love-Grass Fig. 572 Poa capillaris L. Sp. PI. 68. 1753-Poa tenuis Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 156. 1817. Eragrostis capillaris Nees, Agrost. Bras. 5...
-Eragrostis Beauv. Agrost. Part 3
5. Eragrostis Purshii Schrad. Pursh's Lovegrass Fig. 576 ?Poa caroliniana Spreng. Mant. Fl. Hal. 33. 1807. Eragrostis Purshii Schrad. Linnaea, 12: 451. 1838. E. caroliniana Scribn. Mem. Torr. Club 5...
-Eragrostis Beauv. Agrost. Part 4
8. Eragrostis Pectinacea (Michx.) Steud. Purple Love-Grass Fig. 579 Poa pectinacea Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 69. 1803. Eragrostis pectinacea Steud. Syn. PI. Gram. 272. 1855. Eragrostis pectinacea var. ...
-Eragrostis Beauv. Agrost. Part 5
12. Eragrostis Secundiflora Presl. Clustered Love-Grass Fig. 583 Poa interrupts Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (II.) 5: 146. 1833-37. Not Lam. 1791. Eragrostis secundiflora Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 276. ...
-81. Sphenopholis Scribn. Rhodora 8: 142. 1906
[Eatonia Endlich. Gen. 99. 1837. Not Raf. 1819.] Tufted perennial grasses, with flat or involute leaf-blades and usually contracted panicles. Spikelets 2-3-flowered, the rachilla extended beyond the ...
-82. Koeleria Pers. Syn. 1: 97. 1805
Tufted annual or perennial grasses, with flat or setaceous leaf-blades and mostly spikelike panicles. Spikelets 2-5-flowered. Two lower scales empty, narrow, acute, unequal, keeled, scarious on the ma...
-83. Catabrosa Beauv. Agrost. 97. Pl. 19. F. 8. 1812
A perennial grass, with soft flat leaf-blades and an open panicle. Spikelets usually 2-flovvered. Two lower scales empty, thin-membranous, much shorter than the flowering ones, unequal, rounded or obt...
-84. Melica L. Sp. Pi. 66. 1753
Perennial grasses, with usually soft flat leaf-blades and contracted or open panicles. Spikelets r-several-flowered, often secund, the rachilla extended beyond the flowers and usually bearing 2-3 empt...
-85. Korycarpus Zea, Act. Matrit. 1806
[Diarina Raf. Journ. Bot. 2: 169. 1809.] [Diarrhena Beauv. Agrost. 142. 1812.] Erect grasses, with long flat leaf-blades and narrow paniculate or racemose inflorescence. Spikelets 3-5-flowered, the ...
-86. Pleuropogon R. Br. App. Parry's Voy. 289. 1824
Erect grasses with flat leaf-blades and racemose inflorescence. Spikelets 5-14-flowered; flowers perfect, or the upper staminate. Two lower scales empty, unequal, thin-membranous, 1-nerved, or the sec...
-87. Uniola L. Sp. Pi. 71. 1753
Erect and often tall grasses with flat or convolute leaf-blades and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets 3-many-flowered, flat, 2-edged, the flowers perfect, or the upper staminate. Scales flattened, k...
-88. Distichlis Raf. Journ. Phys. 89: 104. 1819
Dioecious grasses, with rigid culms creeping or decumbent at the base, flat or convolute leaf-blades and spike-like paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets flattened, more numerous on the staminate plants...
-89. Briza L. Sp. Pi. 70. 1753
Annual or perennial grasses, with flat or convolute leaf-blades and open or rarely contracted panicles. Spikelets large, flattened, tumid, many-flowered, nodding, the flowers perfect. Scales thin-memb...
-90. Dactylis L. Sp. Pi. 71. 1753
Tall perennial grasses, with flat leaf-blades and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets 3-5-flowered, short-pedicelled, in dense capitate clusters, the flowers perfect or the upper staminate. Two lower ...
-91. Cynosurus L. Sp. Pl 72. 1753
Annual or perennial tufted grasses, with flat leaf-blades and dense spike-like inflorescence. Spikelets of two kinds, in small clusters; lower spikelets of the clusters consisting of narrow empty scal...
-92. Poa L. Sp. Pi. 67. 1753
Annual or perennial grasses with flat or convolute leaves and contracted or open panicles. Spikelets 2-6-flowered, compressed, the rachilla usually glabrous; flowers perfect. or rarely dioecious. Scal...
-92. Poa L. Sp. Pi. 67. 1753. Part 2
1. Poa Annua L. Annual Or Dwarf Meadow-Grass. Low Spear-Grass Fig. 604 Poa annua L. Sp. PI. 68. 1753. Culms 2'-1 tall, from an annual root, erect or decumbent at the base, somewhat flattened, ...
-92. Poa L. Sp. Pi. 67. 1753. Part 3
5. Poa Alpina L. Alpine Or Mountain Spear-Grass Fig. 608 Poa alpina L. Sp. PI. 67. 1753. Smooth and glabrous, culms 4'-18' tall, erect, simple. Sheaths shorter than the internodes; ligule 1 long, ...
-92. Poa L. Sp. Pi. 67. 1753. Part 4
9. Poa Debilis Torr. Weak Spear-Grass Fig. 612 Poa debilis Torr. Fl. N. Y. 2: 459. 1843. Culms 1-2 1/2 tall, erect, slender, simple, somewhat flattened, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths compr...
-92. Poa L. Sp. Pi. 67. 1753. Part 5
12. Poa Pratensis L. Kentucky Blue-Grass. June-Grass Fig. 615 Poa pratensis L. Sp. PI. 67. 1753. P. pratensis var. angustifolia Kunth, Enum. 1: 353. 1833. Glabrous, culms 1-4 tall, from ...
-92. Poa L. Sp. Pi. 67. 1753. Part 6
15. Poa Alsodes A. Gray. Grove Meadow-Grass Fig. 618 Poa alsodes A. Gray, Man. Ed. 2, 562. 1856. Culms 8'-2 1/2 tall, erect, slender, simple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths usually longer than t...
-92. Poa L. Sp. Pi. 67. 1753. Part 7
19. Poa Compressa L. Wire-Grass. Flat-Stemmed Meadow-Grass. English Blue-Grass Fig. 622 Poa compressa L. Sp. PI. 69. 1753. Pale bluish green, glabrous, culms 6'-2 tall, decumbent at the base, ...
-92. Poa L. Sp. Pi. 67. 1753. Part 8
22. Poa Arida Vasey. Prairie Or Bunch Spear-Grass Fig. 625 Poa andina Nutt.; S. Wats. Bot. King's Exp. 388. 1871. Not Trin. 1836. Poa arida Vasey, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 1: 270. 1893. Poa praterico...
-93. Dupontia R. Br. Parry's Voy. App. 290. 1824
Low grasses, with flat leaf-blades and generally narrow panicles. Spikelets 2-4-flowered, the flowers all perfect. Two lower scales empty, extending beyond the flowering scales, membranous; flowering ...
-94. Scolochloa Link, Hort. Berol. 1: 136. 1827
Tall aquatic or marsh grasses, with flat leaf-blades and ample panicles. Spikelets 2-4-flowered, the flowers perfect. Two lower scales empty, thin-membranous, 3-5-nerved; flowering scales rigid, with ...
-95. Graphephorum Desv. Bull. Soc. Philom. 2: 189. 1810
Slender erect grasses, with flat leaf-blades and a usually contracted nodding panicle. Spikelets 2-4-flowered, flattened, the rachilla hirsute and extending beyond the flowers. Two lower scales empty,...
-96. Panicularia Fabr. Enum. Hort. Helmst. 373. 1763
[Glyceria R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1: 179. 1810.] Mostly perennial grasses, often tall, with flat leaf-blades and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets few-many-flowered, terete or somewhat flattene...
-96. Panicularia Fabr. Enum. Hort. Helmst. 373. 1763. Part 2
1. Panicularia Laxa Scribn. Northern Manna-Grass Fig. 632 Panicularia laxa Scribn. Bull. Torr. Club 21: 37. 1894. Glyceria laxa Scribn.; Redf. & Rand, Fl. Mt. Desert, 180. 1894. Culms 2-4...
-96. Panicularia Fabr. Enum. Hort. Helmst. 373. 1763. Part 3
5. Panicularia Nervata (Willd.) Kuntze. Meadow-Grass. Nerved Manna-Grass Fig. 636 Poa nervata Willd. Sp. PI. 1: 389. 1798. Glyceria nervata Trin. Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. (VI.) 1: 365. 1831. Panicu...
-96. Panicularia Fabr. Enum. Hort. Helmst. 373. 1763. Part 4
8. Panicularia Septentrionalis (Hitchc.) Bicknell. American Flote-Grass Or Floating Manna-Grass Fig. 639 Glyceric septentrionalis Hitchc. Rhodora 8: 211. 1906. Panicularia septentrionalis Bicknell, ...
-96. Panicularia Fabr. Enum. Hort. Helmst. 373. 1763. Part 5
11. Panicularia Acutiflora (Torr.) Kuntze. Sharp-Scaled Manna-Grass Fig. 642 Glyceria acutiflora Torr. Fl. U. S. 1: 104. 1824. Panicularia acutiflora Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 782. 1891. Culms 1-2...
-97. Puccinellia Par1. Fl. Ital. 1: 366. 1848
Perennial grasses, with flat or involute leaf-blades and contracted or open panicles. Spikelets 3-several-flowered. Lower scales empty, obtuse or acute, unequal; flowering scales obtuse or acute, roun...
-97. Puccinellia Par1. Fl. Ital. 1: 366. 1848. Continued
2. Puccinellia Angustata (R. Br.) Nash. Arctic Meadow-Grass Fig. 644 Poa angustata R. Br. App. Parry's Voy. 287. 1824. Panicularia angustata Scribn. Mem. Torr. Club 5: 54. 1894. Puccinellia maritim...
-98. Festuca L. Sp. Pi. 73. 1753
Mostly tufted perennial grasses, with flat or convolute leaf-blades and paniculate inflorescence. Spikelets 2-several-flowered. Two lower scales empty, more or less unequal, acute, keeled; flowering s...
-98. Festuca L. Sp. Pi. 73. 1753. Part 2
1. Festuca Octoflora Walt. Slender Fescue-Grass Fig. 648 Festuca octoflora Walt. Fl. Car. 81. 1788. Festuca tenella Willd. Enum. 1: 113. 1809. Culms 4' -18' tall, erect, from an annual root, slende...
-98. Festuca L. Sp. Pi. 73. 1753. Part 3
5. Festuca Occidentalis Hook. Western Fescue-Grass Fig. 652 F. occidentalis Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 249. 1840. Culms densely tufted, 1 1/2-3 tall, erect, slender, smooth and glabrous; blade...
-98. Festuca L. Sp. Pi. 73. 1753. Part 4
9. Festuca Elatior L. Tall Or Meadow Fescue-Grass Fig. 656 Festuca elatior L. Sp. PI. 75. 1753. Festuca pratensis Huds. Fl. Angl. 37. 1762. F. elatior var. pratensis A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 634. 1867...
-98. Festuca L. Sp. Pi. 73. 1753. Part 5
13. Festuca Altaica Trin. Rough Fescue-Grass Fig. 660 F. altaica Trin. in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. 1: 109. 1829. Culms 1-3 tall, erect, simple, usually rough below the panicle. Sheaths overlapping...
-99. Bromus L. Sp. Pi. 76. 1753
Annual or perennial grasses, with flat leaf-blades and terminal panicles, the pedicels thickened at the summit. Sheaths sometimes not split. Spikelets few-many-flowered. Two lower scales empty, unequa...
-99. Bromus L. Sp. Pi. 76. 1753. Part 2
1. Bromus Tectdrum L. Downy Brome-Grass Fig. 662 Bromus tectorum L. Sp. PI. 77. 1753. Culms 6'-2 tall, erect from an annual root, simple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths usually longer than the i...
-99. Bromus L. Sp. Pi. 76. 1753. Part 3
4. Bromus Asper Murr. Hairy Brome-Grass Fig. 665 Bromus asper Murr. Prodr. Stirp. Goett. 42. 1770. Culms 2-6 tall, erect, simple, rough. Sheaths shorter than the internodes, strongly retr...
-99. Bromus L. Sp. Pi. 76. 1753. Part 4
8. Bromus Inermis Leyss. Hungarian Or Awnless Brome-Grass Fig. 669 Bromus inermis Leyss. FI. Hal. 16. 1761. Culms tufted, 2 1/2-3 1/2 tall. Sheaths smooth and glabrous; blades 6'-10' long...
-99. Bromus L. Sp. Pi. 76. 1753. Part 5
12. Bromus Secalinus L. Cheat. Chess Fig. 673 Bromus secalinus L. Sp. PI. 76. 1753. Culms 1-3 tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths usually shorter than the internodes, genera...
-99. Bromus L. Sp. Pi. 76. 1753. Part 6
15. Bromus Patulus M. & K. Spreading Brome-Grass Fig. 676 Bromus patulus M. & K. in Roehl. Deutsch. Fl. 1: 684. 1823. Culms 1-1 1/2 tall. Sheaths softly pubescent; blades up to 6' long an...
-99. Bromus L. Sp. Pi. 76. 1753. Part 7
19. Bromus Unioloides (Willd.) H.B.K. Johnson Grass. Schrader's Brome- Grass. Southern Chess Fig. 680 Festuca unioloides Willd. Hort. Berol. 1: 3. pl. 3. 1806. B. unioloides H.B.K. Nov. Gen. 1: 151...
-100. Nardus L. Sp. Pi. 53. 1753
A low perennial tufted grass, with setaceous rigid leaf-blades and a terminal one-sided slender spike. Spikelets 1-flowered, narrow, sessile and single in each notch of the rachis. Scales 2, the lower...
-101. Lolium L. Sp. Pi. 83. 1753
Annual or perennial grasses, with flat leaf-blades and terminal spikes. Spikelets several-flowered, solitary, sessile and alternate in the notches of the usually continuous rachis, compressed, the edg...
-102. Lepturus R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1: 207. 1810
Usually low annual grasses, with narrow leaf-blades and strict or curved elongated slender spikes. Spikelets 1-2-flowered, sessile and single in alternate notches of the jointed rachis. Empty scales 2...
-103. Agropyron J. Gaertn. Nov. Comm. Petrop. 14: Part 1, 539. 1770
Annual or perennial grasses, with flat or involute leaf-blades and terminal spikes. Spike-lets 3-many-flowered, sessile, single and alternate at each notch of the usually continuous rachis, the side o...
-Agropyron J. Gaertn. Nov. Comm. Petrop. Part 2
2. Agropyron Pseudo-Repens Scribn. & Sm. False Couch-Grass Fig. 687 Agropyron pseudorepens Scribn. & Sm. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric. Div. Agrost. 4: 34. 1897. Light green. Culms 1-3 tall, er...
-Agropyron J. Gaertn. Nov. Comm. Petrop. Part 3
5. Agropyron Dasystachyum (Hook.) Vasey. Northern Wheat-Grass Fig. 690 Triticum repens var. dasystachyum Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 254. 1840. Agropyrum dasystachyum Vasey, Spec. Rept. U. S. Dept, Agri...
-104. Hordeum (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 84. 1753
Annual or perennial grasses, with flat leaf-blades and terminal cylindric spikes. Spikelets 1-flowered, rarely 2-flowered, usually in 3's at each joint of the rachis, the lateral short-stalked and imp...
-104. Hordeum (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 84. 1753. Continued
3. Hordeum Jubatum L. Squirrel-Tail Grass Fig. 696 Hordeum jubatum L. Sp. PI. 85. 1753. Culms 10'-2 1/2 tall, erect, simple, usually slender, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths usually shorter than ...
-105. Sitanion Raf. Journ. De Phys. 89: 103. 1819
Tufted grasses, with flat or involute leaf-blades, and a terminal dense spike with the rachis articulated and readily breaking up. Spikelets numerous, in 2's or 3's at each node, 2-5-flowered; empty s...
-106. Elymus L. Sp. Pi. 83. 1753
Tall grasses, with usually flat leaf-blades and dense terminal spikes. Spikelets 2-several-flowered (rarely 1-flowered), sessile, usually in pairs, occasionally in 3's or more, in alternate notches of...
-106. Elymus L. Sp. Pi. 83. 1753. Part 2
1. Elymus Macounii Vasey. Macoun's Wild Rye Fig. 700 Elymus Macounii Vasey, Bull. Torr. Club 13: 119. 1886. Culms 1-3 tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths shorter than the in...
-106. Elymus L. Sp. Pi. 83. 1753. Part 3
5. Elymus Condensatus Presl. Smooth Lyme-Grass Fig. 704 Elymus condensatus Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1: 265. 1830. Culms 2-10 tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths smooth and glabr...
-106. Elymus L. Sp. Pi. 83. 1753. Part 4
9. Elymus Virginicus L. Terrell-Grass. Virginia Wild Rye Fig. 708 Elymus virginicus L. Sp. PI. 84. 1753. Culms 2-3, tall, erect, simple, smooth and glabrous. Sheaths usually shorter, than...
-106. Elymus L. Sp. Pi. 83. 1753. Part 5
13. Elymus Canadensis L. Nodding Wild Rye. Canada Lyme-Grass Fig. 712 Elymus canadensis L. Sp. PL 83. 1753. Elymus glancifolius Willd. Enum. 1: 131. 1809. Elymus canadensis var. glancifolius Torr....
-106. Elymus L. Sp. Pi. 83. 1753. Part 6
16. Elymus Arkansanus Scribn. & Ball. Smooth Slender Wild Rye Fig. 715 Elymus arkansanus Scribn. & Ball, Bull. U. S. Dep. Agr. Agrost. 24: 45. f. 19. 1901. Culms 2-3 tall, slender, erect;...
