This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Herbs or shrubs, with dentate entire or laciniate leaves, and rather small pink, white or purplish flowers, in terminal bracted spikes or heads, or verticillate in the upper axils. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 10-nerved, equally or unequally 5-toothed. Corolla-tube short, the limb irregularly 5-lobed, the 2 short upper lobes oblong, declined or erect, the lateral lobe declined, more or less united with the upper ones, the lower lobe broader, also declined. Stamens 4, didynamous, exserted between the 2 upper lobes of the corolla, the anterior pair the longer; anther-sacs divergent, confluent at the base. Ovary 4-lobed; style 2-cleft at the summit. Nutlets obovoid, rugose-reticulated. [Named from the Trojan king, Teucer.]
Over 100 species, of wide distribution in temperate and tropical regions. Besides the following, 2 or 3 others occur in the southern and southwestern United States. Type species: Teucrium friiticans L.
*Perennial species. i. Leaves toothed.
† Flowers in terminal dense spike-like panicles. Calyx and bracts canescent, without long hairs.
Leaves, at least the lower, obtuse or rounded at the base, not rugose-veined.
Leaves narrowed at the base, rugose-veined, mostly narrowly lanceolate.
2. T. littorale.
Calyx and bracts villous and often glandular-pubescent.
3. T. occidentale.
†† Flowers in secund terminal spikes.
4. T. Scorodonia.
2. Leaves laciniate; flowers axillary.
5. T. laciniatum.
** Annual species, with pinnatifid leaves and axillary flowers.
6. T. Botrys.
Teucrium canadense L. Sp. Pl. 564. 1753.
Teucrium virginicum L. Sp. Pl. 564. 1753- Perennial, appressed-pubescent or canescent; stem erect, simple or somewhat branched, rather slender, 1°-2° tall. Leaves lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, irregularly dentate, mostly rounded at the base, short-petioled, 1 1/2'-5' long, 1/2'-2' wide, glabrous or sparingly pubescent above, densely canescent beneath; spike usually dense, becoming 6-12' long in fruit, bracts canescent, the lower sometimes folia-ceous, the upper commonly not longer than the canescent calyx; flowers 6"-10" long, very short-pedicelled; calyx about 3" long in fruit, its three upper teeth obtuse or subacute.
T. canadense var. littorale Fernald, Rhodora 10: 84. 1908.
Pale and canescent, 20 high or less, erect or assurgent, often with ascending branches. Leaves thickish and rugose-veiny, narrowly oblong or sometimes broader, narrowed into the petiole, closely fine-serrate or becoming unequally dentate-serrate, 2 1/2'-4' long, 1/2'-1 1/2' wide; petioles 2 1/2"-5" long; spikes narrow, often interrupted; bracts about the length of the calyx; calyx small, 2"-2 1/2" high, becoming somewhat gibbous-urceolate, the teeth short, the upper ones obtuse; corolla pale pink, about 8" long, loosely pilose without.
On or near the coast, Maine to Florida and Texas, north to Arkansas and Oklahoma. Included in our first edition in T. canadense L., and there figured for that species. July-Aug.