This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Monarda Bradburiana Beck, Am. Journ. Sci. 10: 260. 1826.
Perennial, sparingly villous or glabrate; stem slender, often simple, 1°- 2°high. Leaves rather thin, bright green, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, sessile, or very nearly so, or partly clasping by the cordate or subcordate base, acuminate at the apex, serrate, 2'-3 1/2' long; flower-clusters solitary and terminal; bracts green or purplish; calyx glabrous outside, hirsute within and narrowed at the throat, its teeth long, bristle-pointed, divergent, longer than the diameter of the tube; corolla pink or nearly white, about 1' long, its upper lip pubescent or puberulent, the lower commonly purple-spotted; stamens exserted.
On dry hills or in thickets, Indiana to Alabama, west to Kansas and Arkansas. May-July.
Monarda punctata L. Sp. Pl. 22. 1753.
Perennial, usually rather densely pubescent or downy; stem usually much branched, 2°-3° high. Leaves lanceolate, linear-lanceolate or narrowly oblong, serrate with low teeth, or nearly entire, usually acute at both ends, green, manifestly peti-oled, 1'-3' long, 2" - 7" wide, often with smaller ones fascicled in their axils; flower-clusters axillary and terminal, numerous; bracts white or purplish, conspicuous, acute; calyx puberulent, villous in the throat, its teeth short, triangular-lanceolate, acute, not longer than the diameter of the tube; corolla yellowish, purple-spotted, about 1' long, the stamens equalling or slightly surpassing its pubescent upper lip.
In dry fields, southern New York to Florida, west to Minnesota, Kansas and Texas. Rignum. July-Oct.
Annual, puberulent; stem stout, simple or branched, 1°-2° high. Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, mostly sharply serrate or serrulate, acute at the apex, narrowed at the base, l'-3' long, 2"-6" wide; flower-clusters axillary and terminal, several or numerous; bracts pale, usually grayish or brownish, gradually awned at the tip; calyx-tube nearly glabrous, the throat densely villous, the teeth bristle-pointed, barbed, lax, nearly half as long as the tube; corolla pink or nearly white, not spotted, nearly or quite glabrous, 8"-10" long; stamens not exserted.
On dry plains, Nebraska and Colorado to Texas and Arizona. Prairie-bergamot. June-Sept.
Monarda citriodora Cerv., of Mexico, to which this was referred in our first edition, differs by long narrow reflexed bracts and shorter calyx-teeth.
M. dispersa Small, Fl. SE. U. S. 1038. 1903.
Annual, puberulent; stem stout, usually branched, 1°- 2 1/2° high. Leaves oblong-spatu-late, oblanceolate or oblong, or narrowly oblong to linear on the upper part of the stem, 1' - 4 1/2' long, shallowly serrate; flower clusters axillary and terminal, often numerous and usually conspicuous by the broad abruptly bristle-tipped purple bracts; calyx-tube longer than in M. pectinata, the teeth usually longer and more slender, fully half as long as the tube; corolla pale, usually pink, puberulent, 11" - 13" long; stamens mostly not exceeding the upper lip.
On plains and prairies and in cultivated grounds, Missouri and Kansas to Georgia, Florida, Texas, New Mexico and adjacent Mexico. May-Aug.