-107. Hystrix Moench, Meth. 294. 1794
Usually tall grasses, with flat leaf-blades and terminal spikes. Spikelets 2-several-flowered, in pairs, rarely in 3's, at each node of the rachis. Empty scales wanting, or sometimes appearing as mere...
-108. Arundinaria Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. I: 73. 1803
Arborescent or shrubby grasses, with simple or branched culms and flat short-petioled leaf-blades which are articulated with the sheath. Spikelets borne in panicles or racemes, 2-many-flowered, large,...
-Family 11. Cyperaceae J. St. Hil. Expos. Fam. 1: 62. 1805
Sedge Family. Grass-like or rush-like herbs. Stems (culms) slender, solid (rarely hollow), triangular, quadrangular, terete or flattened. Roots fibrous (many species perennial by long rootstocks). Lea...
-1. Kyllinga Rottb. Descr. & IC. 12. Pl. 4. F. 3, 4. 1773
Annual or perennial sedges, with slender triangular culms, leafy below, and with 2 or more leaves at the summit forming an involucre to the strictly sessile, simple or compound dense head of spikelets...
-2. Cyperus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 44. 1753
Annual or perennial sedges. Culms in our species simple, triangular, leafy near the base, and with 1 or more leaves at the summit, forming an involucre to the simple or compound, umbellate or capitate...
-2. Cyperus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 44. 1753. Part 2
1. Cyperus Flavescens L. Yellow Cyperus. Galingale Fig. 721 Cyperus flavescens L. Sp. PI. 46. 1753. Annual, culms very slender, tufted, leafy below, 3'-12' tall, mostly longer than the leaves. Leav...
-2. Cyperus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 44. 1753. Part 3
5. Cyperus Microdontus Torr. Coast Cyperus. Fig- 725 Cyperus microdontus Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 255. 1836. Annual, similar to the preceding species, culms very slender, tufted, sometimes 20' high,...
-2. Cyperus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 44. 1753. Part 4
9. Cyperus Compressus L. Flat Cyperus Fig. 729 Cyperus compressus L. Sp. PI. 46. 1753. Annual, tufted, culms slender, erect or reclining, smooth, 3'-10' long. Leaves light green, about 1 wide, tho...
-2. Cyperus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 44. 1753. Part 5
13. Cyperus Bushii Britton. Bush's Cyperus Fig. 733 Cyperus Bushii Britton, Man. 1044. 1901. Perennial by tuber-like corms. Leaves 1 1/2-2 wide, smooth; culms smooth, 1-2 high, longer t...
-2. Cyperus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 44. 1753. Part 6
17. Cyperus Haspan L. Sheathed Cyperus Fig. 737 Cyperus Haspan L. Sp. PI. 45. 1753. Perennial by short rootstocks (sometimes annual?), roots fibrous, culms slender, weak, tufted, 1-3 high...
-2. Cyperus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 44. 1753. Part 7
20. Cyperus Hallii Britton. Hall's Cyperus. • Fig. 740 C. Hallii Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 13: 211. 1886. Perennial by scaly rootstocks, culm rather stout, 2-3 tall, about equalled b...
-2. Cyperus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 44. 1753. Part 8
23. Cyperus Halei Torr. Hale's Cyperus Fig. 743 C. Halei Torr.; Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 13: 213. 1886. Annual, culm stout, 2-3 tall, about equalled by the leaves. Leaves 3-4 wide, ver...
-2. Cyperus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 44. 1753. Part 9
27. Cyperus Strigosus L. Straw-Colored Cyperus Fig. 747 Cyperus strigosus L. Sp. PI. 47. 1753. C. strigosus capitatus Boeckl. Linnaea 36: 347. 1869-70. C. strigosus compositus Britton, Bull. Torr....
-2. Cyperus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 44. 1753. Part 10
30. Cyperus Lancastriensis Porter. Lancaster Cyperus. Fig, 750 C. lancastriensis Porter; A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 555- 1867. Perennial by ovoid or oblong corms, culm slender, smooth, mostly longer than ...
-2. Cyperus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 44. 1753. Part 11
34. Cyperus Filiculmis Vahl. Slender Cyperus Fig. 754 Cyperus filiculmis Yahl, Enum. 2: 328. 1806. C. filiculmis macilentus Fernald, Rhodora 8: 128. 1906. C. macilentus Bicknell, Bull. Torr. Club ...
-2. Cyperus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 44. 1753. Part 12
37. Cyperus Globulosus Aubl. Baldwin's Cy-Perus Fig. 757 C. globulosus Aubl. PI. Guian. 1: 47. 1775. Mariscus echinatus Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 75. 1816. Cyperus Baldwinii Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: ...
-3. Eleocharis R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1: 224. 1810
Annual or perennial sedges. Culms simple, triangular, quadrangular, terete, flattened or grooved, the leaves reduced to sheaths or the lowest very rarely blade-bearing. Spikelets solitary, terminal, e...
-Eleocharis R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. Part 2
1. Eleocharis Interstincta (Vahl) R. & S. Knotted Spike-Rush Fig. 758 Scirpus interstinctus Vahl, Enum. 2: 251. 1806. Scirpus cquisetoides Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 79. 1816. Eleocharis interstincta ...
-Eleocharis R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. Part 3
4. Eleocharis Flaccida (Rchb.) Urban. Pale Spike-Rush Fig. 761 Scirpus flaccidus Rchb.; Spreng. Tent. Suppl. 3: 1828. Eleogenus ochreatus Nees, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 2: Part 1, 102. 1842. Eleocharis o...
-Eleocharis R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. Part 4
7. Eleocharis Capitata (L.) R. Br. Capitate Spike-Rush Fig. 764 Scirpus capitatus L. Sp. PI. 48. 1753. Eleocharis capital a R.Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1: 225. 1810. Eleocharis dispar E. J. Hill, ...
-Eleocharis R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. Part 5
10. Eleocharis Engelmanni Steud. Engelmann's Spike-Rush Fig. 767 Eleocharis Engelmanni Steud. Syn. PI. Cyp. 79. 1855. Eleocharis ovata var. Engelmanni Britton, Journ. N. Y. Micros. Soc. 5: 103. 188...
-Eleocharis R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. Part 6
13. Eleocharis Smallii Britton. Small's Spike-Rush Fig. 770 E. Smallii Britton, Torreya 3: 23. 1903. Perennial by rootstocks; culms rather stout, about 20 high, and 1-1 1/2i thick; top of the bas...
-Eleocharis R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. Part 7
17. Eleocharis Tuberculosa (Michx.) R. & S. Large-Tubercled Spike-Rush Fig. 774 Scirpus tuberculosus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 30. 1803. Eleocharis tuberculosa R. & S. Syst. 2: 152. 1817. Annual, culm...
-Eleocharis R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. Part 8
20. Eleocharis Albida Torr. White Spike-Rush Fig. 777 Eleocharis albida Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 304. 1836. Annual, roots- fibrous, culms very slender, tufted, nearly terete, striate, erect, 4'-8' ...
-Eleocharis R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. Part 9
24. Eleocharis Intermedia (Muhl.) Schultes. Matted Spike-Rush Fig. 781 Scirpus intermedins Muhl. Gram. 31. 1817. Eleocharis intermedia Schultes, Mant. 2: 91. 1824. E. intermedia Habereri Fernald, Rh...
-4. Stenophyllus Raf. Neog. 4. 1825
Mostly annual sedges, with slender erect culms, leafy below, the leaves narrowly linear or filiform, with ciliate or pubescent sheaths. Spikelets umbellate, capitate or solitary, subtended by a 1-seve...
-5. Fimbristylis Vahl, Enum. 2: 285. 1806
Annual or perennial sedges. Culms leafy below. Spikelets umbellate or capitate, terete, several to many-flowered, subtended by a 1-many-leaved involucre, their scales spirally imbricated all around, m...
-5. Fimbristylis Vahl, Enum. 2: 285. 1806. Part 2
2. Fimbristylis Interior Britton, N. Sp. Plains Fimbristylis Fig. 785 Perennial, with short stolons, the base of the culm slightly thickened. Culms loosely tufted to solitary, very slender, smooth, ...
-5. Fimbristylis Vahl, Enum. 2: 285. 1806. Part 3
5. Fimbristylis Vahlii (Lam.) Link. Vahl's Fimbristylis Fig. 788 Scirpus Vahlii Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 139. 1791. F. Vahlii Link, Hort. Berol. 1: 287. 1827. F. congesta Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 345...
-6. Eriophorum L. Sp. Pi. 52. 1753
Bog sedges, perennial by rootstocks, the culms erect, triangular or nearly terete, the leaves linear, or 1 or 2 of the upper ones reduced to bladeless sheaths. Spikelets terminal, solitary, capitate o...
-6. Eriophorum L. Sp. Pi. 52. 1753. Part 2
1. Eriophorum Alpinum L. Alpine Cotton-Grass Fig. 791 Eriophorum alpinum L. Sp. PI. 53- 1753- E. hudsonianum Michx. Fl. Br. Am. 1: 34. 1803. Scirpus hudsonianus Fernald, Rhodora 8: 161. 1906. Per...
-6. Eriophorum L. Sp. Pi. 52. 1753. Part 3
4. Eriophorum Callithrix Cham. Sheathed Cotton-Grass Fig. 794 E. vaginatum Torr. Fl. 65. 1824. Not L. E. callithrix Cham.; C. A. Meyer, Mem. Sav. Etrang. 1: 203. 1831. Plants not stoloniferous; cul...
-6. Eriophorum L. Sp. Pi. 52. 1753. Part 4
8. Eriophorum Angustifolium Roth. Tall Cotton-Grass Fig. 798 Eriophorum polystachyon L. Sp. PI. 52, in part. 1753. E. angustifolium Roth, Tent. 1: 24. 1788. Culm stiff, smooth, obtusely triangular ...
-7. Scirpus L. Sp. Pi. 47. 1753
Annual or perennial very small or very large sedges, with leafy culms or the leaves reduced to basal sheaths. Spikelets terete or somewhat flattened, solitary, capitate, spicate or umbellate, subtende...
-7. Scirpus L. Sp. Pi. 47. 1753. Part 2
1. Scirpus Nanus Spreng. Dwarf Club-Rush Fig. 801 Scirpus nanus Spreng. Pug. 1: 4. 1815. Eleocharis pygmaea Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 313. 1836. Annual, roots fibrous, culms filiform, flattened, gr...
-7. Scirpus L. Sp. Pi. 47. 1753. Part 3
4. Scirpus Clintoni A. Gray. Clinton's Club-Rush Fig. 804 S. Clintoni A. Gray, Am. Journ. Sci. (II.) 38: 290. 1864. Perennial, culms tufted, triangular, very slender, erect, 4-15' tall, roughish o...
-7. Scirpus L. Sp. Pi. 47. 1753. Part 4
7. Scirpus Hallii A. Gray. Hall's Club-Rush Fig. 807 Scirpus Hallii A. Gray, Man. Ed. 2, Add. 1863. S. supinus var. Hallii A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 563. 1867. Annual, culms very slender, smooth, tufte...
-7. Scirpus L. Sp. Pi. 47. 1753. Part 5
10. Scirpus Olneyi A. Gray. Olney's Bulrush Fig. 810 Scirpus Olneyi A. Gray, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 5: 238. 1845. Similar to the preceding species, perennial by long rootstocks, culms stout, sharp...
-7. Scirpus L. Sp. Pi. 47. 1753. Part 6
14. Scirpus Validus Vahl. American Great Bulrush. Mat-Rush Fig. 814 Scirpus validus Vahl, Enum. 2: 268. 1806. Perennial by stout rootstocks, culm stout, terete, smooth, erect, 3-9 tall, s...
-7. Scirpus L. Sp. Pi. 47. 1753. Part 7
17. Scirpus Rufus (Huds.) Schrad. Red Clubrush Fig. 817 Schoenus rufus Huds. Fl. Angl. Ed. 2, 15. 1778. Scirpus rufus Schrad. Fl. Germ. 1: 133. 1806. Blysmus rufus Link, Hort. Berol. 1: 278. 1827. ...
-7. Scirpus L. Sp. Pi. 47. 1753. Part 8
20. Scirpus Fluviatilis (Torr.) A. Gray. River Bulrush Fig. 820 Scirpus maritimus var. fluviatilis Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 324. 1836. Scirpus fluviatilis A. Gray. Man. 527. 1848. Perennial by lar...
-7. Scirpus L. Sp. Pi. 47. 1753. Part 9
24. Scirpus Atrovirens Muhl. Dark-Green Bulrush Fig. 824 Scirpus atrovirens Muhl. Gram. 43. 1817. S. georgianus Harper, Bull. Torr. Club 27: 331. 1900. Perennial by slender rootstocks; culms trian...
-7. Scirpus L. Sp. Pi. 47. 1753. Part 10
28. Scirpus Peckii Britton. Peck's Bulrush Fig. 828 S. Peckii Britton, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 11: 82. 1892. Perennial by rootstocks; culms slender, triangular, 1 1/2-4 1/2 tall, leafy. L...
-7. Scirpus L. Sp. Pi. 47. 1753. Part 11
31. Scirpus Cyperinus (L.) Kunth. Wool-Grass Fig. 831 Eriophorum cyperinum L. Sp. PI. Ed. 2, 77. 1762. Scirpus cyperinus Kunth, Enum. 2: 170. 1837. S. Eriophorum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 33. 1803. S....
-8. Fuirena Rottb. Descr. & IC. 70. Pl. 19. F. 3. 1773
Perennial sedges, with leafy triangular culms (in a southern species the leaves reduced to inflated sheaths) and many-flowered terete spikelets in terminal and axillary clusters, or rarely solitary. S...
-9. Lipocarpha R. Br. App. Tuckey Exp. Congo, 459. 1818
Low annual sedges, with slender tufted culms leafy at the base, and terete many-flowered spikelets in a terminal head, subtended by a i-several-leaved involucre. Scales firm, spirally imbricated all a...
-11. Dulichium L. C. Richard; Pers. Syn. 1: 65. 1805
A tall perennial sedge, with terete hollow jointed culms, leafy to the top, the lower leaves reduced to sheaths. Spikes axillary, peduncled, simple or compound. Spikelets 2-ranked, linear, many-flower...
-12. Dichromena Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 37. 1803
Leafy-stemmed sedges, perennial by rootstocks, the spikelets crowded in a terminal head involucrate by the upper leaves, which are often white at the base. Spikelets compressed, several-many-flowered....
-13. Rynchospora Vahl, Enum. 2: 229. 1806
Leafy sedges, mostly perennial by rootstocks, with erect 3-angled or terete culms, narrow flat or involute leaves, and ovoid oblong or fusiform, variously clustered spikelets. Scales thin, i-nerved, i...
-13. Rynchospora Vahl, Enum. 2: 229. 1806. Part 2
1. Rynchospora Corniculata (Lam.) A. Gray. Horned Rush Fig. 841 Schoenus corniculatus Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 137. 1791. R. corniculata A. Gray, Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 205. 1835. Rhynchospora corniculata ...
-13. Rynchospora Vahl, Enum. 2: 229. 1806. Part 3
4. Rynchospora Alba (L.) Vahl. White Beaked-Rush Fig. 844 Schoeuus albus L. Sp. PI. 44. 1753. Rynchospora alba Vahl, Enum. 2: 236. 1806. Rynchospora alba macra Clarke; Britton, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sc...
-13. Rynchospora Vahl, Enum. 2: 229. 1806. Part 4
8. Rynchospora Axillaris (Lam.) Britton. Capitate Beaked-Rush Fig. 848 Schoenus axillaris Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 137. 1791. Rhynchospora cephalantha A. Gray, Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 218. 1835. R. axillar...
-13. Rynchospora Vahl, Enum. 2: 229. 1806. Part 5
11. Rynchospora Smallii Britton. Small's Beaked-Rush Fig. 851 R. Smallii Britton; Small, Fl. SE. U. S. 1321. 1903. Culms rather stout, 40 high or less, tufted. Leaves flat, 1-2 1/2 wide; spikelet...
-14. Psilocarya Torr. Ann. Lye. X. Y. 3: 359. 1836
Annual sedges, with fibrous roots, slender leafy stems and ovoid or oblong, many-flowered terete spikelets in terminal and axillary, mostly compound umbels, the rays and raylets bracted at the base. S...
-15. Mariscus (Hall.) Zinn, Cat. Hort. Goett. 79. 1757
[Cladium P. Br. Civ. & Nat. Hist. Jam. 114. Hyponym. 1756.] Perennial leafy sedges, similar to the Rynchosporas, the spikelets oblong or fusiform, few-flowered, variously clustered. Scales imbricated...
-16. Scleria Berg, Kongl. Acad. Sv. Handl. 26: 142. Pl. 4, 5. 1765
Leafy sedges, mostly perennial by rootstocks, the spikelets small, clustered in terminal, or terminal and axillary fascicles, or sometimes interruptedly spicate. Flowers monoecious, the staminate and ...
-Scleria Berg, Kongl. Acad. Sv. Handl. Part 2
2. Scleria Triglomerata Michx. Tall Nut-Rush. Whip-Grass Fig. 860 Scleria triglomerata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 168. 1803. Scleria triglomerata var. gracilis Britton, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 3: 230. 188...
-Scleria Berg, Kongl. Acad. Sv. Handl. Part 3
5. Scleria Pauciflora Muhl. Papillose Nut-Rush Fig. 863 Scleria pauciflora Muhl.; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 318. 1805. Rootstocks thick, hard, clustered; culms slender, rather stiff, erect, usually tufted,...
