This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol2", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
C. effera Sarg. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 62: 206. 1910. A shrub sometimes 200 high, with ascending or erect branches, the thorns 1'-1 1/2' long. Leaves ovate, 1 1/4'-3' long, 1-2 3/4' wide, acute or acuminate at the apex, broadly cuneate to truncate at the base, doubly serrate with acute lobes, blue-green above, paler beneath, membranous to subcoriaceous, dull, those of shoots sometimes cordate; corymbs many-flowered, glabrous; flowers 7"-10" broad; stamens 5-20; anthers pink; styles and nutlets 3-5; fruit short-ellipsoid, slightly angular, crimson, slightly pruinose, 5"-8" thick; flesh firm at maturity.
C. disjuncta Sarg. Trees & Shrubs 1: 109. 1903.
A tree, sometimes 20o high, with ascending and spreading branches forming a broad crown. Thorns 1'-2 1/2' long; leaves broadly ovate, 1'-2 1/2' long, 1 1/4'-2 3/4' wide, acute or acuminate at the apex, broadly cuneate, rounded or truncate at the base, coarsely serrate or twice serrate with 3-5 pairs of short acuminate lobes, membranous, blue-green above, glabrous; corymbs glabrous, 3-6-flowered; flowers 7" or 8" broad; stamens about 10; anthers large, pink; calyx-lobes lanceolate, entire; styles and nutlets 4 or 5; fruit short-ellipsoid, angular, 6" or 7" thick, green, becoming scarlet, pruinose; calyx-tube conspicuous, its lobes deciduous.
Western Kentucky to southern Missouri. May; fruit ripe October.
C. coccinea var. oligandra T. & G. Fl. N. Am. 1:
465. 1840. C. Gattingeri Ashe, Journ. E. Mitch. Soc. 171: 12.
1900. C. bedfordensis Sarg. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil.
62: 185. 1910.
A shrub, sometimes 15o high, with ascending branches and irregular crown. Spines numerous, 1'-2' long; leaves narrowly ovate to deltoid, 1'-2 1/2' long, 3/4'-2' wide, acuminate at the apex, broadly cuneate or rounded at the base, serrate or broadly serrate, lobed toward the apex, membranous, glabrous, dark green above, paler beneath; corymbs glabrous, many-flowered; flowers 7" or 8" broad; stamens 10-20; anthers small, pink; calyx-lobes triangular, persistent; styles and nutlets usually 3 or 4; fruit globose, angular, red, slightly pruinose, 4"-6" thick; flesh hard at maturity.
Southern Pennsylvania to southern Indiana and south to West Virginia and central Tennessee. May; fruit ripe October.
C. populifolia Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 553.
5: 448. 1900.
A shrub or tree, sometimes 200 high, with ascending branches, an irregular crown, and numerous slender spines, 1'-2 1/2' long. Leaves elliptic-ovate to broadly ovate, 1'-2 1/2' long, 1'-2 1/2' wide, acute or acuminate at the apex, abruptly cuneate, rounded or occasionally cordate at the base, serrate or doubly serrate with 3 or 4 pairs of broad acute lobes towards the apex, membranous, glabrous, blue-green; corymbs glabrous; flowers about 10" broad; stamens 10-20; anthers pink or sometimes yellow; styles and nutlets usually 4 or 5; fruit depressed-globose to short-ellipsoid, strongly angled, pruinose, apple-green becoming scarlet or purple, 6"-8" thick; calyx-tube prominent, the lobes spreading, entire, persistent.