This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Solidago Curtisii var. monticola T. & G. Fl.
N. A. 2: 200. 1841. Solidago monticola T. & G.; Chapm. Fl. S.
States 209. 1860.
Slender, glabrous or nearly so, 1°-3° high. Stem leaves ovate-oblong, or oblong-lanceolate, thin, acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base, sharply and sparingly serrate, or the upper entire, 1-6' long, 4"-1 1/2' wide, the upper sessile, the lower petioled; basal leaves broadly oblong, obtuse, with slender petioles; heads about 2" high; in a terminal spikelike, simple or branched thyrsus; bracts of the involucre acutish or obtuse; achenes glabrous.
In mountain woods, Pennsylvania and Maryland to Georgia and Alabama.
Solidago macrophylla Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 542. 1814. Solidago thyrsoidea E. Meyer, Pl. Lab. 63. 1830.
Stem striate, glabrous or sparingly pubescent, stout, 6'-4° high. Leaves thin, ovate, acuminate, or the basal ones obtuse, sharply serrate, glabrous or sparingly pubescent beneath, 3-5' long, 1'-21/2' wide, abruptly contracted into margined petioles, or the uppermost lanceolate, entire, sessile; heads 4"-6" high, in a terminal compact or loose thyrsus and usually also in axillary clusters; bracts of the involucre linear, acute; rays 8-10, linear-oblong, conspicuous; achenes glabrous or nearly so.
In rocky woods, Catskill Mountains, N. Y., and Greylock Mt., Mass., to Newfoundland, Labrador, Hudson Bay and Lake Superior. Ascends to 4000 ft. in the Adirondacks. July-Sept.
Solidago calcicola Fernald, a related plant found in Maine and Quebec, has smaller heads, 3"-4" high, and pubescent achenes.
Solidago Lindheimeriana Scheele, Linnaea 21: 599. 1848.
Scabrous, simple, 1 1/2°-3° high, leafy, rather stout and rigid. Leaves oblong, oblong-lanceolate or oval, acute or acutish at the apex, narrowed or rounded at the base, all entire, thick-ish, rough on both surfaces, sessile or the lowest petioled; heads about 3" high, in a terminal, often short thyrsus; bracts of the involucre acute or the outer obtuse, puberulent; achenes nearly glabrous.
Southern Kansas to Texas and northern Mexico. Aug.-Nov.
Solidago Bigelovii A. Gray, another southwestern species, which is rougher than this, with oval or oblong leaves obtuse or obtusish at both ends, is reported from Kansas, probably erroneously.
Solidago Virgaurea alpina Bigel. Fl. Bost. Ed. 2, 307.
1824. Solidago Cutleri Fernald, Rhodora 10: 87. 1908.
Glabrous, or somewhat pubescent; stems simple, often tufted, 3'-12' high, ascending, or erect, angular. Basal leaves obovate, or broadly spatulate, serrate with low sharp or blunt teeth, at least above the middle, obtuse, or acute, 2'-4' long, narrowed into petioles; stem leaves few, oblanceolate, spatulate, or oblong, sessile, or the lower petioled, mostly distant; inflorescence a short raceme or thyrsus, and often with clusters of heads in the axils of the leaves; heads 3"-4" high, over 30-flowered; bracts of the involucre obtuse to acute; achenes hirsute.
Alpine summits of the mountains of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont and northern New York, mostly above timber line. Referred, in our first edition, to the European S. alpestris Waldst. & Kit., which it resembles. Aug.-Sept.