-17. Kobresia Willd. Sp. Pi. 4: 205
1805. Slender arctic and mountain sedges, with erect culms, and 1-2-flowered spikelets, variously clustered. Stamens 3. Perianth-bristles or perigynium wanting. Ovary oblong, usually spicate, ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.
Grass-like sedges, perennial by rootstocks. Culms mostly 3-angled, often strongly phyllopodic, or aphyllopodic. Leaves 3-ranked, the upper elongated or very short (bracts) and subtending the spikes of...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 2
1. Carex Nardina Fries. Nard Sedge Fig. 868 Carex nardina Fries, Mant. 2: 55. 1839. Culms very densely caespitose, filiform, smooth, erect, 2'-5' tall, densely clothed at base with the old sheaths,...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 3
5. Carex Chordorrhiza Ehrh. Creeping Sedge Fig. 872 Car ex chordorrhiza Ehrh. in L. f. Suppl. 414. 1781. Culms elongated, the old ones prostrate, sending up from apical nodes (usually) fertile culm...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 4
8. Carex Douglasii Boott. Douglas' Sedge Fig. 875 Car ex Douglasii Boott; Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. a: 213. pl. 214. 1840. Light green, rootstocks extensively creeping, culms normally dioecious, slender, ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 5
II. Carex Siccata Dewey. Dry-Spiked Sedge. Hillside Sedge Fig. 878 Carex siccata Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. 10: 278. 1826. Rootstocks long-creeping, and stout; culms slender, single or in small clumps, ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 6
14. Carex Rosea Schk. Stellate Sedge Fig. 881 Carex rosea Schk.; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 237. 1805. Carex rosea var. radiata Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. 10: 276. 1826. Carex rosea var. minor Boott, 111. Car. 2...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 7
17. Carex Austrina (Small) Mackenzie. Southern Sedge Fig. 884 C. Muhlenbergii var. australis Olney; Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 141. 1886. Not C. australis T. Kirk, 1899. C. Muhlenbergii austrinus...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 8
20. Carex Leavenworthii Dewey. Leavenworth's Sedge Fig. 887 Carex Leavenworthii Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. (II.) 2: 246. 1846. C. cephalophora var. angustifolia Boott, 111. 123. 1862. Similar to the pr...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 9
23. Carex Aggregata Mackenzie. Glomerate Sedge Fig. 890 Carex agglomerata Mackenzie, Bull. Torr. Club 33: 442. 1906. Not C. B. Clarke, 1903. Carex aggregata Mackenzie, Bull. Torr. Club 37: 246. 191...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 10
26. Carex Conjuncta Boott. Soft Fox Sedge Fig. 893 Carex vulpina Carey, in A. Gray, Man. 541. 1848. Not L. I/53. Carex conjuncta Boott, 111. 3: 122. 1862. Light green, culms roughish above, sharply...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 11
29. Carex Setacea Dewey. Bristly-Spiked Sedge Fig. 896 Carex setacea Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. 9: 61. 1825. Carex scabrior Sartw.; Boott, 111. 3: 125. 1862. Culms 1 1/2-4 tall and slender, e...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 12
32. Carex Decomposita Muhl. Large-Panicled Sedge Fig. 899 Carex decomposita Muhl. Gram. 264. 1817. Dark green, culms smooth and very obtusely angled or terete below, roughened above, rather stout, ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 13
35. Carex Disperma Dewey. Soft-Leaved Sedge Fig. 902 Carex tenella Schk. Riedgr. 23. f. 104. 1801. Not Thuill. 1799. Carex disperma Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. 8: 266. 1824. Light green, rootstocks elo...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 14
38. Carex Ursina Dewey. Bear Sedge Fig. 905 Carex ursina Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. 27: 240. 1835. C. glareosa var. ursina Bailey, Carex Cat. 3. 1884. Culms low, tufted, erect or slightly curving, 2 1/...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 15
41. Carex Glareosa Wahl. Weak Clustered Sedge Fig. 908 Carex glareosa Wahl. Kongl. Vet. Acad. Handl. (II.) 24: 146. 1803. Closely resembles the preceding species, but has weak spreading or reclinin...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 16
45. Carex Brunnescens (Pers.) Poir. Brownish Sedge Fig. 912 Carex curta var. brunnescens Pers. Syn. 2: 539. 1807. C. brunnescens Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 3: 286. 1813. Carex canescens var. vulga...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 17
48. Carex Bromoides Schk. Brome-Like Sedge Fig. 915 C. bromoides Schk.; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 258. 1805. Bright green, culms densely caespitose, slender, erect, very rough above, 1- 2 high. L...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 18
51. Carex Interior Bailey. Inland Sedge Fig. 918 Carex interior Bailey, Bull. Torr. Club 20: 426. 1893. Similar to C. Leersii, culms caespitose, very slender, wiry, rather stiff, erect, 1-2&de...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 19
54. Carex Incomperta Bicknell. Prickly Bog Sedge Fig. 921 C. sterilis Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 208 (in small part). 1805. C. sterilis Willd.; Schk. Reidgr. f. 146 (in part). 1806. C. incomperta Bicknell, B...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 20
57. Carex Sychnocephala Carey. Dense Long-Beaked Sedge Fig. 924 C. sychnocephala Carey, Am. Journ. Sci. (II.) 4: 24. 1847. Culms erect, obtusely triangular, stoutish, smooth, 3'-18' high. Leaves 3/...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 21
60. Carex Scoparia Schk. Pointed Broom Sedge Fig. 927 Carex scoparia Schk.: Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 2.30. 1805. C. scoparia var. moniliformis Tuckerm. Enum. Method. 8, 17. 1843. C. scoparia var. condens...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 22
63. Carex Projecta Mackenzie. Necklace Sedge Fig. 930 C. tribuloidcs var. reducta Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 148. 1886. C. tribuloidcs moniliformis Britton; Brit. & Br. 111. Fl. 1: 356. 1896. C....
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 23
66. Carex Straminea Willd. Straw Sedge. Dog-Grass Fig. 933 Carex straminea Willd.; Schk. Riedgr. 49. f. 34. 1801. Carex tenera Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. 8: 97. 1824. Culms very slender, roughish above...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 24
69. Carex Festucacea Schkuhr. Fescue Sedge Fig. 936 Carex festucacea Schkuhr; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 242. 1805. Carex straminea var. brevior Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. 11: 158. 1826. C. straminea var. festuc...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 25
72. Carex Suberecta (Olney) Britton. Prairie Straw Sedge Fig. 939 C. foenea var. ferruginea Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 580. 1867. Not C. ferruginea Scop. C. tenera var. suberecta Olney; Bailey, Proc. Am. Ac...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 26
75. Carex Silicea Olney. Sea-Beach Sedge Fig. 942 C. straminca var. moniliformis Tuckerm. Enum. Meth. 17. 1843. Not C. scoparia var. moniliformis Tuckerm. 1843. Carex foenea var. sabulonum A. Gray,...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 27
78. Carex Adusta Boott. Browned Sedge Fig. 945 Carex adusta Boott; Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 215. 1840. C. pinguis Bailey, Bull. Geog. Surv. Minn. 3: 22. 1887. Culms stout, stiff, erect, smooth, 11 /2&...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 28
81. Carex Foenea Willd. Hay Sedge Fig. 948 Carex foenea Willd. Enum. 957. 1809. Carex argyrantha Tuckerm.; Wood, Class-book, 753. i860. Carex foenea var. perplexa Bailey, Mem. Torr. Club 1: 27. 188...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 29
84. Carex Durifdlia Bailey. Back's Sedge Fig. 951 Carex Backii Boott; Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 210. pi. 209. 1840. Not C. Backava Dewey, 1836. Carex durifolia Bailey, Bull. Torr. Club 20: 428. 1893. ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 30
88. Carex Supina Willd. Weak Arctic Sedge Fig. 955 Carex supina Willd.; Wahl. Kongl. Vet. Acad. Handl. (II.) 24: 158. 1803. Glabrous, densely tufted, long-stoloniferous, culms slender, erect, sharp...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 31
92. Carex Caryophyllea Latourrette. Vernal Sedge Fig. 959 Carex praecox Jacq. Fl. Austr. 5: 23. pl. 446- 1778. Not Schreb. 1771. Carex caryophyllea Latourrette, Chlor. Lugdun, 27. 1785-Carex verna ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 32
95. Carex Varia Muhl. Emmons'sedge Fig. 962 Carer varia Muhl.; Wahl. Kongl. Vet. Acad. Handl. (II.) 24: 159. 1803. C. Emmonsii Dewey, Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 411. 1836. C. varia var. colorata Bail...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 33
98. Carex Deflexa Hornem. Northern Sedge Fig. 965 Carex deflexa Hornem. Plantel. Ed. 3, 1: 938. 1821. C. deflexa var. Deanei Bailey, Mem. Torr. Club 1: 42. 1889. Rootstocks slender, loosely branch...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 34
101. Carex Umbellata Schk. Umbel-Like Sedge Fig. 968 Carex umbellata Schk.; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 290. 1805. Carex umbellata var. vicina Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. 11: 317. pi. D. f. 13. 1826. Rather light...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 35
104. Carex Picta Stcud. Boott's Sedge Fig. 971 Carex Boottiana Benth.; Boott, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 5:112. 1845. Not H. & A. 1841. Carex picta Steud. Syn. PL Cyp. 184. 1855. Dioecious, foliage g...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 36
107. Carex Richardsonii R. Br. Richardson's Sedge Fig. 974 Carex Richardsonii R. Br. Frankl. Journ. 751. 1823. Stolomferous, the culms slender, rough, erect, 4'-12' tall. Leaves flat, about 1 wide...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 37
110. Carex Aurea Nutt. Golden-Fruited Sedge Fig. 977 Carex aurea Nutt. Gen. 2: 205. 1818. Glabrous, light green, culms very slender, erect or reclining, 2'-15' long, from slender, elongated root-st...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 38
113. Carex Meadii Dewey. Mead's Sedge Fig. 980 Care.v Meadii Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. 43: 90. 1842. Carex tetanica var. Meadii Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 118. 1886. Carex tetanica var. Carteri Port...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 39
116. Carex Vaginata Tausch. Sheathed Sedge Fig. 983 Carex vaginata Tausch, Flora 557. 1821. Carex vaginata var. altocaulis Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. (II.) 41: 227. 1866. Carex saltucnsis Bailey, Mem....
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 40
119. Carex Careyana Torr. Carey's Sedge Fig. 986 Carex Careyana Torr.; Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. 30: 60. /. 88. 1836. Glabrous, bright green, culms slender, erect or .somewhat reclining, smooth or nea...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 41
122. Carex Digitalis Willd. Slender Wood Sedge Fig. 989 Carex digitalis Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 298. 1805. Glabrous, bright green, not at all glaucous, culms weak, slender, smooth, usually reclining, 4'-...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 42
125. Carex Blanda Dewey. Woodland Sedge Fig. 992 Carex blanda Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. 10: 45. 1826. C. lax'xflora var. varians Bailey, Mem. Torr. Club 1: 32. 1889. Glabrous, pale greerr, culms near...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 43
128. Carex Striatula Michx. Striate Sedge Fig. 995 C. striatula Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 173. 1803. Carex laxiflora var. divaricata Bailey, Mem. Torr. Club 1: 33. 1889. Glabrous, pale green, culms lo...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 44
131. Carex Granulans Muhl. Meadow Sedge Fig. 998 Carex granularis Muhl.; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 179. 1805. C. granularis recta Dewey; Wood's Class-book 763. 1860. Glabrous, light green and slightly gla...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 45
134. Carex Hitchcockiana Dewey. Hitchcock's Sedge Fig. 1001 Carex Hitchcockiana Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. 10: 274. 1826. Culms slender, erect, somewhat rough, 8-2 1/2o tall. Leaves l 1/2-3 1/2 wide,...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 46
137. Carex Amphibola Steud. Narrow-Leaved Sedge Fig. 1004 Carex amphibola Steud. Syn. PI. Cyp. 234. 1855. Carex grisea var. angustifolia Boott, 111. 34. 1858. Carex grisea var. (?) rigida Bailey, Me...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 47
140. Carex Flaccosperma Dewey. Thin-Fruited Sedge Fig. 1007 Carex laxiflora var. (?) mutica Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 414. 1836. Not C. mutica R. Br. 1823. Carex flaccosperma Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 48
143. Carex Formdsa Dewey. Handsome Sedge Fig. 1010 Carex formosa Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. 8: 98. 1824. Culms slender, smooth, erect, 1-2 1/2 tall. Leaves flat, more or less pubescent, the b...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 49
146. Carex Aestivaliformis Mackenzie. False Summer Sedge Fig. 1013 C. gracillima X aestivalis? Bailey, Bull. Torr. Club 20: 419. 1893. C. aestivaliformis Mackenzie, Bull. Torr. Club 37: 238. 1910....
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 50
149. Carex Debilis Michx. White-Edged Sedge Fig. 1016 Carex debilis Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 172. 1803. C. debilis var. pubera A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 593. 1867. C. debilis var. prolixa Bailey, Proc. A...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 51
152. Carex Assiniboinensis W. Boott. Assini-Boia Sedge Fig. 1019 C. assiniboinensis W. Boott, Bot. Gaz. 9: 91. 1884. Glabrous and nearly smooth, culms slender, weak, aphyllopodic, 1-2 1/2...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 52
155. Carex Cherokeensis Schwein. Cherokee Sedge Fig. 1022 Carex recurva Muhl. Descr. Gram. 262. 1817. Not Huds. 1778. Carex cherokeensis Schw. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1: 71. 1824. Glab rous, light green, ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 53
158. Carex Misandra R. Br. Short-Leaved Sedge Fig. 1025 Carex misandra R. Br. Suppl. Parry's Voy. 283. 1824. Glabrous and smooth, culms very slender, erect, 1'-15' tall. Leaves 1-1 1/2 wide, clus...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 54
161. Carex Complanata Torr. Hirsute Sedge Fig. 1028 Carex triceps Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 170. 1803. Not Schrank. 1789. Carex hirsuta Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 252. 1805. Not Suter, 1802. Carex complanata T...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 55
164. Carex Pallescens L. Pale Sedge Fig. 1031 Carex pallescens L. Sp. PI. 977- 1753. Light green, culms slender, erect, sparsely hairy, 4'-20 tall. Leaves flat, 1-1 1/2 wide, short-pubescent, at ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 56
167. Carex Scabrata Schwein. Rough Sedge Fig. 1034 Car ex scabrata Schwein. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1: 69. 1824. Glabrous, strongly stoloniferous, culms sharply triangular, weakly erect, very rough above, ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 57
170. Carex Paupercula Michx. Bog Sedge Fig. 1037 Carex paupercula Michx. Fl. Bor.-Am. 2: 172. 1803. Carex irrigua Smith; Hoppe, Caric. 72. 1826. C. paupercula var. irrigua and var. pallens Fernald, ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 58
173. Carex Stylosa C. A. Meyer. Variegated Sedge Fig. 1040 Carex stylosa C. A. Meyer, Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. Div. Sav. 1: 222. pi. 12. 1831. Culms phyllopodic, slender, erect, 6'-1 1/2 tall,...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 59
176. Carex Buxbaumii Wahl. Brown Sedge Fig. 1043 Carex polygama Schkuhr, Reidgr. 1: 84. 1801. Not J. F. Gmel. 1791. C. Buxbaumii Wahl. in Vet.-Akad. Handl. 24: 163. 1803. Carex fusca Bailey, Mem. T...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 60
179. Carex Glaucescens Ell. Southern Glaucous Sedge Fig. 1046 Carex glaucescens Ell. Bot. S. C. and Ga. 2: 553. 1824. Glabrous, light green, glaucous, culms stout, phyllopodic, erect, somewhat roug...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 61
182. Carex Haydeni Dewey. Hay Den's Sedge Fig. 1049 Carex aperta Carey, in A. Gray, Man. 547. 1848. Not Boott, 1840. C. Haydeni Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. (II.) 18: 103. 1854. C. stricta var. decora ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 62
185. Carex Goodenowii J. Gay. Goodenough's Sedge Fig. 1052 Carex caespitosa Gooden. Trans. Linn. Soc. 2: 195. pl. 21. 1794. Not L. 1753. C. Goodenowii J. Gay, Ann. Sci. Nat. (II.) 11: 191. 1839. ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 63
188. Carex Nebraskensis Dewey. Nebraska Sedge Fig. 1055 C. Jamesii Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 398. 1836. Not Schw. 1824. Carex nebraskensis Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. (II.) 18: 102. 1854. Glabrous, ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 64
191. Carex Recta Boott. Cuspidate Sedge Fig. 1058 C. recta Boott, in Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 2: 220. pl. 222. 1840. Glabrous, culms phyllopodic, from long rootstocks, rather stout, smooth or rough ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 65
194. Carex Gynandra Schwein. Nodding Sedge Fig. 1061 Carex gynandra Schwein. Ann. Lye. N. Y. i: 70. 1824. Carex crinita var. gynandra Schwein. & Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1: 360. 1825. Carex Porteri ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 66
197. Carex Impressa (S. H. Wright) Mackenzie. Hart Wright's Sedge Fig. 1064 Carex riparia var. impressa S. H. Wright, Bull. Torr. Club 9: 151. 1882. Carex impressa Mackenzie, Bull. Torr. Club 37: ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 67
200. Carex Lanuginosa Michx. Woolly Sedge Fig. 1067 Carcx lanuginosa Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 175. 1803. C. filiformis var. latifolia Boeckl. Linnaea 41: 309. 1876. Carex filiformis var. lanuginosa ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 68
203. Carex Trichocarpa Muhl. Hairy-Fruited Sedge Fig. 1070 Carex trichocarpa Muhl.; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 302. 1805. Carex trichocarpa var. turbinata Dewey, Am. Journ. Sci. 11: 159. 1826. Carex ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 69
206. Carex Fulvescens Mackenzie. Tawny Sedge Fig. 1073 C. fulvescens Mackenzie, Bull. Torr. Club 37: 239. 1910. Glabrous, yellow-green, culms slender, erect, 6-20' tall, smooth or slightly ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 70
209. Carex Lepidocarpa Tausch. Small Yellow Sedge Fig. 1076 Carex lepidocarpa Tausch, Flora 129. 1834. Carex flava var. rectirostra Gaudin; Fernald, Rhodora 8: 201. 1906. C. flava var. ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 71
212. Carex Abacta Bailey. Yellowish Sedge Fig. 1079 Carer rostrata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 173. 1803. Not Stokes, 1787. Carex Micliauxiana Boeckl. Linnaea 40: 336. 1877. Not C. Michauxii Schwein. ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 72
215. Carex Rhomalea (Fernald) Mackenzie. Moosehead Lake Sedge Fig. 1082 C. miiiaris var. major Bailey, Mem. Torr. Club i: 36. 1889. C. saxatilis var. rhomalea Fernald, Rhodora 3: 50. 1901. C. ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 73
218. Carex Raeana Boott. Rae's Sedge Fig. 1085 C. Raeana Boott; Richards, Arct. Exp. 2: 344. 1857. C. vesicaria var. Raeana Fernald, Rhodora 3: 50. 1901. C. miliaris var. Raeana Kuken. ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 74
221. Carex Rotundata Wahl. Round-Fruited Sedge Fig. 1088 C. rotundata Wahl. Vet.-Acad. Handl. 24: 153. 1803. Culms slender but stiff, obtusely triangular, smooth below inflorescence, not ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 75
224. Carex Bullata Schk. Button Sedge Fig. 1091 Carex bullata Schk.; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 309. 1805. Carex Olneyi Boott, 111. Car. 1: 15. 1858. Carex Greenii Boeck. Flora 41: 649. 1858. C. bullata ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 76
227. Carex Oligosperma Michx. Few-Seeded Sedge Fig. 1094 Carex oligosperma Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 174. 1803. Glabrous, culms very slender, erect, rather stiff, 1 1/2-3 tall, long-...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 77
230. Carex Schweinitzii Dewey. Schweinitz's Sedge Fig. 1097 Car ex Schweinitzii Dewey; Schwein. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1: 71. 1824. Glabrous, light green, culm erect, roughish above, 1-2 1/2 ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 78
233. Carex Comosa Boott. Bristly Sedge Fig. 1100 C. furcata Ell. Bot. S. C. and Ga. 2: 552. 1824. Not Lapeyr. 1813. Carex comosa Boott, Trans. Linn. Soc. 20: 117. 1846. Carex Pseudo-Cyperus var. ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 79
236. Carex Typhina Michx Cat-Tail Sedge Fig. 1103 Carex typhina Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 169. 1803. Carex typhinoides Schwein. Ann. Lye. 1: 66. 1824. Carex squarrosa var. typhinoides Dewey, Am. Journ....
