This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Annual, 1°- 2° high, hispidulous-scabrous with rough stiff short whitish hairs, branched, the branches nearly erect. Leaves narrowly linear, 1' - 1 1/2' long, less than 1" wide, erect or ascending; pedicels equalling or becoming a little longer than the turbinate calyx; calyx-teeth triangular-ovate or triangular-lanceolate, acute, one-fourth to one-third as long as the tube; corolla deep purple, about 1' long, nearly or quite glabrous within, very pubescent without, the lobes ciliate; filaments villous; anthers all alike, obtuse at the base; capsule oblong, 3"-4" high, considerably longer than the calyx.
Gerardia crustata Greene, Leaflets 2: 108. 1910.
Annual, more or less scabrous; stems 6'-2° tall, branching above, the branches ascending. Leaves linear, or narrowly linear-lanceolate below, ¥-2' long, rarely 2" broad, acute, erect or erect-ascending, decidedly scabrous along the margins; pedicels shorter than the calyx, enlarged upward; calyx campanulate, 3"-4" long, its teeth lanceolate or subulate-lanceolate, about as long as the tube; corolla rose-purple, about 3/4" long; capsules globose-oblong or globose-ovoid, 2 1/2"-3" long.
On prairies and in wet woods, Missouri and Arkansas to Texas. Aug.-Oct.
Gerardia purpurea L. Sp. Pl. 610. 1753.
G. racemulosa Pennel, Torreya 11: 15. 1911.
Annual, glabrous, smooth, or roughish; stem slender, branched, 1°-2 1/2° high, the branches spreading. Leaves narrowly linear, usually widely spreading, 1' - 1 1/2' long, about 1" wide, rarely with smaller ones fascicled in their axils; flowers racemose on the branches, purple (rarely white), about 1' long and broad; pedicels shorter than or but little longer than the campanulate calyx, even in fruit; calyx-teeth triangular-lanceolate or ovate-oblong, acute, one-third to one-half the length of the tube; corolla much expanded above, villous or nearly glabrous within, pubescent without, the lobes ciliolate; anthers all alike, the sacs mucronulate at the base; filaments villous; capsule globose, 2"-3" in diameter, longer than the calyx.
In moist fields and meadows, Maine to Florida, Indiana, Wisconsin, Missouri and Texas. Aug.-Oct.
Gerardia fasciculata Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 2: 115.
Gerardia fasciculata Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 2: 115. 1824.
Annual, finely pubescent and scabrous; stems 1 1/2°- 4° tall, often puberulent or sparingly hispidulous, fastigiately branched. Leaves numerous, the larger ones with conspicuous clusters of smaller ones in their axils, linear, mostly less than 1" wide, acute, very scabrous; flowers racemose, often numerous, purple, about 1' long; pedicel shorter than the calyx; calyx-tube campanulate, 1 1/4"- 1 3/4" high, the teeth usually minute, often less than \" long; corolla abruptly expanded above the short tube, minutely pubescent without, copiously pubescent within, the lobes ciliolate; capsule 2"-2i" in diameter, becoming longer than the calyx.
In marshes or sometimes in dry soil, Virginia to Florida and Texas. Aug.-Oct.