Perennial glabrous usually branching herbs, with aromatic roots, ternately compound leaves, and large compound umbels of white flowers. Involucre of several narrow mostly deciduous bracts or wanting. Involucels of numerous linear bracts. Calyx-teeth obsolete. Stylopodium conic. Fruit oblong or ovoid, scarcely flattened. Carpels dorsally compressed, the ribs prominent, acute, separated by broad intervals; oil-tubes 2-6 in the intervals, several on the commissural side. Seed-face flat or slightly concave. [Named from Liguria, where Lovage abounds.]

About 20 species, natives of the northern hemisphere. Besides the following, some 7 others occur in western North America. Type species: Ligusticum scoticum L.

Leaves thin; fruit ovoid; southern species.

1.

L. canadense.

Leaves fleshy; fruit oblong; northern sea-coast species.

2.

L. scoticum.

1. Ligusticum canadénse (L.) Britton. Nondo. Angelico. Fief. 3151.

Ferula canadensis L. Sp. Pl. 247. 1753.

Ligusticum canadense Britton, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 240. 1894.

Stout, erect, much branched above, 2°-6° high. Leaves thin, those of the stem sessile or nearly so, the lower and basal petioled, often 1° wide, their primary divisions ternate, the secondary ternate or pinnate; segments ovate, or oval, 1 1/2'-5" long, acute at the apex, rounded at the base, coarsely and sharply serrate, or those of the uppermost leaves linear-lanceolate and entire; umbels mostly twice compound, sometimes 10' broad; bracts of the involucre 2-6, linear; bracts of the involucels several; pedicels 1"-2" long in fruit; fruit ovoid, 2"-3" long with prominent slightly winged ribs; oil-tubes 3-4 in the intervals; seed angled on the back.

In rich woods, southern Pennsylvania to Georgia, Missouri and Kentucky. Ascends to 4000 ft. in North Carolina. June-Aug.

35 Lig sticum L Sp Pl 250 1753 Levisticum Hill Bri 149335 Lig sticum L Sp Pl 250 1753 Levisticum Hill Bri 1494

2. Ligusticum Scóticum L. Scotch Or Sea Lovage. Sea Parsley

Fig. 3152

Ligusticum scoticum L. Sp. Pl. 250. 1753.

Stem simple, or rarely slightly branched, 10'-3° high. Leaves mostly biternate, the segments thick and fleshy, broadly obovate-ovate or oval, 1-4' long, shining, obtuse or acute at the apex, narrowed or the terminal one rounded at the base, dentate with blunt or sharp teeth; umbels 2'-4' broad in fruit, the rays 1'-3' long; pedicels 2"-5" long; fruit oblong, 3"-5" long, the ribs prominent and somewhat winged; seeds rounded on the back.

Along salt marshes, New York to Labrador and the lower St. Lawrence river. Also on the Pacific coast and the shores of northern Europe and Asia. The plant of the New England coast has more acute leaf-segments than, the typical form. Shunis. July-Aug.