This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol2", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Stout, erect, simple, glabrous, 8'-14' high; rootstock continuous, toothed. Basal leaves long-petioled, 4'-5' broad, ternate, the divisions short-stalked, broadly ovate, dentate, or somewhat lobed, about 2' long; stem-leaves generally 2, opposite or nearly so, similar, shorter petioled and sometimes slightly narrower, ovate or ovate-lanceolate; pedicels 1'-1 1/2' long; flowers white, 6"-8" broad; pods 1' long or more.
Dentaria anómala Eames, known only from Connecticut, growing with this species and D. laciniata, is probably a hybrid between them.
Dentaria maxima Nutt. Gen. 2: 66. 1818. Cardamine maxima Wood, Bot. & Fl. 38. 1870.
Glabrous, similar to the last species but larger; rootstock jointed, prominently tuber-cled. Stem-leaves 2-7 (generally 3), alternate, similar to the basal ones, their divisions short-stalked, ovate to obovate, toothed or cleft; flowers pale purple, 8"-10" broad.
Maine to Michigan and Pennsylvania. Local. May.
Dentaria incisifolia Eames, known only from Sherman, Connecticut, differs in having lanceolate, incised-dentate sessile leaf-segments.
Dentaria heterophylla Nutt. Gen. 2: 66. 1818. Cardamine heterophylla Wood, Bot. & Fl. 38. 1870.
Erect, simple, slender, scapose, glabrous or somewhat pubescent, 6'-14' high; rootstock near the surface, jointed. Basal leaves long-petioled, ternate, 2'-3' broad; divisions short-stalked or sessile, ovate, 1'-1 1/2' long, the terminal one cuneate or rounded at the base, the lateral ones inequilateral, all crenately toothed, lobed or cleft, the lobes or teeth mucronate; stem-leaves generally 2, opposite or nearly so, petioled, ternate, the divisions linear or lanceolate, short-stalked, 1'-1 1/2' long, entire or dentate; pedicels 1' long in fruit; flowers light purple, 8"-12" broad; pods ascending, linear, narrowed at each end, I long; style slender, 2"-3" long.
In low woods, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, south along the mountains to Georgia and Tennessee. The stem-leaves often closely resembling those of D. laciniata, which blooms a little earlier. April-May.