This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Perennial or biennial erect glabrous mostly tall herbs, with opposite or verticillate leaves, and rather large white yellowish or bluish flowers, in terminal cymose panicles or thyrses. Calyx 4-parted, the segments narrow. Corolla rotate, 4-parted, the lobes convolute in the bud, each bearing 1 or 2 fimbriate or fringed glands within. Stamens 4, inserted on the base of the short corolla-tube; filaments subulate or filiform, sometimes united at the base; anthers oblong, versatile. Ovary ovoid, 1-celled; style slender or short, but distinct; stigma 2-lobed or nearly entire. Capsule ovoid, coriaceous, somewhat compressed, 2-valved, few-seeded. Seeds flattened, smooth, margined or narrowly winged. [In honor of John Fraser, a botanical collector.]
About 15 species, natives of North America, all but the following typical one far western.
Frasera carolinensis Walt. Fl. Car. 87. 1788.
Stem 3°-7° high, stout. Leaves mostly verti-cillate in 4's, those of the stem lanceolate or oblong, acute or acutish, 3'-6' long, the basal ones spatulate or oblanceolate, usually much larger, the uppermost small and bract-like; inflorescence thyrsoid-paniculate, large, often 2° long; flowers slender-pedicelled, about 1' broad; corolla yellowish white with brown-purple dots, its lobes broadly oblong, bearing a large circular long-fringed gland at or below the middle; style 2"-3" long; stigma 2-lobed; capsule much compressed, 6"-8" high, longer than the calyx.
In dry soil, western New York and Ontario to Wisconsin, south to Georgia and Tennessee. Yellow gentian. Pyramid-flower or -plant. June-Aug.