This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Herbs, parasitic on the roots of other plants, with alternate leaves, and red yellow purple or white flowers, in dense leafy-bracted spikes, the bracts often brightly colored and larger than the flowers. Calyx tubular, laterally compressed, cleft at the summit on the upper side, or also on the lower, the lobes entire or 2-toothed. Corolla very irregular, its tube not longer than the calyx, its limb 2-lipped; upper lip (galea) arched, elongated, concave or keeled, laterally compressed, entire, enclosing the 4 didynamous stamens; lower lip short, 3-lobed. Anther-sacs oblong or linear, unequal, the outer one attached to the filament by its middle, the inner one pendulous from its apex. Style filiform; stigma entire or 2-lobed. Capsule ovoid or oblong, loculicidally dehiscent, many-seeded. Seeds reticulated. [Named for Cas-tillejo, a Spanish botanist.]
About 50 species, mostly natives of the New World. In addition to the following, about 30 others occur in the western parts of North America. Type species: Castilleja fissifolia L. f.
* Plants villous-pubescent.
Bracts broad, dilated, lobed, or entire.
Stem leaves deeply and irregularly cleft into narrow segments.
1. C. coccinea.
Leaves linear-lanceolate, entire, or rarely with a few lobes.
2. C. indivisa.
Bracts linear or linear-lanceolate, entire.
3. C. minor.
** Plants glabrous, woolly at the summit, or cinereous-puberulent. Glabrous, or tomentose at the summit; leaves lanceolate, mostly entire.
4. C. acuminata.
Cinereous-puberulent, pale; stem leaves cleft.
5. C. sessiliflora.
Bartsia coccinea L. Sp. Pl. 602. 1753. Castilleja coccinea Spreng. Syst. 2: 775. 1825.
Annual or biennial, villous-pubescent; stem rather slender, simple, or with few erect branches, 1°-2° high. Leaves sessile, parallel-veined, the basal oblong, obovate, or linear, tufted, mostly entire, 1'-3' long, those of the stem deeply 3-5-cleft into linear obtusish segments, the bracts broader and shorter, 3-5-lobed or cleft, bright red or scarlet, conspicuous; flowers sessile, 10"-12" long, usually not exceeding the bracts; calyx cleft both above and below into 2 dilated entire or retuse oblong and obtuse lobes, sometimes scarlet; corolla greenish-yellow, its tube shorter than the calyx, its upper lip much longer than the lower; capsule oblong, acute, 5"-6" long.
In meadows and moist thickets, Maine and Ontario to Manitoba, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kansas and Texas. Ascends to 4000 ft. in Virginia. Bracts and calyx rarely yellow. Red indians. Election-posies. Wickawee. Bloody-warrior. Nose-bleed. May-July.
Winter-annual; stem villous-pubescent, usually simple, 8'-18' high. Leaves sessile, parallel-veined, linear to linear-lanceolate, 1'-4' long, 1 1/2"-3" wide, entire, or rarely with 2-4 lateral lobes; no tuft of basal leaves; bracts dilated, obovate to spatulate, bright red; flowers sessile, about 1' long or less, not longer than the bracts; calyx cleft as in the preceding species, and corolla similar.
In sandy soil, Kansas to Texas. Spring.