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 80
239. Carex Louisianica Bailey. Louisiana Sedge Fig. 1106 Carex Halei Carey; Chapm. Fl. S. States 543. i860. Not Dewey, 1846. C. louisianica Bailey, Bull. Torr. Club 20: 428. 1893. C. Eggertii ...
-18. Carex L. Sp. Pi. 972. 1753.. Part 81
242. Carex Gigantea Rudge. Large Sedge Fig. 1109 C. gigantea Rudge, Trans. Linn. Soc. 7: 99. pl. 10. f. 2. 1804. Carex grandis Bailey, Mem. Torr. Club 1: 13. 1889. Glabrous, culms slender, erect, ...
-19. Cymophyllus Mackenzie
A perennial sedge with short rootstocks and flattened culms. Culms with four to six overlapping striate bladeless sheaths, and after flowering developing one large blade-bearing leaf without sheath, l...
-Family 12. Araceae Neck. Act. Acad. Theod. Palat. 2: 462. 1770
Arum Family. Herbs mostly with basal long-petioled simple or compound leaves, and spatha-ceous inflorescence, the spathe enclosing or subtending a spadix. Rootstock tuberous or a corm, in our species ...
-1. Arisaema Mart. Flora 14: 459. 1831
Perennial herbs with acrid corms, simple scapes and 1 to 3 slender-petioled divided leaves unfolding with the flowers. Spadix included or exserted, bearing the flowers near its base. Spathe convolute,...
-2. Peltandra Raf. Journ. Phys. 89: 103. 1819
Bog herbs, with entire sagittate acute or acuminate leaves, the long petioles sheathing the shorter scape at the base. Spathe elongated, convolute, or expanded above. Flowers monoecious, covering the ...
-3. Calla L. Sp. Pl 968. 1753
A bog herb with slender acrid rootstocks, broadly ovate or nearly orbicular cordate leaves, and a large white persistent spathe. Spathe ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, acuminate, open. Spadix cylindric,...
-4. Spathyema Raf. Med. Rep. (II.) 5:352. 1808
[Symplocarpus Salisb.; Nutt. Gen. 1: 105. 1818.] A fetid herb, with large ovate cordate leaves, thick straight rootstocks and a short erect partly underground scape. Spathe swollen, shell-like, thick...
-5. Orontium L. Sp. Pi. 324. 1753
Aquatic herbs, with thick rootstocks buried in the mud, oblong-elliptic nerved leaves without a distinct midvein, and slender terete scapes terminated by a cylindric spadix. Spathe enclosing the spadi...
-6. Acorus L. Sp. Pl 324. 1753
Erect herbs, with very long horiontal branched rootstocks, sword-shaped leaves, and 3-angled scapes keeled on the back and channeled in front, and a seemingly lateral cylindric spadix, the. scape appe...
-Family 13. Lemnaceae Dumort. Fl. Belg. 147. 1827
Duckweed Family. Minute perennial floating aquatic plants, without leaves or with only very rudimentary ones. The plant body consists of a disc-shaped, elongated or irregular thallus, which is loosely...
-1. Spirodela Schleid. Linnaea 13: 391. 1839
Thallus disc-shaped, 7-12-nerved. The thinly-capped rootlets as well as the nerves are provided with a single bundle of vascular tissue. Spathe sac-like. Anthers 2-celled. The ovary produces two anatr...
-2. Lemna L. Sp. Pi. 970. 1753
Thallus disc-shaped, usually provided with a central nerve and with or without two or four lateral nerves. Each thallus produces a single rootlet, which is devoid of vascular tissue and is commonly pr...
-2. Lemna L. Sp. Pi. 970. 1753. Continued
3. Lemna Minima Philippi. Least Duckweed. Fig 1123 Lemna minima Philippi, Linnaea 33: 239. 1844. Thallus oblong to elliptic, 1-2 long, obscurely i-nerved, or nerveless, with a row of papules along...
-3. Wolffia Horkel; Schleid. Linnaea, 13: 389. 1839
Thallus small, globose, ovoid-oblong, subcylindric or irregular, rootless, nerveless and leafless. The vegetative growth is from a cleft near one end of the plant, the branch being mostly sessile and ...
-4. Wolffiella Hegelm. Engler's Bot. Jahrb. 21: 303. 1895
Thallus thin, unsymmetrical, rootless, curved in the form of a segment of a band, punctate on both surfaces with numerous brown pigment-cells. Pouch opening as a cleft in the basal margin of the thall...
-Family 14. Mayacaceae Walp. Ann. 3: 662. 1853
Mayaca Family. Slender branching aquatic moss-like herbs, with linear sessile 1-nerved entire soft leaves, notched at the apex. Flowers solitary, peduncled, white, perfect, and regular, the peduncles ...
-1. Mayaca Aubl. Pl Guian. 1: 42. 1775
About 7 species known, natives of warm and tropical America. Only 2 species in the United States. Type species: Mayaca fluviatilis Aubl. [Aboriginal name of these plants in Guiana.] 1. Mayaca Aublet...
-Family 15. Xyridaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 388. 1836
Yellow-eyed Grass Family. Perennial or annual tufted herbs with basal narrow equitant commonly 2-ranked leaves, and erect simple leafless scapes. Flowers perfect, mostly yellow, nearly or quite regula...
-1. Xyris L. Sp. Pi. 42. 1753
Characters of the family as given above. [Greek name for some plant with 2-edged leaves.] Besides the following species there are some 9 others in the southern United States. Type species: Xyris indi...
-1. Xyris L. Sp. Pi. 42. 1753. Continued
2. Xyris Montana H. Ries. Northern Yellow-Eyed Grass Fig. 1133 Xyris flexuosa var. pusilla A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 548. 1867. Not X. pusilla R. Br. 1810. Xyris montana H. Ries, Bull. Torr. Club 19: 38...
-Family 16. Eriocaulaceae Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 122. 1847
Pipewort Family. Bog or aquatic herbs, perennial or perhaps sometimes annual, with fibrous knotted or spongy roots, tufted grass-like basal leaves, and monoecious (androgynous) occasionally dioecious ...
-1. Eriocaulon L. Sp. Pi. 87. 1753
Acaulescent or very short-stemmed herbs, the scapes erect, or when immersed delicate, angular, with a long sheathing bract at the base. Leaves mostly short, spreading, acuminate, parellel-nerved. Head...
-2. Syngonanthus Ruhland; Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 487. 1900
Perennial or rarely annual herbs, our species with much the habit of Eriocaulon. Stems very short. Leaves awl-shaped, tufted. Scapes slender, several-angled, erect, twisted in growth, sheathed at the ...
-3. Lachnocaulon Kunth, Enum. 3: 497. 1841
Tufted herbs with the habit of Eriocaulon, the leaves linear. Scapes several-angled, sheathed at the base by an entire bract about as long as the leaves; heads globose. Receptacle pilose. Flowers andr...
-Family 17. Bromeliaceae J. St. Hil. Expos. Fam. 1: 122. 1805. Pine-Apple Family
Epiphytic herbs (some tropical species terrestrial), mostly scurfy, with elongated entire or spinulose-serrate leaves. Flowers spiked, panicled, or solitary, regular and perfect, usually conspicuously...
-1. Dendropogon Raf. Neogen. 3. 1825
Epiphytic pendulous much-branched plants, with very narrow entire leaves and yellow or greenish flowers. Sepals distinct and separate or very nearly so. Petals distinct. Stamens long, the three inner ...
-Family 18. Commelinaceae Reichenb. Consp. 57. 1828
Spider wort Family. Perennial or annual leafy herbs with regular or irregular perfect and often showy flowers in cymes, commonly subtended by spathe-like or leafy bracts. Perianth of 2 series; a calyx...
-1. Commelina L. Sp. Pi. 40. 1753
Erect ascending or procumbent, somewhat succulent, branching herbs, with short-peti-oled or sessile leaves, and irregular mostly blue flowers in sessile cymes subtended by spathe-like bracts. Sepals s...
-1. Commelina L. Sp. Pi. 40. 1753. Continued
2. Commelina Communis L. Asiatic Day-Flower Fig. 1148 Commelina communis L. Sp. PI. 40. 1753-Commelina Willdenovii Kunth, Enum. 4: 37. 1843. Glabrous or nearly so, stems ascending or decumbent, rat...
-2. Cuthbertia Small, Fl. Se. U. S. 237. 1903
Perennial herbs, with mostly tufted stems. Leaves alternate: blades very narrow and elongated. Cymes umbel-like, solitary at the ends of long peduncles, and subtended by very small bracts wholly unlik...
-3. Tradescantia L. Sp. Pi. 288. 1753
Perennial, somewhat mucilaginous herbs, with mostly narrow and elongated leaves, and showy regular flowers in terminal or terminal and axillary umbels subtended by leaf-like or scarious bracts. Sepals...
-3. Tradescantia L. Sp. Pi. 288. 1753. Part 2
2. Tradescantia Bracteata Small. Long-Bracted Spiderwort Fig. 1155 Tradescantia bracteata Small; Britt. & Br. 111. Fl. 3: 510. 1898. Perennial, deep green, glabrous to the inflorescence, or nearly ...
-3. Tradescantia L. Sp. Pi. 288. 1753. Part 3
5. Tradescantia Reflexa Raf. Reflexed Spiderwort Fig. 1158 Tradescantia reflexa Raf. Atl. Journ. 150. 1832. Perennial, glabrous, glaucous. Stems erect, 1-3 tall, nearly straight, commonly...
-Family 19. Pontederiaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 59. 1829
Pickerel-weed Family. Perennial aquatic or bog plants, the leaves petioled, with thick blades, or long and grass-like. Flowers perfect, more or less irregular, solitary or spiked, subtended by leaf-li...
-1. Pontederia L. Sp. Pi. 288. 1753
Leaves thick with many parallel veins, the petioles long, sheathing, arising from a horizontal rootstock. Stem erect, 1-leaved, with several sheathing bract-like leaves at the base. Flowers blue, ephe...
-2. Heteranthera R. & P. Prodr. Fl. Per. 9. 1794
[Schollera Schreb. Gen. 785. 1789. Not Roth. 1788.] Herbs with creeping, ascending or floating stems, the leaves petioled, with cordate, ovate, oval or reniform blades, or grass-like. Spathes 1-flowe...
-Family 20. Juncaceae Vent. Tabl. 2: 150. 1799. Rush Family
Perennial or sometimes annual, grass-like, usually tufted herbs, commonly growing in moist places. Inflorescence usually compound or decompound, paniculate, corymbose, or umbelloid, rarely reduced to ...
-1. Juncus L. Sp. Pi. 325 (1753)
Usually perennial plants, principally of swamp habitat, with glabrous herbage, stems leaf-bearing or scapose, leaf-sheaths with free margins, and leaf blades terete, gladiate, grasslike, or channeled....
-1. Juncus L. Sp. Pi. 325 (1753). Part 2
1. Juncus Effusus L. Common Rush. Bog Rush. Soft Rush Fig. 1166 J uncus effusus L. Sp. PI. 326. 1753. Plant 1 1/2-4 high, densely tufted, erect. Rootstock stout, branching, proliferous; s...
-1. Juncus L. Sp. Pi. 325 (1753). Part 3
4. Juncus Gymnocarpus Coville. Pennsylvania Rush Fig. 1169 Juncus Smithii Engelm. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 2: 444. 1866. Not Kunth, 1841. /. gymnocarpus Coville, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 106. 1894. Stems ...
-1. Juncus L. Sp. Pi. 325 (1753). Part 4
7. Juncus Maritimus Lam. Sea Rush Fig. 1172 Juncus martimus Lam. Encycl. 3: 264. 1789. Stems 20-40' high, i-2 thick, erect from a stout horizontal rootstock. Outer basal leaves reduced to bladele...
-1. Juncus L. Sp. Pi. 325 (1753). Part 5
10. Juncus Gerardi Lois. Black-Grass Fig. 1175 J uncus Gerardi Lois. Journ. de Bot. 2: 284. 1809. Tufted, 8-28' high, with creeping rootstocks. Basal leaves with rather loosely clasping auriculate ...
-1. Juncus L. Sp. Pi. 325 (1753). Part 6
13. Juncus Interior Wiegand. Inland Rush Fig. 1178 Juncus interior Wiegand, Bull. Torr. Club 27: 516. 1900. Plants 1 1/2-3 high, light green. Leaves basal, several; blades about one-third...
-1. Juncus L. Sp. Pi. 325 (1753). Part 7
16. Juncus Oronensis Fernald. Maine Rush Fig. 1181 Juncus oronensis Fernald, Rhodora 6: 36. 1904. Stems tufted, erect, 2 1/20 high or less; basal leaves about half as long as the stem, the blades n...
-1. Juncus L. Sp. Pi. 325 (1753). Part 8
20. Juncus Marginatus Rostk. Grass-Leaved Rush Fig. 1185 Juncus marginatus Rostk. Monog. June. 38. pl. 2. f. 3. 1801. Juncus marginatus var. paucicapitatus Engelm. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 2: 455. 186...
-1. Juncus L. Sp. Pi. 325 (1753). Part 9
23. Juncus Longistylis Torr. Long-Styled Rush Fig. 1188 Juncus longistylis Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound. 223. 1859. Stems erect, loosely tufted, 8'-3o' high, rather stiff, slender, compressed, 1-3-leaved....
-1. Juncus L. Sp. Pi. 325 (1753). Part 10
26. Juncus Stygius L. Moor Rush Fig. 1191 Juncus stygius L. Syst. Nat. Ed. io, 2: 987. 1759. J. stygius var. americanus Buch. in Engler, Bot. Jahrb. 12: 393. 1890. Rootstock none; stems 3'-1 h...
-1. Juncus L. Sp. Pi. 325 (1753). Part 11
29. Juncus Pelocarpus E. Meyer. Brown-Fruited Rush Fig. 1194 Juncus pelocarpus E. Meyer, Syn. Luz. 30. 1823. Rootstock slender; stems 3'-2o' high, 1-5-leaved; basal leaves 2-4, with loose auriculat...
-1. Juncus L. Sp. Pi. 325 (1753). Part 12
33. Juncus Articulatus L. Jointed Rush. Spart Fig. 1198 Juncus articulatus L. Sp. PI. 327. 1753. Rootstock branching; stems erect or ascending, 8'-2 high, tufted, somewhat compressed, 2-4-leav...
-1. Juncus L. Sp. Pi. 325 (1753). Part 13
36. Juncus Torreyi Coville. Torrey's Rush Fig. 1201 Juncus Torreyi Coville, Bull. Torr. Club 22: 303. 1895. /. nodosus var. megacephalus Torr. Fl. N. Y. 2: 326. 1843. Juncus megacephalus Wood, Bot. ...
