This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol2", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Viola septemloba Le Conte, Ann. Lye. N. Y. 2: 141. 1826.
Glabrous; rootstock vertical; leaf-outline generally cordate-ovate; first leaves often and sometimes all the leaves uncut, others primarily 3-lobed, -cleft or -parted with widely open sinus; the middle segment uncut, relatively long and broad, usually narrowed at the base, the lateral segments sometimes uncut, but generally pedately cleft into 2-4 narrow divergent parts, that become smaller toward the base of the leaf; flowers violet, usually raised above the foliage, the three lower petals villous at the base; sepals narrowly lanceolate, with entire rounded auricles; cleistogamous flowers erect; capsules green, ovoid-cylindric, about 7" long; seeds dark brown, 1" long.
Glabrous except for minute spreading hairs on the upper surface of the leaves; leaves and scapes 2-4' high, usually from a slender root-stock or stolon; blades thin, crenate, ovate to suborbicular, deeply cordate, the basal lobes converging or overlapping, at vernal flowering about i' wide, when mature 1 1/4'-1 3/4' wide; sepals lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, mostly acute; petals pale violet, all beardless, spur 2 1/2"-3 1/2" long, much enlarged toward the rounded end; peduncles of cleistogamous flowers erect or ascending, the capsules short-ellipsoid, dotted with purple, 2"-3" long; seeds small, pale buff.
Viola palustris L. Sp. Pl. 934. 1753.
Glabrous, acaulescent; petioles and scapes arising from a very slender creeping or horizontal rootstock, the flowering scapes mostly exceeding the leaves; blades thin, cordate, broadly ovate, orbicular or reniform, 1-2 1/2' wide, crenulate; stipules ovate, acuminate; sepals ovate, obtuse or obtusish; petals pale lilac streaked with darker veins, or nearly white, 4"-6" long, the lateral slightly bearded; spur about 1" long, obtuse; stigma not bearded, somewhat beaked; capsule 3"-4" long.
In wet or moist soil, Labrador to Alaska, south to the mountains of New England, in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado, and to Washington. Also in Europe and Asia. May-July.
1870. Viola blanda var. renifolia A. Gray, Bot. Gaz.
Pubescent throughout, or often nearly glabrous, especially the upper leaf-surface; root-stock slender in young plants, arising from short stolons, in old plants often stout and scaly; mature leaves with reniform blades narrowly cordate, distantly crenate-serrate, rounded at the apex, or occasional later leaves ending in a short blunt tip; sepals narrowly lanceolate; petals white, all beardless, the three lower with brownish veins, or often tinged with brown; capsules ellipsoid, those from cleistogamous flowers purple, on horizontal peduncles till ripe; stolons infrequent, short, often raceme-like, bearing cleistogamous flowers.