This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Solidago squarrosa Muhl. Cat. 76. 1813.
Stem stout, simple, or rarely branched above, glabrous or puberulent, 2°-5° high. Upper leaves oblong, acute, entire or nearly so, sessile; lower and basal leaves obovate, oval, or broadly spatulate, acute or obtuse, 4'-10' long, 1'-3' wide, sharply dentate, often narrowed into a margined petiole, all glabrous, or sometimes slightly pubescent; heads 15-25-flow-ered, 4"-S" high, numerous in a terminal narrow often leafy thyrsus sometimes 12' in length; rays 10-16, showy, 2"-3" long; tips of the involucral bracts green, acute or obtuse, rarely some of them erect, all usually strongly recurved, giving the heads a ragged appearance; achenes glabrous.
In rocky soil, New Brunswick to Ontario, North Carolina and Ohio. Ascends to 2000 ft. in the Catskills. Lower branches of the inflorescence sometimes elongated. Aug.-Oct.
Stem rather slender, pubescent or puberulent, 1°-3° high, simple, or branched above. Leaves sessile, or very short-petioled, oblong to oval, acute, obtuse or mucronate, entire or dentate, ¥-3' long, rough or ciliate on the margins, often silvery-pubescent; heads 3"-4" high, in a terminal narrow more or less compound thyrsus; involucral bracts pubescent, with green acute to acuminate tips, the outer spreading, the inner ap-pressed; achenes glabrous or nearly so.
In dry soil, Illinois to Kansas and Texas, east to North Carolina and Florida. Races differ in pubescence and in leaf-form and leaf-serration. Sept.-Oct.
Stem glabrous, slender, often glaucous, usually bluish or purple, branched or simple, terete, 1°-3° high. Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, sessile, acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, glabrous, sharply serrate, 2'-5' long, 3"-15" wide; heads 2"-3" high, in axillary clusters or racemes, or occasionally with some in a short terminal thyrsus; bracts of the involucre obtuse, ap-pressed; achenes pubescent.
Woods and thickets, Nova Scotia to Ontario, Minnesota, Florida, Arkansas and Texas. Consists of several slightly differing races. Woodland golden-rod. Aug.-Oct.
Solidago flexicaulis L. Sp. Pl. 879. 1753. Solidago la ifolia L. loc.cit. 1753.
Stem glabrous, angled, usually simple, zig-zag, 1°-3° high. Leaves thin, ovate, acuminate at the apex, abruptly narrowed at the base into margined petioles, somewhat pubescent, or glabrous beneath, sharply serrate, 2'-7' long, 1'-4' wide, the uppermost sometimes lanceolate and entire or nearly so; heads about 3" high, in short axillary racemose clusters, and rarely also in a narrow terminal thyrsus; bracts of the involucre obtuse to acutish, appressed; achenes hirsute-pubescent.
In rich woods, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to Georgia, Tennessee, Minnesota and Missouri. Ascends to 2300 ft. in the Catskills. July-Sept.