This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol2", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Ilex Cassine L. Sp. Pl. 125. 1753. Ilex Dahoon Walt. Fl. Car. 241. 1788.
A shrub, or small tree, with maximum height of about 250 and trunk diameter of 18'. Twigs pubescent; leaves coriaceous, evergreen, oblanceolate or oblong-obovate, 2-4' long, 1/2'-l' wide, acutish or obtuse at the apex, acute at the base, entire, or with a few sharp teeth, glabrous and dark green above, pale and usually pubescent beneath, especially on the strong midrib; petioles 3"-4" long; staminate cymes several- or many-flowered; peduncles and pedicels pubescent; fertile cymes commonly 3-flow-ered; calyx-lobes acute, ciliate; drupes red, globose, 2"-3" in diameter, on pedicels of about the same length.
Ilex myrtifÚlia Walt., with smaller linear to linear-oblong.'leaves not over 1 1/2' long, has nearly the same range, and is probably a race of this species.
Ilex Cassine Walt. Fl. Car. 241. 1788. Not L. 1753. Ilex vomitoria Ait. Hort. Kew. 1: 170. 1789.
A shrub, or small tree, with maximum height of about 250 and trunk diameter of 4'-6'. Petioles and young twigs puberulent; leaves ovate-oblong or elliptic, 1/2'-1 1/2 long, 4"-9" wide, obtuse at both ends, crenate, glabrous, evergreen, pale beneath, dark green above; petioles 1'-2" long; staminate cymes several-flowered, short-peduncled; fertile cymes sessile, 1-3-flowered; pedicels longer than the petioles; calyx-lobes obtuse; drupe globose, red, 2-3" in diameter; nutlets ribbed.
In low woods, Virginia to Florida, west to Arkansas and Texas. Naturalized in Bermuda. Wood hard, nearly white; weight per cubic foot 45 lbs. Appalachian, Carolina, or South-sea tea. Indian black-drink. Evergreen cassena. May.
Prinos glaber L. Sp. Pl. 330. 1753.
Ilex glabra A. Gray. Man. Ed. 2, 264. 1856.
A shrub, 2°-6° high. Young twigs and petioles finely puberulent; leaves coriaceous, evergreen, dark green and shining above, paler and dotted beneath, oblanceolate or elliptic, 1'-2' long, 3"-9" wide, generally cuneate at the base, obtusish and few-toothed at the apex, or sometimes entire; petioles 2"-4" long; sterile cymes several-flowered, slender-pedun-cled; fertile flowers generally solitary, sometimes 2 or 3 together; calyx-segments acutish or obtuse; drupe black, 2"-3" in diameter; nutlets not ribbed.
In sandy soil, Nova Scotia; eastern Massachusetts to Florida, west to Louisiana, mainly near the roast. Appalachian tea. Gall-berry. Dye-leaves. June-July.