This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Perennial by a fusiform tuber 1' - 1 3/4' long; stem slender, simple, roughish, ap-pressed-pubescent, about 2° high. Leaves firm, conduplicate, drooping, finely rough-pubescent on both sides, narrowly lanceolate, acuminate at both ends, distantly serrate with low teeth, the larger about 4' long and 7" wide, all opposite or the uppermost alternate; heads usually solitary and long-peduncled, rarely 2, about 3$' broad; involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate with long subulate tips; rays acute; pappus 2 subulate awns; chaff of the receptacle pubescent at the acute apex.
On a dry bank, Sag Harbor, New York. Sept.
Fleshy roots, thick and edible. Leaves thick, more or less serrate, all or all but the upper distinctly petioled, sometimes all opposite, 2Y-5' long, acuminate at the apex, mostly narrowed at the base, the petioles ciliate; heads not very numerous; bracts of the involucre lanceolate, acuminate, densely pubescent and white-ciliate, about 8" long; rays 1' - 1 3/4' long.
Dry soil, Michigan and Minnesota to Saskatchewan, Montana and Wyoming. Aug.-Sept.
Helianthus Rydbergi Britton, of western Nebraska, differs by broader, ovate-lanceolate leaves, rather abruptly narrowed at the base.
Helianthus grosse-serratus Martens, Sel. Sem. Hort. Loven. 1839.
Perennial by fleshy roots and slender rootstocks; stems glabrous, glaucous, branched above, 6°- 10° high, the branches usually strigose-pubescent. Leaves long-lanceolate, slender-petioled, the upper alternate, the lower opposite, long-acuminate, narrowed at the base, sharply serrate, or merely denticulate, the uppermost entire, rough above, densely puberulent or canescent beneath, 4'-8' long, 1/2'-1' wide; heads several or numerous, 1 1/2' - 3' broad; involucre hemispheric, its bracts squarrose, narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, hirsute; chaff linear-oblong, pubescent at the summit, acute, often 3-toothed; disk yellowish; rays 10-20, deep yellow; achenes nearly glabrous; pappus of 2 lanceolate awns.
In dry soil, Maine to Long Island, Pennsylvania, Ontario, South Dakota, Missouri, Kansas and Texas. Aug.-Oct.
Helianthus Kellermani Britton, Manual 994. 1901.
Stem 6°- 10° high, very smooth, much branched above, the branches slender. Leaves narrowly elongated-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, drooping, rather thin, distantly serrate with very small teeth, long-acuminate at the apex, attenuate at the base into short petioles or the upper sessile, scabrate and sparingly pubescent on both surfaces, pinnately veined, the lower about 8' long and 7" wide; branches of the inflorescence pubescent; bracts of the involucre linear-lanceolate, about 7" long, and 1" wide or less at the base, ciliate, long-acuminate; rays golden-yellow, 1' - 1 3/4' long; chaff of the receptacle linear.
Dry soil, vicinity of Columbus, Ohio. Aug.-Sept.