This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
[Brauneria Neck. Elem. 1: 17. Hyponym. 1790.] Perennial erect branched or simple herbs, with thick black roots, thick rough alternate or opposite, 3-5-nerved entire or dentate, undivided leaves, and large long-peduncled heads of tubular and radiate flowers, the rays purple, purplish, crimson or yellow, the disk green or purple, at length ovoid or conic. Involucre depressed-hemispheric, its bracts lanceolate, spreading or appressed, imbricated in 2-4 series. Receptacle conic, chaffy, the chaff carinate and cuspidate. Ray-flowers neutral, or with a rudimentary pistil. Disk-flowers perfect, the corolla cylindric, 5-toothed. Achenes 4-sided, obpyramidal, thick. Pappus a short dentate crown. [Greek, referring to the spiny chaff of the receptacle.]
Leaves broad, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, often toothed.
1. E. purpurea.
Leaves narrow, linear to lanceolate, entire. Rays about 1' long, spreading.
2. E. angustifolia.
Rays 1 1/2'-3' long, drooping.
3. E. pallida.
Rays bright yellow, drooping.
4. E. paradoxa.
Rudbeckia purpurea L. Sp. Pl. 907. 1753.
Echinacea purpurea Moench, Meth. 591. 1794.
Stem glabrous, or sparingly hispid, usually stout, 2°-5° high. Lower and basal leaves slender-petioled, ovate, mostly 5-nerved, acute or acuminate at the apex, abruptly narrowed or rarely cordate at the base, commonly sharply dentate, 3'-8' long, 1'-3' wide; petioles mostly winged at the summit; upper leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 3-nerved, sessile or nearly so, often entire; rays 12-20, purple, crimson, or rarely pale, 1 1/2'-3' long, spreading or drooping.
In moist, rich soil, Pennsylvania to Alabama, Georgia, Michigan, Kentucky, Louisiana and Arkansas. Called also Red sunflower. July-Oct.
Echinacea angustifolia DC. Prodr. 5: 554. 1836. Brauneria angustifolia Heller, Muhlenbergia 1: 5. 1900.
Stem hispid or hirsute, slender, often simple, 1°- 2° high. Leaves lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, or linear-lanceolate, hirsute, acute and about equally narrowed at each end, strongly 3-neryed and sometimes with an additional pair of marginal less distinct nerves, entire, 3'-8' long, 4"- 12" wide, the lower and basal ones slender-petioled, the upper short-petioled or sessile; heads and flowers similar to those of the preceding species, but the rays usually shorter, spreading.
77. 1834. Brauneria pallida Britton, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 333. 1894.
Similar to the preceding species, but often taller, sometimes 30 high. Leaves elongated-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, entire; rays narrow, linear, elongated, drooping, 1 1/2' - 3' long, 1 1/2"-3" wide, rose-purple or nearly white.
In dry soil on prairies, Illinois to Michigan, Alabama and Texas. May-July.
Brauneria atrorubens Boynton & Beadle, Biltmore Bot. Stud. 1: 11. 1901. Not Rudbeckia atrorubens Nutt.
Brauneria paradoxa Norton, Trans. Acad. St. Louis 12: 40. 1902.
Stem glabrous to somewhat hispid, 1°- 2 1/2° high. Leaves smooth or sparingly rough-hairy, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, the lower ones petioled, sometimes 1° long, 1/2' - 1' wide, 3-5-nerved, the upper smaller and nearly sessile; involucre about 1' high and broad, the disk-flowers brown; rays bright yellow, drooping or somewhat spreading, 1 1/2' - 2 1/2' long.
Prairies and barren soil, Missouri to Texas. June.