-1. Juncus L. Sp. Pi. 325 (1753). Part 14
39. Juncus Polycephalus Michx. Many-Headed Rush Fig. 1204 Juncus polycephalus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 192. 1803. Juncus Engelmanni Buch. Krit. Verz. June. 67. 1880. Stem stout, about 30 high, compre...
-1. Juncus L. Sp. Pi. 325 (1753). Part 15
42. Juncus Canadensis J. Gay. Canada Rush Fig. 1207 J. canadensis J. Gay; Laharpe, Monog. June. 134. 1825. Juncus canadensis longicaudatus Engelm. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 2: 474. 1868. Juncus canade...
-1. Juncus L. Sp. Pi. 325 (1753). Part 16
45. Juncus Debilis A. Gray. Weak Rush Fig. 1210 Juncus debilis A. Gray, Man. 506. 1848. J. acuminatus debilis Engelm. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 2: 463. 1868. Plants 8'-16' high or sometimes with longe...
-2. Juncoides Adans. Fam. Pi. 2: 47. 1763
[Luzula DC. Fl. Fr. 3: 158. 1805.] Perennial plants, with herbage either glabrous or sparingly webbed, stems leaf-bearing, leaf-sheaths with united margins, and leaf-blades grass-like. Inflorescence ...
-2. Juncoides Adans. Fam. Pi. 2: 47. 1763. Part 2
2. Juncoides Nemordsum (Poll.) Kuntze. Forest Wood-Rush Fig. 1214 J uncus nemorosus Poll. Hist. PI. Pal. 1: 352. 1776 , Juncoides nemorosum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 724. 1891. Loosely tufted or somewh...
-2. Juncoides Adans. Fam. Pi. 2: 47. 1763. Part 3
5. Juncoides Arcticum (Blytt) Coville. Arctic Wood-Rush Fig. 1217 Luzula arctica Blytt, Norg. Fl. 1: 299. 1861. Lusula campestris var. nivalis Laest. Kongl. Vet. Akad. Handl. 334. 1822. Juncoides ...
-Family 21. Melanthaceae R. Br. Prodr. 1: 272. 1810. Bunch-Flower Family
Leafy-stemmed herbs (some exotic genera scapose), with rootstocks or rarely with bulbs, the leaves broad or grass-like, parallel-veined, the veins often connected by transverse veinlets. Flowers perfe...
-1. Tofieldia Huds. Ft Angl. Ed. 2, 157. 1778
Perennial herbs, with short erect or horizontal rootstocks, fibrous roots, slender erect stems leafless above or nearly so, linear somewhat 2-ranked and equitant leaves clustered at the base, and smal...
-2. Triantha Nutt; Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. 17: 490. 1879
Perennial herbs, with pubescent foliage, the leaves mainly basal, their blades narrow, flat. Flowers perfect, mostly clustered in 3's, in erect narrow centrifugal panicles; perianth-segments white or ...
-3. Abama Adans. Fam. Pi. 2: 47, 511. 1763. [Narthecium Juss. Gen. 47. 1789.]
Perennial herbs, with creeping or horizontal rootstocks, fibrous roots, erect simple stems and linear grass-like basal leaves, those of the stem short and distant. Flowers small, greenish-yellow, perf...
-5. Helonias L. Sp. Pi. 342. 1753
A perennial glabrous bog herb, with a stout rootstock, thick fibrous roots, basal ob-lanceolate persistent leaves and rather large perfect purple flowers, racemed at the summit of an erect hollow brac...
-6. Chamaelirium Willd. Mag. Nat. Fr. Berl. 2: 18. 1808
An erect glabrous slightly fleshy herb, with a bitter tuberous rootstock. Basal leaves spatulate, those of the stem lanceolate. Flowers small, white, dioecious, in a long narrow bractless spike-like r...
-7. Chrosperma Raf. Neog. 3. 1825
[Amianthium A. Gray, Ann. Lye. N. Y. 4: 121. 1837.] An erect glabrous herb, with an ovoid-oblong coated bulb, and numerous long blunt basal leaves, a few short ones on the stem. Flowers perfect, white...
-8. Stenanthium Kunth, Enum. 4: 189. 1842
Erect glabrous bulbous herbs, with leafy stems and small white or greenish, polygamous flowers in an ample terminal penicle. Leaves narrowly linear, keeled. Perianth-segments narrowly lanceolate, acum...
-9. Zygadenus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 213. 1803
A glabrous erect perennial herb with a thick rootstock and a leafy stem. Leaves nar-nowly linear. Flowers perfect, white, in a terminal panicle. Perianth withering-persistent, its segments lanceolate,...
-10. Anticlea Kunth, Enum. 4: 191. 1843
Glabrous perennial herbs, with membranous-coated bulbs, leafy stems, and rather large greenish or yellowish-white flowers in terminal racemes. Leaves linear. Flowers perfect. Perianth withering-persi...
-11. Toxicoscordion Rydb. Bull. Torr. Club 30: 272. 1903
Glabrous, poisonous perennial herbs, with membranous-coated bulbs, narrowly linear conduplicate leaves and small perfect or polygamous flowers in racemes or panicles. Perianth wholly inferior, free fr...
-12. Oceanorus Small, Fl. Se. U. S. 252. 1903
A glabrous perennial herb, with erect, fibrous-coated bulb-like rootstocks. Leaves narrow, borne on the lower part of the stem, the outer ones reduced to sheathing scales. Flowers polygamous, in termi...
-13. Melanthium L. Sp. Pi. 339. 1753
Tall leafy herbs, perennial by thick rootstocks, the stem, at least its upper part, and the inflorescence, pubescent. Leaves narrow, oblanceolate or linear, sheathing or the upper sheath-less. Flowers...
-14. Veratrum L. Sp. Pi. 1044. 1753
Tall perennial herbs, with thick short poisonous rootstocks, the leaves mostly broad, clasping, strongly veined and plaited, the stem and inflorescence pubescent. Flowers greenish or yellowish or purp...
-Family 22. Liliaceae Adans. Fam. Pi. 42. 1763
Lily Family. Scapose or leafy-stemmed herbs from bulbs or corms, or rarely with root-stocks or a woody caudex (Yucca), the leaves various. Flowers solitary or clustered, regular, mostly perfect. Peria...
-1. Hemerocallis L. Sp. Pi. 324. 1754
Tall glabrous herbs, with fibrous roots, basal linear leaves and large erect or spreading mostly orange or yellow flowers clustered at the ends of leafless scapes. Perianth funnel-form, its lobes oblo...
-2. Leucocrinum Nutt.; A. Gray, Ann. Lye. N. Y. 4: 110. 1837
A low acaulescent rather fleshy herb, from a short rootstock, the roots thick, fibrous. Outer leaves membranous, acute, short; inner leaves linear, elongated, the innermost reduced to bracts. Flowers ...
-3. Allium L. Sp. Pl 294. 1753
Bulbous herbs, odorous (alliaceous); bulbs solitary, or clustered on short rootstocks. Leaves narrowly linear, rarely lanceolate or oblong, sheathing, basal, or sometimes also on the stem. Stem (usual...
-3. Allium L. Sp. Pl 294. 1753. Part 2
1. Allium Tricoccum Ait. Wild Leek Fig. 1242 Allium tricoccum Ait. Hort. Kew. 1: 428. 1789. Bulbs ovoid, clustered, 1 -2 high, seated on a short rootstock, their coats fibrous-reticulated. Leaves o...
-3. Allium L. Sp. Pl 294. 1753. Part 3
4. Allium Alleghaniense Small. Alleghany Onion Fig. 1245 Allium alleghaniense Small, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 1: 279. 1899. Bulbs ovoid. Leaves few, with narrowly linear blades 6-12' long; scapes 1&d...
-3. Allium L. Sp. Pl 294. 1753. Part 4
8. Allium Canadense L. Meadow Garlic Fig. 1249 Allium canadense L. Sp. PI. ri95. 1753. Bulb ovoid, solitary, usually less than 1' high, the outer coats fibrous-reticulated. Scape terete, 8'-2 ...
-4. Nothoscordum Kunth, Enum. 4: 457. 1843
Scapose herbs, similar to the onions, but without alliaceous odor, with membranous-coated bulbs, narrowly linear basal leaves and small yellow or yellowish-green flowers in an erect terminal simple 2-...
-5. Androstephium Torn Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 218. 1859
Scapose herbs from a small membranous-coated corm. Leaves basal, narrowly linear. Flowers rather large, blue, in a terminal erect several-bracted umbel. Perianth funnelform, withering-persistent, the ...
-6. Lilium L. Sp. Pi. 302. 1753
Tall bulbous berbs, with simple leafy stems, and large erect or drooping showy flowers. Perianth funnelform or campanulate, deciduous, of 6 separate spreading or recurved segments, each with a nectar-...
-6. Lilium L. Sp. Pi. 302. 1753. Part 2
2. Lilium Umbellatum Pursh. Western Red Lily Fig. 1256 L. andinum Nutt. Fras. Cat. Without description. 1813. Lilium umbellaium Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 299. 1814. L. lanceolatum Fitzpatrick, Iowa Nat. ...
-6. Lilium L. Sp. Pi. 302. 1753. Part 3
5. Lilium Grayi S. Wats. Asa Gray's Lily Fig. 1259 Lilium Grayi S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 14: 256. 1879. Rootstock bearing small subglobose bulbs with thick ovate scales. Stem slender, 2-3...
-7. Fritillaria [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 303. 1753
Bulbous herbs with simple leafy stems, and rather large nodding solitary or racemed leafy-bracted flowers. Perianth mostly campanulate, deciduous, of 6 separate and nearly equal oblong or ovate segmen...
-8. Tulipa (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pi. 305. 1753
Bulbous herbs with erect leaf-bearing stems and large solitary (rarely 2) erect flowers. Perianth campanulate, the segments distinct, erect or erect-spreading, deciduous, usually with a spot at the ba...
-9. Erythronium L. Sp. Pi. 305. 1753
Low herbs, from deep membranous-coated corms, sometimes propagated by offshoots, the stem simple, bearing a pair of broad or narrow unequal leaves, usually below the middle, the leaves thus appearing ...
-10. Calochortus Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 240. 1814
Branched or simple herbs, with coated corms, narrowly linear leaves and large showy peduncled flowers, erect in the following species. Perianth-segments separate, spreading or connivent, yellow, blue,...
-11. Quamasia Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 2: 265. 1818
[Camassia Lindl. Bot. Reg. pl. 1846. 1832.] Scapose herbs, with membranous-coated edible bulbs, linear basal leaves, and rather large, blue, purple or white bracted flowers in a terminal raceme. Peri...
-12. Ornithogalum L. Sp. Pi. 306. 1753
Scapose herbs, with coated bulbs, narrow basal fleshy leaves, and large white or yellow flowers in a terminal bracted corymb or raceme. Perianth-segments equal or nearly so, separate, white, or someti...
-13. Muscari Mill. Gard. Diet. Abr. Ed. 4. 1754
Low bulbous scapose herbs, with basal linear fleshy leaves, and nodding bracted racemose flowers, deep blue (rarely white) in the following species. Bulbs membranous-coated. Perianth globose, urn-shap...
-14. Aletris L. Sp. Pi. 319. 1753
Scapose perennial bitter fibrous-rooted herbs, with basal spreading lanceolate leaves, and small white or yellow bracted perfect flowers in a terminal spike-like raceme. Perianth oblong or campanulate...
-15. Yucca L. Sp. Pi. 319. 1753
Large plants, with a short sometimes subterranean caudex, or tall woody and leafy stem, or bracted scape, the leaves linear or lanceolate, usually rigid and sharp-pointed, bearing long marginal thread...
-Family 23. Convallariaceae Link. Handb. 1: 184. 1829. Lily-Of-The-Valley Family
Scapose or leafy-stemmed herbs, with simple or branched rootstocks, never with bulbs or corms. Flowers solitary, racemose, panicled or umbelled, regular and perfect. Leaves broad, parallel-veined and ...
-1. Asparagus L. Sp. Pi. 313. 1753
Stem at first simple, fleshy, scaly, at length much branched; the branchlets filiform and mostly clustered in the axils of the scales in the following species, flattened and linear, lanceolate or ovat...
-2. Clintonia Raf. Journ. Pys. 89: 102. 1819
Somewhat pubescent scapose herbs, with slender rootstocks, erect simple scapes, and few-broad petioled sheathing basal leaves, the bractless flowers umbelled at the summit of the scape in our species....
-3. Vagnera Adans. Fam. Pi. 2: 496. 1763
[Smilacina Desf. Ann. Mus. Paris 9: 51. 1807.] Rootstocks slender, or short and thick. Stem simple, scaly below, leafy above, the leaves alternate, short-petioled or sessile ovate, lanceolate or oblon...
-4. Unifolium Haller; Zinn, Cat. Plant. Hort. Goett. 104. 1757. [Maianthemum Wigg. Prim. Fl. Hols. 14. 1780.]
Low herbs, with slender rootstocks, erect simple few-leaved stems, petioled or sessile leaves and small white flowers in a terminal raceme, the pedicels commonly 2-3 together. Perianth of 4 separate s...
-5. Disporum Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. 1: 331. 1812
[Prosartes Don, Ann. Nat. Hist. 4: 341. 1840.] More or less pubescent herbs with slender rootstocks, branching stems, scaly below, leafy above, and alternate somewhat inequilateral sessile or claspin...
-6. Uvularia L. Sp. Pi. 304. 1753
Erect forked herbs, perennial by rootstocks. Stem leafy above, scale-bearing below, the leaves alternate, sessile or perfoliate. Flowers large, solitary at the ends of the branches or rarely 2 togethe...
-7. Streptopus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 200. 1803
Branching herbs, with stout or slender rootstocks, thin sessile or clasping alternate many-nerved leaves, the flowers solitary or 2 together, extra-axillary, slender-peduncled, greenish or purplish, s...
-8. Polygonatum [Tourn.] Mill. Gard. Diet. Abr. Ed. 4. 1754. [Salomonia Heist.; Fabr. Enum. Pi. Hort. Helmst. 20. 1759.]
Glabrous or pubescent herbs, with thick, horizontal jointed and scarred rootstocks, simple arching or erect stems, scaly below, leafy above, the leaves ovate or lanceolate, sessile and alternate in ou...
-9. Convallaria L. Sp. Pi. 314. 1753
A low glabrous herb, with horizontal rootstocks, very numerous fibrous roots, and 2 or sometimes 3 erect broad leaves, narrowed into sheathing petioles, the lower part of the stem bearing several shea...
-Family 24. Trilliaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 347. 1836. Wake-Robin Family
Somewhat fleshy herbs, perennial by rootstocks. Leaves cauline, whorled, or sometimes solitary long-petioled ones are borne on the rootstock. Flowers terminal, solitary or umbelled, sessile or pedicel...
-1. Medeola L. Sp. Pi. 339. 1753
A slender erect unbranched herb, loosely provided with deciduous wool. Rootstock thick, white, tuber-like, with somewhat the odor and taste of cucumbers, the slender fibrous roots numerous. Leaves of ...
-2. Trillium L. Sp. Pi. 339. 1753
Glabrous erect unbranched herbs, with short scarred rootstocks and 3 leaves whorled at the summit of the stem, subtending the sessile or peduncled solitary bractless flower. Solitary long-petioled lea...
-2. Trillium L. Sp. Pi. 339. 1753. Part 2
1. Trillium Sessile L. Sessile-Flowered Wake-Robin Fig. 1299 Trillium sessile L. Sp. PI. 340. 1753. Stem 4'-12' tall. Leaves ovate, oval or nearly orbicular, sessile, acute or obtuse and cuspidate ...
-2. Trillium L. Sp. Pi. 339. 1753. Part 3
5. Trillium Grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb. Large-Flowered Wake-Robin Fig. 1303 Trillium rhumboidcum var. grandiflorum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 216. 1803. Trillium grandiflorum Salisb. Par. Lond. 1: pi...
-Family 25. Smilaceae Vent. Tabl. 2: 146. 1799. Smilax Family
Mostly vines, with woody or herbaceous, often prickly stems. Leaves alternate, netted-veined, usually punctate or lineolate, several-nerved, petioled. Petiole sheathing, bearing a pair of slender tend...
-1. Smilax L. Sp. Pi. 1028. 1753
Rootstocks usually very large and tuberous, stems usually twining, and climbing by means of the spirally coiling appendages of the petiole. Lower leaves reduced to scales; upper leaves entire or lobed...
-1. Smilax L. Sp. Pi. 1028. 1753. Part 2
1. Smilax Herbacea L. Carrion-Flower. Jacob's Ladder Fig. 1308 Smilax herbacea L. Sp. PI. 1030. 1753. S. pulvcrulcnta Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 238. 1803. Coprosmanthus hcrbaceus Kunth,Enum.5: 264. 1...
-1. Smilax L. Sp. Pi. 1028. 1753. Part 3
4. Smilax Glaiica Walt. Glaucous-Leaved Greenbrier Fig. 1311 Smilax glauca Walt. Fl. Car. 245. 1788. S.spinulosum J.E.Smith; Torr. Fl. N. Y. 2: 303. 1843. Rootstock deep, knotted and tuberous. Stem...
-1. Smilax L. Sp. Pi. 1028. 1753. Part 4
7. Smilax Pseudo-China L. Long-Stalked Greenbrier Fig. 1314 Smilax Ps&udo-China L. Sp. PI. 1031. 1753. Glabrous throughout, rootstock often bearing large tubers, stem terete, the branches angled. L...
-Family 26. Haemodoraceae R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1: 299. 1810
Bloodwort Family. Perennial herbs with erect stems, narrowly linear leaves, and regular or somewhat irregular small perfect flowers in terminal cymose panicles. Perianth 6-parted or 6-lobed, adnate to...
