[Brauneria Neck. Elem. 1: 17. Hyponym. 1790.] Perennial erect branched or simple herbs, with thick black roots, thick rough alternate or opposite, 3-5-nerved entire or dentate, undivided leaves, and large long-peduncled heads of tubular and radiate flowers, the rays purple, purplish, crimson or yellow, the disk green or purple, at length ovoid or conic. Involucre depressed-hemispheric, its bracts lanceolate, spreading or appressed, imbricated in 2-4 series. Receptacle conic, chaffy, the chaff carinate and cuspidate. Ray-flowers neutral, or with a rudimentary pistil. Disk-flowers perfect, the corolla cylindric, 5-toothed. Achenes 4-sided, obpyramidal, thick. Pappus a short dentate crown. [Greek, referring to the spiny chaff of the receptacle.]

Four species, natives of eastern and central North America. Type species: Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench. Rays purple, crimson, pink or white.

Leaves broad, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, often toothed.

1. E. purpurea.

Leaves narrow, linear to lanceolate, entire. Rays about 1' long, spreading.

2. E. angustifolia.

Rays 1 1/2'-3' long, drooping.

3. E. pallida.

Rays bright yellow, drooping.

4. E. paradoxa.

64 Echinacea Moench Meth 591 1794 1127

1. Echinacea Purpurea (L.) Moench. Purple Cone-Flower. Black Sampson

Fig. 4456

Rudbeckia purpurea L. Sp. Pl. 907. 1753.

Echinacea purpurea Moench, Meth. 591. 1794.

Brauneria purpurea Britton, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 334. 1894.

Stem glabrous, or sparingly hispid, usually stout, 2°-5° high. Lower and basal leaves slender-petioled, ovate, mostly 5-nerved, acute or acuminate at the apex, abruptly narrowed or rarely cordate at the base, commonly sharply dentate, 3'-8' long, 1'-3' wide; petioles mostly winged at the summit; upper leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 3-nerved, sessile or nearly so, often entire; rays 12-20, purple, crimson, or rarely pale, 1 1/2'-3' long, spreading or drooping.

In moist, rich soil, Pennsylvania to Alabama, Georgia, Michigan, Kentucky, Louisiana and Arkansas. Called also Red sunflower. July-Oct.

1 Echinacea Purpurea L Moench Purple Cone Flower B 1128

2. Echinacea Angustifolia Dc. Narrow-Leaved Purple Cone-Flower

Fig. 4457

Echinacea angustifolia DC. Prodr. 5: 554. 1836. Brauneria angustifolia Heller, Muhlenbergia 1: 5. 1900.

Stem hispid or hirsute, slender, often simple, 1°- 2° high. Leaves lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, or linear-lanceolate, hirsute, acute and about equally narrowed at each end, strongly 3-neryed and sometimes with an additional pair of marginal less distinct nerves, entire, 3'-8' long, 4"- 12" wide, the lower and basal ones slender-petioled, the upper short-petioled or sessile; heads and flowers similar to those of the preceding species, but the rays usually shorter, spreading.

In dry soil, especially on prairies, Minnesota to Saskatchewan, Nebraska and Texas. Confused with the following species in our first edition. June-Oct. Comb.

3. Echinacea Pallida (Nutt.) Britton. Pale Purple Cone-Flower

Fig. 4458

Rudbeckia pallida Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. 7:

77. 1834. Brauneria pallida Britton, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 333. 1894.

Similar to the preceding species, but often taller, sometimes 30 high. Leaves elongated-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, entire; rays narrow, linear, elongated, drooping, 1 1/2' - 3' long, 1 1/2"-3" wide, rose-purple or nearly white.

In dry soil on prairies, Illinois to Michigan, Alabama and Texas. May-July.

3 Echinacea Pallida Nutt Britton Pale Purple Cone  11293 Echinacea Pallida Nutt Britton Pale Purple Cone  1130

4. Echinacea Paradoxa (Norton) Britton. Bush's Cone-Flower

Fig. 4459

Brauneria atrorubens Boynton & Beadle, Biltmore Bot. Stud. 1: 11. 1901. Not Rudbeckia atrorubens Nutt.

Brauneria paradoxa Norton, Trans. Acad. St. Louis 12: 40. 1902.

Stem glabrous to somewhat hispid, 1°- 2 1/2° high. Leaves smooth or sparingly rough-hairy, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, the lower ones petioled, sometimes 1° long, 1/2' - 1' wide, 3-5-nerved, the upper smaller and nearly sessile; involucre about 1' high and broad, the disk-flowers brown; rays bright yellow, drooping or somewhat spreading, 1 1/2' - 2 1/2' long.

Prairies and barren soil, Missouri to Texas. June.