This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Stachys aspera Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 5. 1803.
Stachys hispida Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 407. 1814.
S.. palustris var. aspera A. Gray, Man. Ed. 2, 317. 1856.
Perennial, rough hairy; stem erect or ascending, simple or branched, 2°-4° high, commonly retrorse-hispid on the angles. Leaves firm, oblong, oblong-lanceolate, or ovate-oblong, crenate-dentate, acute or acuminate at the apex, truncate, rounded or cordate at the base, 2'-6' long, 1/2'-2 1/2' wide, the lower slender-petioled, the upper short-petioled; spike terminal, mostly interrupted; clusters sometimes also in the upper axils; calyx about 3" long, hirsute or glabrate, its teeth triangular-lanceolate, acuminate, about one-half as long as the tube; corolla red-purple, about i' long, its upper lip pubescent.
In moist soil, Ontario to Massachusetts, Florida, Minnesota and Louisiana. Ascends to 5300 ft. in Virginia. June-Sept. Base hoarhound.
Stachys salvioides Small; Fl. SE. U. S. 1032. 1903.
Perennial, rather finely and often closely puberu-lent or puberulent-pubescent; stem erect, 1°-3° tall, commonly branched, rough along the angles. Leaves firm, oblong to oblong-ovate or rarely ovate, 2 1/2'-5' long, or shorter on the lower part of the stem, pubescent on both sides, acute or acutish, crenate, truncate or cordate at the base, slender-petioled; clusters several; calyx sessile or nearly so, becoming 2 1/2" long, finely pubescent, the tube campanulate-turbinate, the teeth triangular at mutarity; corolla nearly 5" long, pale purple.
In stony soil, Virginia and West Virginia to Tennessee. June-Aug.
Stachys cordata Riddell, Suppl. Cat. Ohio Pl. 15. 1836. Stachys palustris var. cordata A. Gray, Man. Ed. 2, 317. 1856.
Perennial, hirsute, pale green; stem slender, weak, mostly simple, ascending or reclining, 2°-3° long. Leaves membranous, flaccid, ovate, oblong or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, acute or the lowest obtuse at the apex, nearly all of them cordate at the base, dentate or crenate all around, long-petioled, 3'-6' long, 1'-3' wide, the lowest petioles nearly as long as the blades; spike interrupted; calyx-teeth subulate-lanceolate, about half the length of the tube; corolla purplish, pubescent or puberulent, about 5" long.
In woods and thickets, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois to North Carolina and Tennessee. Ascends to 2100 ft. in Virginia. July-Aug.
Stachys arvensis L. Sp. Pl. Ed. 2, 814. 1763.
Annual, hirsute; stem very slender, diffusely branched, decumbent or ascending, 3'-2° long. Leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, thin, long-petiolcd, obtuse at the apex, crenate all around, cordate or the upper rounded at the base, about 1' long; lower petioles commonly as long as the blades; clusters 4-6-flow-ered, borne in the upper axils and in short terminal spikes; calyx about 3" long, its teeth lanceolate, acuminate, nearly as long as the tube; corolla purplish, 3"-5" long.
In waste places, Maine and Massachusetts to Nebraska, in ballast about the eastern seaports, and in the West Indies, Mexico and South America. Naturalized from Europe. July-Oct.
Stachys annua L., another European annual species, the stems erect, glabrous or nearly so, the yellow corolla much longer than the calyx, has been found in ballast and waste grounds about the seaports.
Stachys germanica L. Sp. Pl. 581. 1753- Annual; stem erect, simple, or somewhat branched, 1°-3° high, densely villous. Leaves oval, ovate or lanceolate, crenate-dentate, villous, the lower rounded or subcordate at the base, long-petioled, mostly obtuse at the apex, the upper short-petioled or sessile, narrowed at both ends; clusters of flowers dense, borne in most of the axils; bracts lanceolate, half as long as the calyx; calyx-teeth ovate, acuminate, awned; corolla purple, its tube about as long as the calyx.
Roadsides near Guelph, Ontario. Adventive from Europe. July-Sept.