This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
[Legouzia Durand, Fl. Bourg. 2: 26. 1782.]
Annual herbs, with alternate toothed or entire leaves, the stem and branches long, slender. Flowers axillary, sessile or nearly so, 2-bracted, or the upper panicled in some exotic species, the earlier (lower) ones small, cleistogamous, the later with a blue or purple nearly rotate corolla. Calyx-tube narrow, the lobes in the earlier flowers 3 or 4, in the later 4 or 5. Corolla 5-lobed or 5-parted, the lobes imbricated in the bud. Filaments flat; anthers separate, linear. Ovary 3-celled (rarely 2- or 4-celled); ovules numerous; stigma usually 3-lobed. Capsule prismatic, cylindric, or narrowly obconic, opening by lateral valves. Seeds ovoid, oblong, or lenticular. [From Speculum Veneris, the Latin name of the type species.]
About 10 species, natives of the northern hemisphere, one extending into South America. Type species: Campanula Speculum L.; S. Speculum (L.) DC, of Europe, which is adventive in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.
Capsule narrowly oblong.
Leaves sessile: capsule-valves near the top.
1. S. biflora.
Leaves cordate-clasoinjr: capsule-valves at about the middle.
2. S. perfoliata.
Capsule linear-cylindric; leaves sessile; western.
3. S. leptocarpa.
Campanula biflora R. & P. Fl. Per. 2: 55. pl. 200. J. 6. 1799.
S. biflora F. & M. Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 1:17. 1835.
Glabrous, or nearly so; stem simple or branched, very slender, roughish on the angles, 6'-2° high. Leaves ovate, oblong, or the upper lanceolate, sessile, acute or obtuse at the apex, crenate with a few teeth, or entire, 4"-10" long, or the upper smaller; earlier flowers with 3 or 4 ovate to lanceolate calyx-lobes, those of the later flowers 4 or 5, lanceolate-subulate, longer; capsule oblong-cylindric, 3"-5" long, opening by valves close under the calyx-teeth.
In dry soil, Virginia to Kentucky, Missouri, Kansas, Florida and Texas. Also in Oregon, California and South America. April-July.
Campanula perfoliata L. Sp. Pl. 169. 1753.
S. perfoliata A. DC. Mon. Campan. 351. 1830.
L. perfoliata Britton, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 309. 1894.
More or less pubescent; stem densely leafy, simple or branched from near the base, slender, rather weak, sometimes prostrate, retrorse-hispid on the angles, or nearly smooth, 6'-24' long. Leaves orbicular or broadly ovate, strongly cordate-clasping or the lower merely sessile, crenate-dentate or sometimes entire, 1/4'-1' wide; flowers solitary or 2-3 together in the axils, sessile, the later (upper) ones with 5 (rarely 4) triangular-lanceolate acuminate rigid calyx-lobes, and a rotate blue or violet corolla 5"-10" broad, the earlier ones with 3-4 shorter calyx-lobes longer than the rudimentary corolla; capsule oblong, or narrowly turbinate, 2"-3" long, finally opening at about the middle; seeds lenticular.
In dry woods, Maine and Ontario to British Columbia, south to Florida, Louisiana, Mexico, Arizona and Oregon. Called also clasping bellflower. May-Sept. Also in the mountains of Jamaica and Santo Domingo.
Hirsute, or nearly glabrous; stem slender, simple, or branched from the base, 6'-15' high. Leaves linear-lanceolate to oblong, sessile, not clasping, acute at both ends, or the lowest obtuse at the apex, entire or sparingly denticulate, 1/2'-1' long, 1"-2" wide; flowers sessile and usually solitary in the axils, the later ones with 4-5 subulate calyx-lobes and a rotate corolla 5"-9' broad, the earlier ones with 3 shorter calyx-lobes and rudimentary corolla; capsule linear-cylindric, 4"-8" long, less than 1" thick; the upper at length opening near the summit; seeds oblong.
In dry soil, western Missouri and Kansas to Montana, Colorado and Texas. May-Aug.