This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Galium tinctorium L. Sp. Pl. 106. 1753.
Galium trifidum var. latifolium Torr. Fl. N. & Mid.
States, 78. 1826. Galium tinctorium filifolium Wiegand, Bull. Torr. Club 24: 397. 1897.
Perennial; stem erect, 6-15' high, rather stiff, branched almost to the base, the branches commonly solitary, strict (not irregularly diffuse), several times forked; stem 4-angled, nearly glabrous; leaves commonly in 4's, linear to lanceolate, 1/2'-1' long, mostly broadest below the middle, obtuse, cuneate at the base, dark green and dull, not papillose, 1-nerved, the margins and midrib roughish; flowers terminal in clusters of 2 or 3; pedicels slender, not much divaricate in fruit; corolla white, large, 1"-1 3/4" broad, 4-parted, its lobes oblong, acute; disk large; fruit smooth; seed spherical, hollow, annular in cross-section.
Damp shady places, wet meadows and swamps, Quebec to North Carolina, Florida, Tennessee, Michigan, Nebraska and Arizona. May-July.
Galium tinctorium labradoricum Wiegand, Bull. Torr. Club 24: 398. 1897.
Galium labradoricum Wiegand, Rhodora 6: 21. 1904.
Perennial, with very slender rootstocks; stems weak, smooth, slender, more or less branched, 2-12' high. Leaves1/4' -3/4' long, linear-oblanceolate, narrowed at the base, becoming reflexed, scabrous on the margins and midvein beneath; flowers solitary, about 1" broad, or in simple cymes; corolla white, mostly 4-parted; fruit smooth, seed annular in cross-section.
In mossy bogs, Newfoundland to Wisconsin, Connecticut, western Massachusetts and New York. June-Aug.
Galium trifidum L. Sp. Pl. 105. 1753- G. trifidum var. pusillum A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 209. 1867.
Perennial by slender rootstocks, very slender and weak; stem ascending, 16' long or less, much branched and inter-tangled; stem sharply 4-angled, rough; branches commonly in 2's; leaves in 4's, linear-spatulate, 2V-7" long, obtuse, cuneate at the base, 1-nerved, dark green and dull on both surfaces, scarcely papillose, the margins and midrib retrorse-scabrous; flowers small, on lateral or terminal pedicels which are capillary and much longer than the leaves, commonly two at each node or three terminal; corolla very small, white, 1/4" long, trifid, its lobes broadly oval, very obtuse; fruit glabrous; seed spherical and hollow, annular in cross-section Sphagnous bogs and cold swamps, Newfoundland to New York, British Columbia, Ohio, Nebraska and Colorado. Europe and Asia. Summer.
Galium Claytoni Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 78. 1803.
Galium tinctorium Bigelow, Fl. Bost. Ed. 2, 54. 1824.
Perennial; stem erect or ascending, more diffuse when old, 6'-20 high; stem slender or sometimes quite stout, sharply 4-angled, more or less rough, the diffuse branches in 2's; leaves of medium size, 4"-8" long, commonly in 5's or 6's, linear-spatulate or spatulate-oblong, obtuse, cuneately narrowed into a short petiole, rather firm in texture, scabrous on the margin and midrib, dark green and dull above, not papillose, discolored in drying; flowers in clusters of 2's or 3's, terminal, provided with 1 or 2 minute bracts; pedicels straight, in fruit strongly divaricate, glabrous and rather stout; corolla minute, white, 3-parted, the lobes broadly oval, obtuse; fruit glabrous; seed spherical and hollow, annular in cross-section.
Swamps, Quebec to New York, North Carolina, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska and Texas. May-July.