This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Valeriana dioica Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 727. 1814.
Erect, glabrous or very nearly so throughout, 8'-2i° high. Rootstocks creeping or ascending; basal leaves thin, petioled, oblong or spatulate, obtuse, entire, or with a few obtuse lobes, reticulate-veined, 2'-10' long, 3"-18' wide; stem leaves 2-4 pairs, petioled, pinnately parted into 3-15 ovate to lanceolate, dentate or entire, acute or obtuse segments; inflorescence cymose-paniculate, at length loosely branched; flowers pink or nearly white, 3"-4" long, about 2" wide; bracts linear-lanceolate; fruit ovate, glabrous, 1 1/2" long.
In wet soil, Quebec to New York, Ontario and Michigan. American wild valerian. Referred, in our first edition, to the following northern and western species. May-Aug.
Valeriana septentrionalis Rydb. Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 1: 376. 1900.
Erect, 8'-16' high, glabrous, or the inflorescence minutely pubescent. Basal leaves spatulate or oval, 4' long or less, entire; stem leaves usually 3 pairs, the segments 5-7, oval to linear-lanceolate, entire, or undulate-margined; inflorescence cymose-paniculate, dense; flowers white, about 1 1/2" wide; fruit 1 1/2"-2" long, glabrous.
In wet soil, Newfoundland to British Columbia, south in the Rocky Mountains to New Mexico. Summer.
Valeriana officinalis L. Sp. Pl. 31. 1753.
Erect, 2°-5° high, more or less pubescent, especially at the nodes. Leaves all pinnately parted into 7-25 thin reticulate-veined lanceolate acute or acuminate segments, sharply dentate, or those of the upper leaves entire, usually with some scattered hairs beneath; flowers pink or nearly white, about 2" long; inflorescence of several rather compact corymbed cymes; bracts linear-lanceolate, rather large; fruit glabrous, ovate, about l 1/2" long.
Escaped from gardens to roadsides in New York, Ohio and New Jersey. Native of Europe and Asia. Old names, cats'-valerian, setwell, cut-heal, all-heal. Garden-, summer-or hardy-heliotrope. St. George's-herb. June-Aug.