-1. Gyrotheca Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. 1: 327. 1812. [Lachnanthes Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 47. 1816.]
A rather stout herb, with a short rootstock, red fibrous roots and equitant leaves, the basal ones longer than those of the stem. Flowers numerous, yellowish, small, in a dense terminal woolly cymose ...
-Family 27. Amaryllidaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2: 328. 1836
Amaryllis Family. Perennial herbs (some tropical species woody or even arboreous),' with bulbs or rootstocks, scapose or sometimes leafy stems and usually narrow and entire leaves. Flowers perfect, re...
-1. Narcissus L. Sp. Pi. 289. 1753
Bulbous herbs, the flowers solitary or several on leafless scapes, the leaves linear, basal. Flowers subtended by a deciduous spathe; perianth 6-parted, bearing a cup-like funnelform or cylindric crow...
-2. Atamosco Adans. Fam. Pi. 2: 57, 524. 1763. [Zephyranthes Herb. App. Bot. Reg. 36. 1821.]
Glabrous herbs with coated bulbs, narrow leaves, and erect i-flowered scapes, the flower large, erect, pink, white or purple. Perianth funnelform, naked in the throat, with 6 membranous equal erect-sp...
-3. Cooperia Herb. Bot. Reg. Pl. 1835. 1836
Low herbs with coated bulbs, very narrow grass-like leaves and slender 1-flowered scapes, the flower large, long, erect, subtended by a membranous spathe-like bract. Perianth salver-form with 6 oval o...
-4. Hymenocallis Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. 1: 338. 1812
Mostly tall bulbous herbs with usually lanceolate or linear-oblong leaves, and large white sessile or short-pedicelled umbelled flowers on erect solid scapes, each flower subtended by 2 long membranou...
-5. Manfreda Salisb. Gen. Pi. Fragm. 78. 1866
Fleshy herbs with bulbiferous rootstocks and bracted scapes, the leaves basal, and large bracted flowers in terminal spikes or racemes. Perianth tubular or funnelform, withering-persistent, of 6 erect...
-6. Hypoxis L. Syst. Ed. 10, 2: 986. 1759
Low, mostly villous herbs with a corm or short rootstock, grass-like leaves and slender few-flowered scapes, the flowers rather small. Perianth 6-parted, its segments equal or nearly so, separate to t...
-7. Lophiola Ker, Bot. Mag. Pl. 1596. 1814
An erect perennial herb with slender rootstocks, fibrous roots, erect sparingly leafy stems, the leaves narrowly linear and mostly basal, and numerous small yellowish flowers in a terminal woolly cymo...
-Family 28. Dioscoreaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2: 359. 1836. Yam Family
Herbaceous or slightly woody twining vines with fleshy or woody rootstocks, slender stems, petioled, mostly cordate, several-nerved and reticulate-veined leaves, alternate or the lower opposite or ver...
-1. Dioscorea [Plum.] L. Sp. Pi. 1032. 1753
Characters of the family as defined above. [Name in honor of the Greek naturalist Dioscorides.] About 160 species, numerous in tropical regions, a few in the temperate zones. The large fleshy rootsto...
-Family 29. Iridaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2: 382. 1836. Iris Family
Perennial herbs with narrow equitant 2-ranked leaves and perfect regular or irregular mostly clustered flowers subtended by bracts. Perianth of 6 segments or 6-lobed, its tube adnate to the ovary, the...
-1. Iris [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 38. 1753
Herbs with creeping or horizontal, often woody and sometimes tuber-bearing rootstocks, erect stems, erect or ascending equitant leaves, and large regular terminal sometimes pan-icled flowers. Perianth...
-1. Iris [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 38. 1753. Part 2
1. Iris Versicolor L. Larger Blue-Flag. Poison- Or Water-Flag Fig. 1328 Iris versicolor L. Sp. PI. 39. 1753. Iris virginica L. Sp. PI. 39. 1753 Rootstock horizontal, thick, fleshy, covered with the...
-1. Iris [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 38. 1753. Part 3
5. Iris Hooked Penny. Hooker's Blue-Flag Fig. 1332 Iris Hookeri Penny; Steud. Nomencl. Ed. 2, Part 1, 822. 1840. I. setosa canadensis Foster, Rhodora 5: 158. 1903. Rootstock rather slender. Stems ...
-1. Iris [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 38. 1753. Part 4
8. Iris Germanica L. Fleur-De-Lis Fig. 1335 Iris get-manica L. Sp. PI. 38. 1753. Rootstock thick. Stems stout, usually branched and several-flowered, 2-3 tall, bearing several leaves. Lea...
-1. Iris [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 38. 1753. Part 5
12. Iris Lacustris Nutt. Dwarf Lake-Iris Fig. 1339 Iris lacustris Nutt. Gen. 1: 23. 1818. Similar to the preceding species in size and foliage, or the leaves rather narrower, sometimes wavy-margine...
-2. Nemastylis Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (II.) 5: 157. 1833-37. [Eustylis Engelm. & Gray, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 5: 235. 1845.]
Bulbous herbs with erect slender terete usually branched stems and elongated linear folded leaves. Flowers rather large, in our species blue or purple, solitary or several together, fugacious, subtend...
-3. Gemmingia Fabr. Enum. Pi. Hort. Helm. 1759
[Belamcanda Adans. Fam. PI. 2: 60. 1763.] [Pardanthus Ker, in Konig & Sims, Ann. Bot. 1: 246. 1805.] An erect perennial herb, with short stout rootstocks and iris-like leaves. Flowers in terminal br...
-4. Sisyrinchium L. Sp. Pi. 954. 1753
Perennial tufted slender herbs, with short rootstocks, simple or branched 2-edged or 2-winged stems, linear grass-like leaves, and rather small mostly blue terminal flowers umbellate from a pair of er...
-4. Sisyrinchium L. Sp. Pi. 954. 1753. Part 2
2. Sisyrinchium Albidum Raf. White Blue-Eyed Grass Fig. 1344 S. albidum Raf. Atl. Journ. 17. 1832. S. versicolor Bicknell, Bull. Torr. Club 26: 606. 1899. Green and glaucescent, the spathes often ...
-4. Sisyrinchium L. Sp. Pi. 954. 1753. Part 3
5. Sisyrinchium Campestre Bicknell. Prairie Blue-Eyed Grass Fig. 1347 S. campestre Bicknell, Bull. Torr. Club 26: 341. 1899. S. campestre kansanum Bicknell, loc. cit. 344. 1899. Similar to S. muc...
-4. Sisyrinchium L. Sp. Pi. 954. 1753. Part 4
8. Sisyrinchium Strictum Bicknell. Strict Blue-Eyed Grass Fig. 1356 S. strictum Bicknell, Bull. Torr. Club 26: 299. 1899. About 1 high in erect tufts, not fibrose at base, pale light green and...
-Family 30. Marantaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. 1830. Arrowroot Family
Tall herbs, perennial by rootstocks or tubers, or sometimes annual, with scapose or leafy stems, mostly large entire long-petioled sheathing leaves, often swollen at the base of the blade, the veins p...
-1. Thalia L. Sp. Pi. 1193. 1753
Annual (or perennial?) herbs, with large long-petioled basal leaves, erect simple scapes and terminal panicled spikes of bracted usually purple flowers. Sepals 3, membranous, separate, equal. Petals 3...
-Family 31. Burmanniaceae Blume, Enum. Pi. Jav. 1: 27. 1830 Burmannia Family
Low annual herbs, with filiform stems and fibrous roots. Leaves basal or reduced to cauline scales or bracts. Flowers regular, perfect, the perianth with 6 small thick lobes, its tube adnate to the ov...
-1. Burmannia L. Sp. Pi. 287. 1753
Erect herbs, with simple stems and small alternate scale-like leaves. Tube of the perianth strongly 3-angled or 3-winged, the 3 outer lobes longer than the inner. Stamens 3, opposite the inner periant...
-Family 32. Orchidaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2: 336. 1836
Orchid Family. Perennial herbs, with corms, bulbs or tuberous roots, sheathing entire leaves, sometimes reduced to scales, the flowers perfect, irregular, bracted, solitary, spiked or racemed. Periant...
-1. Cypripedium L. Sp. Pi. 951. 1753
Glandular-pubescent herbs, with leafy stems and tufted roots of thick fibres. Leaves large, broad, many-nerved. Flowers solitary or several, drooping, large, showy. Sepals spreading, separate, or 2 of...
-2. Fissipes Small, Fl. Se. U. S. 311. 1903
Acaulescent herbs, with fleshy-fibrous roots and glandular-pubescent foliage. Leaves 2, basal; blades ample, plaited, spreading. Scape simple. Flower usually solitary. Perianth irregular. Sepals green...
-3. Orchis [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 939. 1753
Roots tuberous, or of numerous fleshy fibres; stems in our species scape-like, 1-leaved at the base. Flowers in short terminal spikes. Sepals separate, subequal, spreading. Petals similar to the sepal...
-4. Galeorchis Rydb. In Britton, Man. 292. 1901
Rootstock short, with numerous fleshy roots. Stem scape-like, with 2 large leaves at the base. Flowers in a short loose spike, subtended by large bracts. Sepals united above, forming a hood. Petals co...
-5. Perularia Lindl. Bot. Reg. 20: Under Pl. 1701. 1835
Leafy-stemmed plants, from a cluster of thick fibrous roots. Flowers small, greenish, in a long open spike with long bracts. Sepals and petals broad, spreading. Lip lanceolate, with a tooth on each si...
-6. Coeloglossum Hartm. Handb. Scand. Fl. 323. 1820
Leafy plants, with biennial 2-cleft tubers. Flowers greenish in a long leafy-bracted spike. Sepals free, somewhat arcuate, bent together and forming a hood. Petals narrow. Lip oblong, obtuse, 2-3-toot...
-7. Gymnadeniopsis Rydb. In Britton, Man. 293. 1901
Leafy plants, with fleshy fibrous or somewhat tuberous roots, and a short spike of small flowers. Sepals free and spreading. Lip entire or 3-toothed at the apex, much exceeded by the long filiform or ...
-8. Limnorchis Rydb. Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 1: 104. 1900
Leafy plants with thick fleshy roots and small greenish or whitish flowers in a long spike. Sepals and petals free and spreading. Lip entire. Beak of the stigma without appendages. Anther-sacs nearly ...
-9. Piperia Rydb. Bull. Torr. Club 28: 269. 1901
Herbs resembling Limnorchis in habit, but with short rounded tubers. Leaves mainly near the base of the stem, early withering.- Spike strict. Flowers white, greenish, purplish or yellowish. Sepals i-n...
-10. Lysias Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. 1: 288. 1812
Plants with tubers or fleshy roots; stem scapose. Leaves 2, basal. Flowers greenish or white; sepals free, large and spreading; petals small and narrow; lip entire, linear or nearly so; spur long and ...
-11. Lysiella Rydb. In Britton, Man. 295. 1901
A small plant with a short rootstock and thick root-fibers. Stem scapose, naked, with a single obovate leaf at the base; flowers greenish yellow. Upper sepal round-ovate, erect, surrounding the broad ...
-12. Blephariglottis Raf. Fl. Tell. 2: 38. 1836
Plants with tall and leafy stems and fleshy or tuberous roots. Flowers several or numerous in an open spike with foliaceous bracts; corolla white, yellow or purple; sepals broad and spreading or refle...
-12. Blephariglottis Raf. Fl. Tell. 2: 38. 1836. Part 2
2. Blephariglottis Ciliaris (L.) Rydb. Yellow-Fringed Orchis Fig. 1374 Orchis ciliaris L. Sp. PI. 939. 1753. Habenaria ciliaris R. Br. in Ait. Hort. Kew. Ed. 2, 5: 194. 1813. B. ciliaris Rydb. in ...
-12. Blephariglottis Raf. Fl. Tell. 2: 38. 1836. Part 3
5. Blephariglottis Leucophaea (Nutt.) Farwell. Prairie White-Fringed Orchis Fig. 1377 Orchis leucophaea Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (II.) 5: 161. 1833-37. Habenaria leucophaea A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, ...
-13. Pogonia Juss. Gen. Pi. 65. 1789
Mostly low herbs, the flowers terminal, solitary, the leaves alternate. Sepals and petals separate, erect or ascending. Lip erect from the base of the column, spurless. Column elongated, club-shaped a...
-14. Isotria Raf. Med. Rep. 11. 5: 357. 1808
Low herbs with a rootstock and fibrous roots. Flowers terminal. Leaves 5 in whorl near the top of the plant. Sepals and petals separate, ascending, the former generally longer than the latter. Lip ere...
-15. Triphora Nutt. Gen. 2: 192. 1818
Low herbs, with fleshy tubers and few axillary flowers. Sepals and petals separate, nearly equal. Lip erect, slightly clawed, somewhat 3-lobed, crestless and spurless. Column club-shaped above. Anther...
-16. Arethusa L. Sp. Pl 950. 1753
Low herbs, with small bulbs and mostly solitary flowers on bracted scapes, the solitary leaf linear, hidden at first in the upper bract, protruding after flowering. Sepals and petals about equal, conn...
-17. Limodorum L. Sp. Pi. 950. 1753
[Calopogon R. Br. in Alt. Hort. Kew. Ed. 2, 5: 204. 1813.] Scapose herbs, with round solid bulbs which arise from the bulb of the previous year, a leaf appearing the first season, succeeded in the fol...
-18. Serapias L. Sp. Pl 949. 1753
[Epipactis (Hall.) Zinn, Cat. PI. Hort. Goett. 85. 1757.] Tall stout herbs with fibrous roots and simple leafy stems. Leaves ovate or lanceolate, plicate, clasping. Flowers leafy-bracted, in terminal ...
-19. Ibidium Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1: 291. 1812
[Gyrostachys Pers. Syn. 2: 511, as subgenus. 1807.J [Spiranthes L. C. Richard, Mem. Mus. Paris 4: 42. 1818.] Erect herbs, with fleshy-fibrous or tuberous roots and slender stems or scapes, leaf-bear...
-Ibidium Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. London Part 2
1. Ibidium Strictum (Rydb.) House. Hooded Ladies'-Tresses Fig. 1389 Gyrostachys strict a Rydb. Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 1: 107. 1900. /. strictum House, Bull. Torr. Club 32: 381. 1905. Stem 6'-15' hi...
-Ibidium Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. London Part 3
4. Ibidium Ovale (Lindl.) House. Small-Flow- Ered Ladies'-Tresses Fig. 1392 Spiranthes ovalis Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. 466. 1840. S. cernua parviflora Chapm. Fl. S. U. S. Ed. 3, 488. 1897. Gyrostach...
-20. Ophrys [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 945- 1753-[Listera R. Br. In Ait. Hort. Kew. Ed. 2, 5: 201. 1813.]
Small herbs, with fibrous or sometimes rather fleshy-fibrous roots, bearing a pair of opposite green leaves near the middle, and 1 or 2 small scales at the base of the stem. Flowers in terminal raceme...
-Ophrys [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 945- 1753-[Listera R. Br. In Ait. Hort. Kew. Ed. 2, 5: 201. 1813.]. Continued
3. Ophrys Auriculata (Wiegand) House. Au-Ricled Twayblade Fig. 1399 Listera auriculata Wiegand, Bull. Torr. Club 26: 166. 1899. O. auriculata House, Bull. Torr. Club 32: 379. 1905. Stem slender, 4'...
-21. Peramium Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. 1: 301. 1812. [G00dyera R. Br. In Ait. Hort. Kew. Ed. 2, 5: 197. 1813.]
Herbs with bracted erect scapes, the leaves basal, tufted, often blotched with white, the roots thick fleshy fibers. Flowers in bracted spikes. Lateral sepals free, the upper one united with the petal...
-22. Malaxis Soland. Sw. Prodr. 119. 1788
[Achroanthes Raf. Med. Rep. (II.) 5: 352. 1808.] [Microstylis Nutt. Gen. 2: 196. 1818.] Low herbs, from a solid bulb, most species 1-leaved, and with 1-several scales at the base of the stem. Flowers...
-23. Liparis L. C. Richard, Mem. Mus. Paris 4: 43, 60. 1817
[Leptorchis Thouars, Nouv. Bull. Soc. Philom. 1: 317. Hyponym. 1809.] About 100 species, widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions; only the following known to occur in North America. Type...
-24. Cytherea Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. 1: 301. 1812
[Calypso Salisb. Par. Lond. pl. 89. 1807. Not Thouars. 1805.] Bog herb, with a solid bulb and coralloid roots, the low 1-flowered scape sheathed by 2 or 3 loose scales and a solitary petioled leaf at...
-25. Tipularia Nutt. Gen. 2: 195. 1818
Slender scapose berbs, with solid bulbs, several generations connected by offsets, the flowers in a long loose terminal raceme. Leaf solitary, basal, unfolding long after the flowering season (in autu...
-26. Aplectrum Nutt. Gen. 2: 197. 1818
Scapose herbs, from a corm, produced from the one of the previous season by an offset, sometimes with coralloid fibres, the scape clothed with several sheathing scales. Leaf solitary, basal; developed...
-27. Corallorrhiza (Haller) Chatelain, Spec. Inaug. 8. 1760
Scapose, yellowish or purplish herbs, saprophytes or root-parasites, with large masses of coralloid branching rootstocks, the leaves all reduced to sheathing scales. Flowers in terminal racemes. Sepal...
-Corallorrhiza (Haller) Chatelain, Spec. Inaug. 8. 1760. Continued
2. Corallorrhiza Maculata Raf. Large Coral-Root Fig. 1414 C. maculata Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 2: 119. 1817. Corallorrhiza multiflora Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. 3: 138. pl. 7. 1823. Scape 8'-2o' high, p...
