An erect stout simple glabrous, densely scaly, light brown herb, parasitic on the roots of trees, with yellowish flowers 2-bracteolate under the calyx, in a thick dense bracted spike, the bracts similar to the scales of the stem. Calyx oblique, deeply split on the lower side, 3-4-toothed on the upper. Corolla strongly 2-lipped, the tube slightly curved, the upper lip concave, nearly erect, emarginate, the lower spreading, 3-lobed. Stamens exserted; anther-sacs bristly pubescent. Placentae about equidistant; stigma capitate, obscurely 2-lamellate. Capsule ovoid-globose. [Greek, signifying a scaly cone.]

Three known species, the following typical one of eastern North America, the other southwestern and Mexican.

1. Conopholis Americana (L. F.) Wallr. Squaw-Root

Fig. 3881

Orobanche americana L. f. Suppl. 88. 1767. Conopholis americana Wallr. Orobanch. 78. 1825.

Plants 3'-10' high from a thickened base, light brown, usually clustered, covered all over with stiff imbricated scales. Upper scales lanceolate or ovate, acute, 6"-10" long, the lowest much shorter; flowers about i' long, exceedingly numerous in the dense spike which is 6"-10" thick; corolla pale yellow, somewhat exceeding the calyx; anthers sagittate; capsule ovoid-globose, 4"-5" high.

In rich woods at bases of trees, Maine to Ontario, Michigan, Florida, Alabama and Tennessee. Cancer-root. Earth-club. Clap-wort. April-Aug.

1 Conopholis Americana L F Wallr Squaw Root 552