This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol2", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Silene rotundifolia Nutt. Gen. 1: 288. 1818.
Perennial, stem slender, ascending or reclining, viscid-pubescent, branched, 1 1/2o-2° long. Leaves thin, membranous, the lower and basal ones obovate or broadly spatulate, 2'-4' long, narrowed into a winged petiole, obtuse but pointed, the cauline obovate, broadly oblong or orbicular-ovate, acute, the uppermost sessile; flowers few and loosely cymose, or solitary, scarlet, 1'-2' broad; pedicels slender, l'-2' long; calyx tubular-campanulate, 10"-15" long, somewhat enlarged by the ripening pod, its teeth ovate, acute; petals 2-cleft, lobed, or laciniate, crowned.
Silene regia Sims, Bot. Mag. pl. 1724. 1814.
Perennial, erect, stout, 3°-4° high, simple or sparingly branched, minutely rough-pubescent, slightly viscid. Leaves all but the lowest sessile, thick, ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 2'-3' long; inflorescence a narrow strict panicle of few-flowered cymose clusters; pedicels generally less than 1/2' long; flowers numerous, deep scarlet, about 1' broad; calyx oblong-tubular, 10" long, slightly enlarged by the ripening pod, its teeth ovate, acute; petals emar-ginate or laciniate, crowned.
Silene caroliniana Walt. Fl. Car. 142. 1788.
S. pennsylvanica Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 272. 1803.
Perennial, tufted, 4'-10' high, viscid-pubescent, especially above, generally nearly glabrous below. Basal leaves spatulate, or oblan-ceolate, acute or obtuse, 2-4' long, narrowed into a broad petiole, the margins often ciliate; stem-leaves shorter, sessile, oblong or lanceolate; flowers pink, about 1' broad, in terminal cymes; pedicels 2" - 15" long; calyx narrow, tubular, much enlarged by the ripening pod, its teeth ovate, acute; petals cuneate, emarginate, eroded, crowned at the base of the claw.
In dry, sandy or rocky soil, Maine to Georgia, west to central New York, Pennsylvania and Kentucky. Ascends to 3300 ft. in West Virginia. April-June.
Annual, slender, erect or ascending, puberulent or glabrous, glutinous about the nodes, simple, or branched above, 8'-2 1/2o high, the branches ascending. Basal and lower leaves spatulate or oblanceo-late, 1"-2' long, narrowed into a petiole, obtuse or acute, sometimes slightly ciliate; upper leaves linear and gradually reduced to subulate bracts; inflorescence a loose cymose panicle; pedicels slender, erect; corolla pink, about 1"-2" broad, sometimes wanting; calyx narrowly ovoid, 2"-3" long, much expanded by the ripening pod, its teeth ovate, acute; petals obcordate, minutely crowned.
In waste places and woods, Maine to southern Ontario and British Columbia, south to Florida and Mexico. Flowers opening for a short time in sunshine. Ascends to 3200 ft. in Virginia. Summer.