5. Solanum Torreyi A. Gray. Torrey's Nightshade

Fig. 3721

S. Torreyi A. Gray, Proc. Am. 'Acad. 6: 44. 1862.

Perennial, hoary with a stellate pubescence of 8-12-rayed hairs, more or less armed with small subulate prickles. Leaves ovate in outline, 3'-6' long, sinuately 5-7-lobed, the lobes entire or undulate, obtuse; cymes appearing terminal, soon evidently lateral, branched, loosely several-flowered; flowers showy, large; calyx-lobes ovate, abruptly long-acuminate, persistent at the base of the berry; corolla violet, 1'-1 1/2' broad, its lobes ovate, acute; berry globose, smooth and glabrous, 1' or more in diameter, yellow when ripe.

On dry plains and prairies, Kansas to Texas. Reported from Missouri.

6. Solanum Rostratum Dunal. Band Bur. Beaked Or Prickly Nightshade. Buffalo-Bur

Fig. 3722

Solanum rostratum Dunal, Sol. 234. pl. 24. 1813. S. heterandrum Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 156. pl. 7. 1814.

Annual, densely stellate-pubescent with 5-8-rayed hairs, usually copiously armed with yellow subulate prickles; stem erect, branched, 1°-2 1/2° high. Leaves ovate or oval in outline, irregularly pinnately 5-7-lobed or 1-2-pinna-tifid, 2'-5' long, petioled, the lobes mostly oblong, obtuse; flowers racemose, yellow, about 1'broad; racemes lateral; pedicels stout, 3"-6" long, erect both in flower and fruit; calyx densely prickly, surrounding and wholly enclosing the berry, the prickles becoming as long as the fruit, or longer; calyx-lobes lanceolate, acuminate; corolla about 1' broad, slightly irregular, its lobes ovate, acute; stamens and style declined, the lowest stamen longer with an incurved beak; fruit, including its prickles, 1' in diameter or more.

On prairies, South Dakota to Texas and Mexico. Occasional in waste places, Ontario to New Hampshire, Tennessee and Florida, adventive from the west. Texas-nettle. Prickly potato. May-Sept. The original food of the Colorado beetle.

6 Solanum Rostratum Dunal Band Bur Beaked Or Prick 3936 Solanum Rostratum Dunal Band Bur Beaked Or Prick 394

7. Solanum Citrullifolium Braun. Melon-Leaved Nightshade

Fig. 3723

Solatium citrullifolium Braun, Ind. Sem. Frib. 1849.

Annual, glandular-pubescent, or a few 4-5-rayed hairs on the leaves, copiously armed with slender yellow subulate prickles, diffusely branched, 1°-3° high. Leaves irregularly bipinnatifid, resembling in outline those of the watermelon, 2'-6' long; racemes lateral, several-flowered; flowers 1'-1 1/2' broad, violet; stamens and style declined; lowest anther violet, larger than the four other yellow ones; corolla somewhat irregular, its lobes ovate, acuminate; fruit similar to that of the preceding species.

In dry soil, Iowa and Kansas to Texas, Mexico and New Mexico. Referred in our first edition, to S. heterodoxum Dunal. July-Sept.

8. Solanum Sisymbriifdlium Lam. Viscid Nightshade

Fig. 3724

Solatium sisymbriifolium Lam. 111. 2: 25. 1793.

Annual, branched, 2°-4° high, villous-pubescent with long viscid hairs and armed all over with bright yellow prickles. Leaves thin, deeply pinnatifid into oblong toothed or sinuate lobes; flowers 1 1/4'-1 1/3' broad, light blue or white; stamens and style nearly erect; anthers all equal, yellow; corolla slightly irregular, its lobes deltoid or ovate-deltoid, acute or obtusish; fruit included in the accrescent calyx which has a prickly tube and thinnish lobes.

In waste places and on ballast, especially about seaports, from Massachusetts to the Gulf States. Introduced from tropical America. June-Sept.

8 Solanum Sisymbriifdlium Lam Viscid Nightshade 395

9. Solanum Dulcamara L. Climbing Or Bitter Nightshade. Blue Bindweed. Fellenwort. Bittersweet. Dogwood

Fig. 3725

Solanum Dulcamara L. Sp. Pl. 185. 1753.

Perennial, pubescent with simple hairs or gla-brate, stem climbing or straggling, somewhat woody below, branched, 2°-8° long. Leaves peti-oled, ovate or hastate in outline, 2-4' long, 1'-2 1/2' wide, acute or acuminate at the apex, usually slightly cordate- at the base, some of them entire, some with a lobe on one side near the base, some deeply 3-lobed or 3-divided, with the terminal segment much the largest; cymes compound, lateral; pedicels slender, articulated at the base, spreading or drooping; flowers blue, purple or white, 5"-7" broad; calyx-lobes short, oblong, obtuse, persistent at the base of the berry; corolla deeply 5-cleft, its lobes triangular-lanceolate, acuminate; berry oval or globose, red.

In waste places or in moist thickets, sometimes appearing as if indigenous, Nova Scotia to Minnesota, Washington, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Kansas. May-Sept. Woody nightshade. Poison-flower. Poison- or snake-berry. Scarlet berry. Naturalized from Europe. Native also of Asia.

Solanum triquetrum Cav., a Texan and Mexican nearly glabrous herb, scarcely climbing, with somewhat ridged stems, 3-lobed deltoid-cordate or hastate leaves, lateral few-flowered cymes and globose red berries, is reported from Kansas.

Solanum Melongena L., the egg-plant, with blue or purplish flowers, and an ovoid or obovoid berry up to 6' long, is occasionally found in waste grounds. It is native of Asia, species: Lycium afrum L.

9 Solanum Dulcamara L Climbing Or Bitter Nightshad 396