12. Polygala Nuttallii T. & G. Nuttall's Milkwort. Ground Centaury

Fig. 2706

Polygala sanguinea Nutt. Gen. 2: 88. 1818. Not L. 1753.

Polygala Nuttallii T. & G. Fl. N. A. 1: 670. 1840.

Annual, glabrous, erect, slender, 4'-7' high, branching above. Basal leaves none; stem-leaves numerous, linear or linear-oblong, 3"-8" long, 1/2'-1" wide, entire, obtuse or acutish; spikes cylindric or oblong, about 2" thick, 3"-6" long, the floral axis elongating as the fruits fall away from below; pedicels \" long or less; bracts subulate, persistent; flowers greenish or yellowish-purple, 1" long; seed obovoid, very hairy, longer than the caruncle; wings oblong to oval, about equalling the pod; crest very small.

In dry sandy soil in open places, eastern Massachusetts to North Carolina: apparently erroneously recorded from farther west. Aug.-Sept.

13. Polygala Senega L. Seneca Snakeroot. Mountain Flax

Fig. 2707

Polygala Senega L. Sp. Pl. 704. 1753.

Polygala Senega latifolia T. & G. Fl. N. A. 1: 131. 1838.

Perennial, glabrous or nearly so, stems several, from woody rootstocks, erect or ascending, 6'-18' high, simple, or branched above. Leaves alternate, lanceolate to ovate or oblong-lanceolate, sessile, 1'-2' long, 3"-4" wide, serrulate, the lowest much smaller and scale-like; spike terminal, short-pedun-cled, dense, acute, 1-2' long; flowers 1 1/2" long, white or tinged with green; pedicels less than \" long; wings orbicular-obovate, concave; crest of the corolla short, few-lobed; seed hairy, slightly longer than the lobes of the caruncle.

In rocky woods, New Brunswick to Hudson Bay, Alberta, south to North Carolina along the Alleghanies and to Missouri and Arkansas. Rattlesnake snake-root. Senega-root. May-June.

13 Polygala Senega L Seneca Snakeroot Mountain Fla 104913 Polygala Senega L Seneca Snakeroot Mountain Fla 1050

14. Polygala Àlba Nutt. White Milkwort

Fig. 2708

Polygala alba Nutt. Gen. 2: 87. 1818.

Polygala Senega var. tenuifolia Pursh. Fl. Am. Sept. 750.

1814. Not P. tenuifolia Willd. 1803.

Perennial, glabrous, stems erect from hard woody root-stocks, slender, 6'-15' high. Leaves alternate, narrowly linear, acute, 3"-12" long, 1/2'-1" wide, their margins entire and revolute, the lower somewhat broader and shorter, clustered; spike terminal, long-peduncled, dense, 1'-2' long; flowers 1"-1 1/2" long, white; pedicels less than \" long; wings-oblong-ovate, slightly concave; crest of the corolla short; seeds silky; about twice the length of the caruncle-lobes.

Prairies, South Dakota to Nebraska, Kansas, Texas and Mexico, Montana, New Mexico and Arizona. May-July.

15. Polygala Polygama Walt. Racemed Milkwort

Fig. 2709

Polygala polygama Walt. Fl. Car. 179. 1788. P. polygama abortiva Chodat, Mem. Mus. Gen. 312: 280. 1893.

Biennial, glabrous; stems numerous, simple, 4'-20' high, erect from a deep slender root. Stem-leaves crowded, oblong or oblanceolate, obtuse, mucronulate, 8"-12" long, 1"-2" wide, entire, the lower gradually smaller; basal leaves spatulate, sometimes smaller; raceme terminal, loose, 1'-4' long; pedicels spreading or recurved, 1"-2" long; flowers purple or rose, rarely nearly white, showy, 2"-3" long, or some of them small and cleistogamous; wings broadly obovate; crest of the corolla large, laciniate; stamens 8; subterranean branches horizontal, bearing numerous, nearly sessile cleistogamous flowers; seeds hairy, longer than the caruncle-lobes.

In dry soil, Nova Scotia to Manitoba, Michigan, Florida and Texas. Local. Bitter or pink milkwort. Centaury. June-July.

15 Polygala Polygama Walt Racemed Milkwort 105115 Polygala Polygama Walt Racemed Milkwort 1052