-28. Hexalectris Raf. Neog. 4. 1825
Scapose herbs, from thick scaly rootstocks and fleshy coralloid roots, the leaves reduced to purplish scales, sheathing the scape. Flowers bracted in a loose terminal raceme. Perianth not gibbous or s...
-Sub-Class I. Dlcotyledones
Embryo of the seed with two cotyledons (in a few genera one only, as in Cyclamen, Pinguicula and some species of Ranunculaceae and Capnoides), the first leaves of the germinating plantlet opposite. St...
-Family 1. Saururaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 184. 1836. Lizard's-Tail Family
Perennial herbs with broad entire alternate petioled leaves, and small perfect incomplete bracteolate flowers, in peduncled spikes. Perianth none. Stamens 6-8, or sometimes fewer, hypogynous; anthers ...
-1. Saururus L. Sp. Pi. 341. 1753
Marsh herbs, with slender rootstocks, jointed stems and cordate leaves, their petioles sheathing the stem at the nodes, and small white flowers, in 1 or 2 dense elongated spikes opposite the leaves. B...
-Family 2. Juglandaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 180. 1836. Walnut Family
Trees with alternate pinnately compound leaves, and monoecious bracteolate flowers, the staminate in long drooping aments; the pistillate solitary or several together. Staminate flowers consisting of ...
-1. Juglans L. Sp. Pi. 997. 1753
Trees with spreading branches, superposed buds, fragrant bark, and odd-pinnate leaves, with nearly or quite sessile leaflets, the terminal one sometimes early perishing. Staminate flowers in drooping ...
-2. Hicoria Raf. Med. Rep. (II.) 5: 352. 1808. [Carya Nutt. Gen. 2: 221. 1818.]
Trees, with close or shaggy bark, odd-pinnate leaves and serrate or serrulate leaflets. Staminate flowers in slender drooping aments, borne mostly in 3's on a common peduncle at the base of the shoots...
-Hicoria Raf. Med. Rep. Carya Nutt. Gen. Part 2
X. Hicoria Pecan (Marsh) Britton. Pecan. Illinois Nut. Soft-Shell Hickory Fig. 1423 Juglans Pecan Marsh. Arb. Am. 69. 1785. Carya olivaeformis Nutt. Gen. 2: 221. 1818. Hicoria Pecan Britton, Bull....
-Hicoria Raf. Med. Rep. Carya Nutt. Gen. Part 3
4. Hicoria Ovata (Mill.) Britton. Shag-Bark. Shell-Bark Hickory Fig. 1426 Juglans ovata Mill. Gard. Dict. Ed. 8, No. 6. 1768. Carya alba Nutt. Gen. 2: 221. 1818. Not Juglans alba L. Hicoria ovata ...
-Hicoria Raf. Med. Rep. Carya Nutt. Gen. Part 4
7. Hicoria Alba (L.) Britton. White-Heart Hickory. Mocker-Nut Fig. 1429 Juglans alba L. Sp. PI. 997. 1753. Juglans tomentosa Lam. Encycl. 4: 504. 1797. Carya tomentosa Nutt. Gen. 2: 221. 1818. Hi...
-Hicoria Raf. Med. Rep. Carya Nutt. Gen. Part 5
10. Hicoria Borealis Ashe. Northern Hickory Fig. 1432 Hicoria borealis Ashe, Notes on Hickories. 1896. A small tree, with rough furrowed bark when young, becoming shaggy in long narrow strips with ...
-Family 3. Myricaceae Dumort Anal. Fam. 95. 1829
Bayberry Family. Shrubs or trees with alternate, mostly coriaceous and aromatic simple leaves and small monoecious or dioecious flowers, in linear, oblong or globular bracted aments. Flowers solitary ...
-1. Myrica L. Sp. Pi. 1024. 1753
Shrubs or small trees with entire, dentate or lobed, mostly resinous-dotted leaves, our species usually dioecious. Staminate aments oblong or narrowly cylindric, expanding before or with the leaves. S...
-2. Comptonia Banks; Gaertn. Fr. & Sem. 2: 58. Pl. 90. 1791
A low, monoecious or dioecious branching shrub with terete brown branches and narrow, deeply pinnatifid, stipulate leaves, the young foliage pubescent. Aments expanding with the leaves, the staminate ...
-Family 4. Leitneriaceae Drude, Phanerog. 407. 1879
Cork-wood Family. Dioecious shrubs or small trees, with large entire petioled alternate exstipulate Tor sometimes stipulate?) leaves, and flowers of both sexes in aments formed at the end of the seaso...
-1. Leitneria Chapm. Fl. S. States, 427. 1860
Characters of the family. [In honor of Dr. E. F. Leitner, a German naturalist, killed in Florida during the Seminole war.] 1. Leitneria Floridana Chapm. Leitneria. Cork-Wood Fig. 1439 Leitneria flo...
-Family 5. Salicaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 186. 1836
Willow Family. Dioecious trees or shrubs with light wood, bitter bark, brittle twigs, alternate stipulate leaves, the stipules often minute and caducous. Flowers of both sexes in aments, solitary in t...
-1. Populus L. Sp. Pi. 1034. 1753
Trees with scaly resinous buds, terete or angled twigs and broad or narrow, usually long-petioled leaves, the stipules minute, fugacious. Bracts of the aments fimbriate or incised. Disk cup-shaped, ob...
-1. Populus L. Sp. Pi. 1034. 1753. Part 2
1. Populus Alba L. Abele. White Or Silver-Leaf Poplar. Aspen Fig. 1440 Populus alba L. Sp. PI. 1034. 1753. A large tree, with smooth light gray bark, attaining a maximum height of about 1200 and a ...
-1. Populus L. Sp. Pi. 1034. 1753. Part 3
5. Populus Acuminata Rydberg. Black Cottonwood Fig. 1444 P. acuminata Rydberg, Bull. Torr. Club 20: 50. 1893. Populus coloradcnsis Dode, Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun 18: [reprint 58]. 1905. A slende...
-1. Populus L. Sp. Pi. 1034. 1753. Part 4
8. Populus Tremuloides Michx. American Aspen. Quiver-Leaf Fig. 1447 Populus tremuloides Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 243. 1803. A slender tree, with smooth, light green bark, reaching a maximum height of...
-1. Populus L. Sp. Pi. 1034. 1753. Part 5
11. Populus Sargentii Dode. Western Cottonwood Fig. 1450 P. deltoides occidentalis Rydb. Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 1: 115. 1900. P. Sargentii Dode, Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun 18: [reprint 40]. 1905. P...
-2. Salix [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1015. 1753
Trees or shrubs, with single-scaled buds, the scales with an adherent membrane within, mostly narrow and short-petioled leaves and persistent or early deciduous broad or minute stipules. Bracts of the...
-2. Salix [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1015. 1753. Part 2
1. Salix Nigra Marsh. Black Or Swamp Willow Fig. 1451 Salix nigra Marsh. Arb. Am. 139. 1785. Salix falcata Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 2:614. 1814. S. nigra falcata Torr. Fl. N. Y. 2: 209. 1843. A tree,...
-2. Salix [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1015. 1753. Part 3
4. Salix Lucida Muhl. Shining Willow. Glossy Willow Fig. 1454 Salix lucida Muhl. Neue Schrift. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin, 4: 239. pl. 6. f. 7. 1803. A tall shrub, or sometimes a tree 200 high, the bark ...
-2. Salix [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1015. 1753. Part 4
7. Salix Exigua Nutt. Slender Willow Fig. 1457 Salix exigua Nutt. Sylva 1: 75. 1842. S. fluviatilis exigua Sargent, Silva 9: 124. 1896. S. luteosericea Rydb. in Britton, Man. 316. 1901. A shrub o...
-2. Salix [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1015. 1753. Part 5
10. Salix Babylonica L. Weeping Willow. Drooping Or Ring Willow Fig. 1460 Salix babylonica L. Sp. PI. 1017. 1753. A large tree, with rough gray bark, sometimes attaining a height of 700 and a trunk...
-2. Salix [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1015. 1753. Part 6
13. Salix Cordata Muhl. Heart-Leaved Willow. Missouri Or Diamond Willow Fig. 1463 Salix cordata Muhl: Neue Schrift. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin 4: 236. pl. 6. f. 3. 1803. Salix angustata Pursh, Fl. Am. Se...
-2. Salix [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1015. 1753. Part 7
16. Salix Viminalis L. Osier Or Basket Willow. White Or Velvet-Osier Fig. 1466 Salix viminalis L. Sp. PI. 1021. 1753. A small slender tree or shrub, with terete green twigs. Leaves elongated-lanceo...
-2. Salix [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1015. 1753. Part 8
19. Salix Sericea Marsh. Silky Willow Fig. 1469 Salix sericea Marsh. Arb. Am. 140. 1785. Salix coactilis Fernald, Rhodora 8: 22. 1906. A shrub, 5-12 tall, with slender purplish puberulent...
-2. Salix [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1015. 1753. Part 9
22. Salix Discolor Muhl. Pussy, Glaucous Or Silver Willow Fig. 1472 Salix discolor Muhl. Neue Schrift. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin 4: 234. pl. 6. f. 1. 1803. Salix eriocephala Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 225. ...
-2. Salix [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1015. 1753. Part 10
25. Salix Phylicifolia L. Tea-Leaved Willow Fig. 1475 Salix phylicifolia L. Sp. PI. 1016. 1753. A shrub 1-10 high, much branched, the twigs glabrous, dark purple-green, sometimes glaucous...
-2. Salix [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1015. 1753. Part 11
29. Salix Pedicellaris Pursh. Bog Willow Fig. 1479 Salix pedicellaris Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 6n. 1814. S. myrtilloides pedicillaris Anders. Vet. Acad. Handl. 6': 96. 1867. An erect slender glabrous s...
-2. Salix [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1015. 1753. Part 12
32. Salix Vestita Pursh. Hairy Willow Fig. 1482 Salix vestita Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 610. 1814. Salix Fernaldii Blankenship, Mont. Agric. Coll. Stud. Bot. 1: 46. 1905. A low shrub, similar to the pre...
-2. Salix [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1015. 1753. Part 13
36. Salix Waghornei Rydberg. Waghorne's Willow Fig. 1486 S. cordifolia Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 152. 1840. Not Pursh, 1814. S. Waghornei Rydberg, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 1: 271. 1899. A low shrub, 1&...
-2. Salix [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 1015. 1753. Part 14
39. Salix Angldrum Cham. Brown's Willow Fig. 1489 Salix arctica R. Br. Ross' Voy. cxliv. 1819. Not Pall. Salix anglonim Cham. Linnaea 6: 541. 1831. S. Brownii Lundst. Nov. Act. Soc. Sci. Ups. 16: ...
-Family 6. Betulaceae Agardh, Aphor. 208. 1825
Birch Family. Monoecious or very rarely dioecious trees or shrubs, with alternate petioled simple leaves, and small flowers in linear-cylindric oblong or subglobose aments. Stipules mostly fugacious. ...
-2. Ostrya (Micheli) Scop. Fl. Cam. 414. 1760
Trees similar to the Hornbeams, the primary veins of the leaves simple or forked, the aments expanding with or before the leaves. Staminate aments sessile at the ends of branchlets of the preceding se...
-3. Corylus (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 998. 1753
Shrubs or small trees, with broad thin serrulate or incised leaves. Staminate aments sessile at the ends of twigs of the previous season, expanding much before the leaves, the flowers solitary in the ...
-4. Betula (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 982. 1753
Aromatic trees or shrubs, with dentate or serrate leaves, scaly buds and flowers of both kinds in aments expanding before or with the leaves, the pistillate erect or spreading. Staminate flowers about...
-4. Betula (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 982. 1753. Part 2
1. Betula Populifolia Marsh. American White Birch Fig. 1494 Betula populifolia Marsh. Arb. Am. 19. 1785. B. alba var. populifolia Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. (II.) 15: 187. 1841. A slender tree with very...
-4. Betula (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 982. 1753. Part 3
4. Betula Nigra L. River Birch. Red Birch Fig. 1497 Betula nigra L. Sp. PI. 982. 1753- A slender tree, sometimes 900 high and the trunk 2 1/2 in diameter; bark reddish or greenish-brown, peeli...
-4. Betula (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 982. 1753. Part 4
7. Betula Lutea Michx. F. Yellow Birch. Gray Birch Fig. 1500 Betula lutea Michx. f. Arb. Am. 2: 152. pl. 5. 1812. A large forest tree, reaching a maximum height of about 100 and a trunk diamet...
-4. Betula (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 982. 1753. Part 5
10. Betula Sandbergi Britton. Sandberg's Birch Fig. 1503 Betula Sandbergi Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 31: 166. 1904. A shrub or small tree, the close bark dark reddish-brown, the young twigs finely p...
-5. Alnus (Tourn.) Hill, Brit. Herb. 510. 1756
Shrubs or trees, with dentate or serrulate leaves, few-scaled or naked buds, and flowers of both kinds in aments, expanding before, with or after the leaves, making in most species their first appeara...
-5. Alnus (Tourn.) Hill, Brit. Herb. 510. 1756. Continued
2. Alnus Incana (L.) Willd. Spreckled Or Hoary Alder Fig. 1507 Betula Alnus var. incana L. Sp. PI. Ed. 2, 1394. 1763. Alnus incana Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 335- 1805. A shrub, or rarely a small tree, 8&de...
-Family 7. Fagaceae Drude, Phan. 409. 1879.Beech Family
Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, petioled, simple, dentate, serrate, lobed, cleft or entire, pinnately veined, the stipules, if any, deciduous. Flowers small, monoecious, the staminate in pendulous ...
-1. Fagus (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pi. 997. 1753
Trees, with smooth light gray bark, and serrate straight-veined leaves. Flowers appearing with the leaves, the staminate in slender-peduncled pendulous globose heads, the pistillate about 2 together i...
-2. Castanea (Tourn.) Hill, Brit. Herbal 509. 1756
Trees or shrubs, with serrate straight-veined leaves, their teeth sharply acuminate. Flowers appearing after the leaves, the staminate in erect or spreading, narrowly cylindric, interrupted axillary y...
-3. Quercus (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 994. 1753
Trees or shrubs, with pinnatifid lobed dentate crenate or entire leaves, deciduous or in some species persistent. Flowers very small, green or yellowish, appearing with or before the leaves, the stami...
-3. Quercus (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 994. 1753. Part 2
1. Quercus Rubra L. Red Oak Fig. 1514 Quercus rubra L. Sp. PI. 996. 1753. A large forest tree, with a maximum height of about 1400, and a trunk diameter of 70, the bark dark gray, slightly roughene...
-3. Quercus (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 994. 1753. Part 3
4. Quercus Borealis Michx. F. Gray Oak Fig. 1517 Q. borealis Michx. f. N. A. Sylv. 1: 98. pi. 26. 1817. A forest tree, reaching at least 900 in height, with a trunk diameter up to 30, the bark roug...
-3. Quercus (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 994. 1753. Part 4
8. Quercus Triloba Michx. Spanish Or Water Oak Fig. 1521 Quercus nigra digitata Marsh. Arb. Am. 121. 1785. Quercus triloba Michx. Hist. Chen. Am. pl. 26. 1801. Q. falcata Michx. Hist. Chen. Am. 16. ...
-3. Quercus (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 994. 1753. Part 5
11. Quercus Marilandica Muench. Blackjack Or Barren Oak Fig. 1524 Quercus nigra /S L. Sp. PI. 995. 1753. Quercus marilandica Muench. Hausv. 5: 253. 1770. A tree, sometimes 6o high, usually lo...
-3. Quercus (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 994. 1753. Part 6
14. Quercus Laurifolia Michx. Laurel Or Swamp Oak Fig. 1527 Quercus laurifolia Michx. Hist. Chen. Am. no. 10. pl. 17. 1801. Trunk sometimes 100 tall, reaching 40 in diameter at the base; bark ...
-3. Quercus (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 994. 1753. Part 7
17. Quercus Stellata Wang. Post Or Iron Oak Fig. 1530 Quercus alba minor Marsh. Arb. Am. 120. 1785. Quercus stellata Wang. Amer. 78. pi. 6. f. 15. 1787. Q. obtusiloba Michx. Hist. Chen. Am. 1. pi. 1...
-3. Quercus (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 994. 1753. Part 8
20. Quercus Bicolor Willd. Swamp White Oak Fig. 1533 Q. Prinus platanoides Lam. Encycl. 1: 720. 1783. Quercus bicolor Willd. Neue Schrift. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin, 3: 396. 1801. Q. platanoides Sudw. ...
-3. Quercus (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pl 994. 1753. Part 9
23. Quercus Muhlenbergii Engelm. Chestnut Or Yellow Oak Fig. 1536 Quercus Prinus acuminata Michx. Hist. Chen. Am. no. 5. pl. 8. 1801. Quercus Muhlenbergii Engelm. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 3: 391. 187...
-Family 8. Ulmaceae Mirbel, Elem. 2: 905. 1815.Elm Family
Trees or shrubs, with alternate simple serrate petioled pinnately veined stipulate leaves, the stipules usually fugacious. Flowers small, monoecious, dioecious, perfect or polygamous, lateral or axill...
-Family 8. Ulmaceae Mirbel, Elem. 2: 905. 1815.Elm Family. Continued
I. Ulmus Americana L. American, White Or Water Elm Fig. 1539 Ulmus americana L. Sp. PI. 226. 1753. A large tree, with gray flaky bark, and glabrous or sparingly pubescent twigs and buds; maximum he...
-2. Planer A J. F. Gmel. Syst. 2: Part 1, 150. 1791
A tree, similar to the elm, the flowers monoecious or polygamous, unfolding with the leaves. Staminate flowers fascicled on twigs of the preceding season, the pistillate or perfect ones in the axils o...
