This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol2", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Petals oblong, clawed. Stamens 6 Style very short, conic. Siliques linear, narrowly cylindric, terete or nearly so, slightly constricted between the seeds when dry, the valves with a strong midnerve, dehiscent from the base. Seeds oblong, striate, in 1 row in each cell; cotyledons flat, incumbent. [From Allium, garlic, on account of its similar odor.] About 5 species, natives of Europe and Asia, the following typical.
Erysimum Alliaria L. Sp. Pl. 660. 1753. Sisymbrium Alliaria Scop. Fl. Cam. Ed. 2, 2: 26.
Erect, branching, 1°-3° high, glabrous or with a few hairs on the petioles and leaf-margins. Leaves reniform, broadly ovate or cordate, rarely nearly orbicular, crenate or undulate, the lower 2'-7' broad on long petioles, the upper smaller, sessile or nearly so; pedicels 2"-3" long, spreading and very stout in fruit; flowers white, 3"-4" broad; pods glabrous, stiff, 1'-2' long, 1" thick, pointed, 4-sided when dry.
Waste places, woods and along roadsides, Quebec and Ontario to southern New York, New Jersey and Virginia. Naturalized from Europe. Native also of northern Asia. May-June. Called also Jack-by-the-hedge and sauce-alone. Jack-in-the-bush. Poor-man's mustard. Penny-hedge.
24. SĎPHIA Adans.Fam.Pl. 2:417. 1763.
[Descurainia Webb & Barth. Phyt. Can. 1: 71. 1836.]
Annual or perennial herbs (some exotic species shrubby), canescent or pubescent with short forked hairs, with slender branching stems, 2-pinnatifid or finely dissected leaves, and small yellow flowers in terminal racemes, the racemes much elongating in fruit. Calyx early deciduous. Style very short; stigma simple. Siliques linear or linear-oblong, slender-pedicelled, the valves 1-nerved. Seeds very small, oblong, wingless, in 1 or 2 rows in each cell; cotyledons incumbent. [Name in allusion to reputed medicinal properties.]
About 20 species, natives of the north temperate zone, the Canary Islands and the Andes of South America. Besides the following, several others occur in the western United States. Type species: Sisymbrium Sophia L.
Pods narrowly linear, 8"-12" long, 1/2" wide, curved upward; pedicels ascending. 1. S.Sophia. Pods linear-oblong, 4"-7" long, nearly or quite 1" wide, straight or nearly so; pedicels divergent or ascending, mostly longer than the pods. Pedicels diverging nearly at right angles. 2. S. pinnata. Pedicels ascending. 3. S. incisa.
Pods linear, 4"-5" long, about 1/2" wide; pedicels erect-appress-ed or narrowly ascending, equalling or shorter than the pods.
4. S. Hartwegiana.