This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol2", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Geum virgimanum L. Sp. Pl. 500. 1753.
Branched above, rather stout, 2 1/2° high or less. Stem and petioles bristly-pubescent, the stout short peduncles pubescent with reflexed hairs; basal and lower leaves odd-pinnate, the terminal leaflet, usually larger than the lateral ones, the lower leaflets mostly very small; upper leaves 3-parted, 3-cleft, or the uppermost merely incised; stipules small; calyx-lobes reflexed, exceeding or about equalling the creamy-white petals; head of fruit globose, very dense, 6"-8" in diameter; receptacle merely downy or glabrous; style slender, jointed, pubescent below, 4"-$" long.
Low ground, Nova Scotia to Pennsylvania and southward in the Alleghanies, west through Ontario to Minnesota and to Missouri. Blooms somewhat earlier than G. canadense. Basal leaves becoming very large, the terminal leaflet sometimes 6' wide. White avens. Throat-root. Chocolate-root. May-July.
Softly and finely pubescent or glabrate, erect, branched above, 1 1/2°-2 1/2° high. Stipules small, dentate; basal leaves petioled, lobed, 3-foliolate or pinnately divided, their segments 3-5, the terminal one broadly ovate or obovate, the lateral ones narrower, all dentate and more or less lobed, sometimes with smaller ones borne on the petiole; stem-leaves short-petioled or sessile, 3-5-lobed or divided; peduncles slender; flowers white, 4"-8" broad; calyx-lobes lanceolate, reflexed; petals obovate, equalling or shorter than the sepals; head of fruit globose-obovoid, sessile, 4"-6" long; receptacle densely short-bristly; style glabrous, or pubescent below, jointed, 3"-4 long.
In shaded places, Nova Scotia to Ontario, Georgia, Minnesota, South Dakota, Louisiana and Kansas.-Red-root. Herb-bennet. June-Aug.
21. 1889. Geum canadense var. flavum Britton, Bull. Torr.
Club 18: 270. 1891. G. flavum Bicknell, Bull. Torr. Club 23: 523. 1896.
Stem bristly-hairy below, erect, 1 1/2°-3° tall. Stipules large, often 1' long, foliaceous, dentate or lobed. Basal leaves mostly pinnately divided, sometimes only lobed; lower stem-leaves usually also pinnately divided, the terminal segment often elongated; upper stem-leaves oval or lanceolate, sometimes entire; peduncles slender; flowers cream-yellow, about 3" broad; petals narrowly oblong, shorter than or little exceeding the reflexed calyx-lobes; head of fruit sessile, about 5" in diameter; receptacle bristly-villous; style nearly glabrous to the base, jointed, 3"-4" long.
Geum urbānum L., from Europe, distinguished by its bright yellow, broader and longer petals, is escaped from cultivation at Cambridge, Mass.