-3. Celtis (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pi. 1043. 1753
Trees or shrubs, with serrate or entire pinnately veined or in some species 3-5-nerved leaves, and polygamous or monoecious (rarely dioecious?) flowers, borne in the axils of leaves of the season, the...
-3. Celtis (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pi. 1043. 1753. Continued
2. Celtis Crassifolia Lam. Rough-Leaved Hackberry Fig. 1546 Celtis crassifolia Lam. Encycl. 4: 138. 1797. A large tree, sometimes 1250 high and with a trunk diameter of 30 or more, with rough, usua...
-Family 9. Moraceae Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 266. 1847.Mulberry Family
Trees or shrubs with milky sap, alternate petioled stipulate leaves, the stipules fugacious, and small monoecious or dioecious axillary clustered flowers, or the pistillate flowers solitary in some ex...
-1. Morus (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pi. 986. 1753
Trees or shrubs, with milky sap, alternate dentate and often lobed, 3-nerved leaves, fugacious stipules, and small monoecious or dioecious flowers, in axillary ament-like spikes, the pistillate spikes...
-2. Toxylon Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 2: 118. 1817
[M.ACLURA Nutt. Gen. 2: 233. 1818.] A tree, with milky sap, thick entire dark green alternate petioled pinnately veined leaves, stout axillary spines, caducous stipules and dioecious axillary flowers...
-3. Papyrius Lam. Encycl. 3: 382. 1797. Tabl. Encycl. Pl. 762. 1798
[Broussonetia L'Her; Vent. Tabl. 3: 547. 1799. Not Ortega, 1798.] Trees, with milky sap, the leaves alternate, petioled, entire, serrate, or 3-5-lobed, 3-nerved at the base. Flowers dioecious, the st...
-Family 10. Cannabinaceae Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 265. 1847.Hemp Family
Annual or perennial herbs, the stems erect or twining. Leaves opposite or sometimes alternate, toothed, lobed, or divided, petioled, the stipules persistent. Flowers dioecious; staminate flowers in pa...
-1. Humulus L. Sp. Pi. 1028. 1753
Twining herbaceous perennial rough vines, with broad opposite thin petioled palmately veined serrate 3-7-lobed or undivided leaves, lanceolate membranous persistent stipules, and dioecious axillary fl...
-2. Cannabis (Tourr) L. Sp. Pi. 1027. 1753
A stout erect rough and puberulent herb, with alternate and opposite petioled digitately 5-11-divided thin leaves, persistent subulate stipules, and greenish dioecious axillary flowers, the staminate ...
-Family 11. Urticaceae Reichenb. Consp. 83. 1828.Nettle Family
Herbs (some tropical species shrubs or trees), with watery sap, alternate or opposite mostly stipulate simple leaves, and small greenish dioecious, monoecious or polygamous flowers, variously clustere...
-1. Urtica (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pi. 983. 1753
Annual or perennial simple or branching herbs, with stinging hairs, opposite 3-7-nerved petioled dentate or incised leaves, and distinct or connate stipules. Flowers very small and numerous, axillary,...
-2. Urticastrum Fabr. Enum. 204. 1759. [Laportea Gaud, In Freyc. Voy. Bot. 498. 1826.]
Perennial herbs, armed with stinging hairs, the leaves broad, alternate, serrate, petioled, the flowers monoecious or dioecious, sessile in loose axillary compound cymes. Staminate flowers in our spec...
-3. Pilea Lindl. Coll. Pl. 4. 1821. [Adicea Raf. Ann. Nat. 179. Hyponym. 1815.]
Annual or perennial, glabrous or pubescent stingless herbs, with opposite petioled mostly 3-nerved leaves, connate stipules, and small numerous monoecious or dioecious flowers in axillary cymose or gl...
-4. Boehmeria Jacq. Stirp. Am. 246. Pl. 157. 1763
Perennial stingless herbs (some tropical species shrubs or even trees), with opposite or alternate petioled 3-nerved leaves, distinct or connate stipules, and small monoecious or dioecious flowers, gl...
-5. Parietaria L. Sp. Pl 1052. 1753
Annual or perennial stingless diffuse or erect herbs, with alternate entire 3-nerved petioled leaves, no stipules, and axillary glomerate polygamous flowers, involucrate by leafy bracts. Calyx of the ...
-Family 12. Loranthaceae D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 142. 1825. Mistletoe Family
Parasitic green shrubs or herbs, containing chlorophyll, growing on woody plants and absorbing food from their sap through specialized roots called haus-toria (a few tropical species terrestrial). Lea...
-1. Razoumofskya Hoffm. Hort. Mosq. 1808. [Arceuthobium Bieb. Fl. Taur. 3: 629. 1819.]
Small or minute fleshy glabrous plants, parasitic on the branches of coniferous trees, their branches 4-angled, and leaves reduced to opposite connate scales. Flowers dioecious, not bracted, solitary ...
-2. Phoradendron Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. (II.) 1: 185. 1847-50
Shrubs, parasitic on trees, with opposite coriaceous flat entire or undulate faintly nerved leaves, terete or angled, usually jointed and brittle twigs, and dioecious axillary spicate bracted small fl...
-Family 13. Santalaceae R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1: 350. 1810 Sandalwood Family
Herbs or shrubs (some exotic genera trees), with alternate or opposite entire exstipulate leaves. Flowers clustered or solitary, axillary or terminal, perfect, monoecious or dioecious, mostly greenish...
-1. Comandra Nutt. Gen. 1: 157. 1818
Glabrous erect perennial herbs, some (or all?) parasitic on roots of other plants. Leaves alternate, oblong, oval, lanceolate or linear, entire, pinnately veined. Flowers perfect, terminal or axillary...
-2. Pyrularia Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 231. 1803
A branching oil-bearing shrub (the Asiatic species trees), with thin alternate pinnately-veined entire short-petioled deciduous leaves, and dioecious or polygamous small greenish racemose flowers. Sta...
-3. Nestronia Raf. New Flora 3: 12. 1836
[Darbya A. Gray, Am. Journ. Sci. (II) 1: 388. 1846.] A low glabrous dioecious shrub, with opposite short-petioled, oblong to ovate entire leaves. Staminate flowers small, in axillary peduncled umbels;...
-Family 14. Aristolochiaceae Blume, Enum. Pi. Jav. 1: 81. 1830
Birthwort Family. Herbs or shrubs, acaulescent, or with erect or twining and leafy stems. Leaves alternate or basal, petioled, mostly cordate or reniform, exstipulate. Flowers axillary or terminal, so...
-1. Asarum (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pi. 442. 1753
Acaulescent perennial often clustered herbs, with slender aromatic branched rootstocks, thick fibrous-fleshy roots, long-petioled cordate, mostly ovate or orbicular entire leaves, and solitary large p...
-2. Hexastylis Raf. Neog. 3: 1825
Perennial evergreen acaulescent herbs, the foliage glabrous or nearly so. Rootstocks dichotomously branched, the roots fleshy. Leaves leathery, often mottled, petioled. Flower solitary, its peduncle s...
-3. Aristolochia (Tourn.) L. Sp. Pi. 960. 1753
Perennial herbs or twining vines. Leaves alternate, mostly petioled and entire (some exotic species 3-7-lobed), cordate, palmately 3-many-nerved. Flowers irregular, solitary or clustered. Calyx adnate...
-Family 15. Polygonaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 211. 1836.
Buckwheat Family. Herbs, vines, shrubs or trees, with alternate or sometimes opposite or whorled simple mostly entire leaves, jointed stems, and usually sheathing united stipules (ocreae). Flowers sma...
-1. Macounastrum Small In Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. 1: 541. 1895
[Koenigia L. Mant. 35. 1767. Not Konig Adans. 1763.] Low glabrous annual herbs, with fibrous roots, erect or spreading simple or forked stems, alternate or opposite entire leaves, funnelform membranou...
-2. Eriogonum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 246. 1803
Annual or perennial acaulescent or leafy-stemmed herbs, some species very woody at the base, with simple or branched, often tufted stems, and entire alternate opposite or whorled leaves. Flowers small...
-2. Eriogonum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 246. 1803. Part 2
1. Eriogonum Alatum Torr. Winged Eriogonum Fig. 1583 E. alatum Torr. Sitgreaves' Rep. 168. pl. 8. 1853. Perennial by a long thick root, stem rather stout, erect, strigose, paniculately branched, so...
-2. Eriogonum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 246. 1803. Part 3
5. Eriogonum Flavum Nutt. Yellow Friogonum Fig. 1587 Eriogonum flavum Nutt. Fras. Cat. 1813. E. sericeum Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 277. 1814. Perennial, scapose, white-tomentose throughout, root short, ...
-2. Eriogonum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 246. 1803. Part 4
8. Eriogonum Lachnogynum Torr. Long-Rooted Eriogonum Fig. 1590 Eriogonum lachnogynum Torr.; Benth. in DC. Prodr. 14:8. 1856. Perennial, scapose, root long, fusiform, stems stout and short, tufted, ...
-2. Eriogonum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 246. 1803. Part 5
12. Eriogonum Microthecum Nutt. Slender Eriogonum Fig. 1594 Eriogonum microthecum Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. (II.) 1: 172. 1848. Perennial, woody, especially below, more or less floccose-tomentose t...
-3. Rumex L. Sp. Pi. 333. 1753
Perennial or annual, leafy-stemmed herbs, some species slightly woody, the leaves in some mainly basal. Stem grooved, mostly branched, erect, spreading or creeping. Leaves entire or undulate, flat or ...
-3. Rumex L. Sp. Pi. 333. 1753. Part 2
1. Rumex Acetosella L. Field, Wood, Red Or Sheep Sorrel Fig. 1597 Rumex Acetosella L. Sp. PI. 338. 1753. Annual or perennial, glabrous, dioecious, stem slender, erect or nearly so, simple or branch...
-3. Rumex L. Sp. Pi. 333. 1753. Part 3
4. Rumex Venosus Pursh. Veined Or Winged Dock Fig. 1600 Rumex venosus Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 733. 1814. Perennial by a woody rootstock, glabrous; stem rather stout, erect, somewhat flexuous, 6'-15' t...
-3. Rumex L. Sp. Pi. 333. 1753. Part 4
8. Rumex Altissimus Wood. Tall Or Peach-Leaved Dock Fig. 1604 Rumex altissimus Wood, Class-book, 477. 1853. Rumex Brittannica Meisn. in DC. Prodr. 14: 47. 1856. Not L. 1753. Perennial, glabrous, ra...
-3. Rumex L. Sp. Pi. 333. 1753. Part 5
11. Rumex Occidentalis S. Wats. Western Dock Fig. 1607 R. occidentalis S. Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 12: 253. 1876. Perennial, glabrous, stem stout, strict, erect or nearly so, strongly grooved, simple ...
-3. Rumex L. Sp. Pi. 333. 1753. Part 6
14. Rumex Sanguineus L. Bloody Or Red-Veined Dock. Bloodvvort Fig. 1610 Rumex sanguineus L. Sp. PI. 334. 1753. Perennial, glabrous, stem slender, erect, grooved, simple or branched, 1-3 h...
-3. Rumex L. Sp. Pi. 333. 1753. Part 7
17. Rumex Persicarioides L. Golden Dock Fig. 1613 Rumex persicarioides L. Sp. PI. 335. 1753. Annual, pubescent, pale green; stem rather stout, erect and simple, or diffusely branched, I-3...
-4. Oxyria Hill, Veg. Syst. 10: 24. 1765
Low fleshy glabrous perennial herbs, with erect stems. Leaves mostly basal, long-petioled, reniform or orbicular, cordate, palmately nerved, with cylindric ocreae. Flowers perfect, small, green, in te...
-5. Polygonum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 359. 1753
Annual or perennial, often somewhat shrubby herbs, with terete, but usually striate erect or prostrate stems. Leaves alternate, leathery or somewhat fleshy, sometimes plicate, articulated to the ocrea...
-5. Polygonum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 359. 1753. Part 2
1. Polygonum Maritimum L. Seaside Knot-Weed Fig. 1615 Polygonum maritimum L. Sp. PI. 361. 1753. Polygonum glaucum Nutt. Gen. 1: 254. 1818. Perennial, glaucous, often nearly white, glabrous, root us...
-5. Polygonum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 359. 1753. Part 3
5. Polygonum Aviculare L. Knot-Grass. Door-Weed. Pink-Weed Fig. 1619 Polygonum aviculare L. Sp. PI. 362. 1753. P. monspcliense Pers. Syn. 1: 439. 1805. Annual, pale green or bluish green, stem low ...
-5. Polygonum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 359. 1753. Part 4
8. Polygonum Prolificum (Small) Robinson. Proliferous Knotweed Fig. 1622 P.ramosissimum prolificum Small, Bull. Torr. Club 21: 171. 1894. P. prolificum Robinson, Rhodora 4: 68. 1902. Annual, glabr...
-5. Polygonum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pi. 359. 1753. Part 5
12. Polygonum Triangulum Bicknell. Missouri Knotweed Fig. 1626 Annual, bright green or somewhat yellowish-tinged, similar to P. ramosissimum in habit, but smaller, stem rather sparingly branched, us...
-6. To Vara Adans. Fam. Pl 2: 276. 1763
Annual or perennial herbaceous plants, becoming somewhat woody below. Stem mostly erect, virgate, simple or virgately branched. Leaves alternate, membranous, acute at both ends, continuous with the oc...
-7. Persicaria (Tourn.) Mill. Gard. Dict. Abr. Ed. 4. 1754
Annual or perennial, often pubescent or glandular caulescent herbs, various in habit, never twining nor climbing. Leaves alternate, entire, continuous with the ocreae, often glandular-punctate. Ocreae...
-Persicaria (Tourn.) Mill. Gard. Dict. Abr. Part 2
1. Persicaria Amphibia (L.) S. F. Gray. Water Persicaria. Willow-Weed Fig. 1630 Polygonum amphibium L. Sp. PI. 361. 1753. Persicaria amphibia S. F, Gray, Nat. Am. Brit. PI. 2: 268. 1821. Polygonum ...
-Persicaria (Tourn.) Mill. Gard. Dict. Abr. Part 3
4. Persicaria Portoricensis (Bertero) Small. Dense-Flowered Persicaria Fig. 1633 Polygonum densiflorum Meisn. in Mart. Fr. Bras. 5: Part 1, 13. 1855. Not Blumc, 1825-26. Polygonum portoricense Bert...
-Persicaria (Tourn.) Mill. Gard. Dict. Abr. Part 4
7. Persicaria Careyi (Olney) Greene. Carey's Persicaria Fig. 1636 Polygonum Careyi Olney, Proc. Providence Franklin Soc. 1: 29. 1847. Persicaria Careyi Greene, Leaflets 1: 24. 1904. Annual, rough-...
-Persicaria (Tourn.) Mill. Gard. Dict. Abr. Part 5
10. Persicaria Opelousana (Riddell) Small. Opelousas Persicaria Fig. 1639 Polygonum opelousanum Riddell; Small, Bull. Torr. Club 19: 354. 1892. Persicaria opelousana Small, Fl. SE. U. S. 378. 1903....
-Persicaria (Tourn.) Mill. Gard. Dict. Abr. Part 6
13. Persicaria Hydropiper (L.) Opiz. Smart-Weed. Water Pepper Fig. 1642 Polygonum Hydropiper L. Sp. PI. 361. 1753. Persicaria Hydropiper Opiz, Seznam 72. 1852. Annual, glabrous, stem erect, simple ...
-8. Bistorta Adans. Fam. Pl. 2: 277. 1763
Perennial herbs with corm-like scaly rootstocks. Stems erect, simple. Leaves alternate, mostly basal, narrow or sometimes rather broad, continuous with the ocreae. Ocreae elongated, oblique at the top...
-9. Fagopyrum Gaertn. Fr. & Sem. 2: 182. 1791
Annual or perennial rather fleshy, usually glabrous leafy herbs, with erect, simple or branched, striate or grooved stems. Leaves alternate, petioled, hastate or deltoid, with oblique, cylindric or fu...
-10. Tracaulon Raf. Fl. Tell. 3: 13. 1836
Annual or sometimes perennial prickle-armed herbs, with reclining-climbing 4-angled stems. Leaves alternate, truncate, hastate or cordate, membranous, the petiole, midrib and principal nerves armed wi...
-11. Tiniaria Webb & Moq.; Webb & Berth. Hist. Nat. Canar. 3: 221. 1836-40
Annual or perennial often scurfy unarmed twining vines. Leaves alternate, membranous or leathery, cordate or hastate. Ocreae oblique, naked or fringed at the top or the base. Racemes loosely flowered,...
-Tiniaria Webb & Moq.; Webb & Berth. Hist. Nat. Canar. 3: 221. 1836-40. Continued
2. Tiniaria Cilinodis (Michx.) Small. Fringed Black Bindweed Fig. 1651 P. cilinode Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 241. 1803. P. cilinode erect urn Peck, N. Y. State Mus. Rep. 46: 129. 1893. T. cilinodis S...
-12. Pleuropterus Turcz. Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 211: 587. 1848
Perennial, often large, many-stemmed herbs with wide-spreading rootstocks, the very stout stems hollow. Leaves alternate, broad, commonly large, usually truncate or cordate at the base, petioled. Ocre...
-13. Polygonella Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 240. 1803
Annual or perennial glabrous herbs, sometimes slightly woody, with erect branched usually conspicuously jointed stems, alternate narrow leaves articulated to the ocreae, and small white or greenish fl...
-14. Brunnichia Banks; Gaertn. Fr. & Sem. 1: 213. Pl. 45. F. 2. 1788
Perennial vines with elongated, grooved much branched stems climbing by tendrils, and alternate entire broad petioled leaves, the ocreae obscure or wanting, and small perfect flowers in panicled termi...









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