Perennial strong-smelling herbs, some exotic species shrubby, with mostly opposite large leaves, and small purple greenish or yellow proterogynous flowers, in terminal panicled cymes or thyrses. Calyx 5-parted or 5-cleft. the segments or lobes mostly obtuse. Corolla irregular, the tube globose to oblong, not gibbous nor spurred at the base, the limb 5-lobed, the 2 upper lobes longer, erect, the lateral ones ascending, the lower spreading or reflexed. Stamens 5, 4 of them anther-bearing and didynamous, declined, mostly included, their anther-sacs confluent into one, the fifth sterile, reduced to a scale on the roof of the corolla tube. Style filiform; stigma capitate or truncate. Capsule ovoid, septicidally dehiscent. Seeds rugose, not winged. [Named for its repute as a remedy for scrofula.]

About 120 species, natives of the northern hemisphere, most abundant in southern Europe. Besides the following, 2 or 3 others occur in the western United States. Type species: Scrophularia nodosa L.

Corolla dull outside; sterile stamen deep purple.

1. S. marylandica.

Corolla shining outside; sterile stamen greenish yellow.

Upper lip of the corolla as long as the tube; panicle-branches sparingly glandular; leaf-blades not hastate-incised at the base.

2. S. leporella.

Upper lip of the corolla much shorter than the tube; panicle-branches densely glandular; leaf-blades, especially the lower ones, incised-hastate at the base.

3. S. occidentalis.

7 Scrophularia Tourn L Sp Pl 619 1753 420

1. Scrophularia Marylandica L. Maryland Figwort, Heal-All Or Pilewort

Fig. 3749

Scrophularia marylandica L. Sp. Pl. 619. 1753. Scrophularia nodosa var. marylandica A. Gray, Syn. Fl. 2: Part 1, 258. 1878.

Glabrous below, somewhat glandular-pubescent above; stem slender, 4-angled with grooved sides, usually widely branched, erect, 3°-10° high. Leaves membranous, slender-petioled, usually puberulent beneath, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, sharply serrate, narrowed, truncate or subcordate at the base, 3'-12' long; flowers greenish-purple, 3"-4" long, very numerous in the nearly leafless thyrses; bractlets mostly opposite, pedicels slender, ascending, 4"-12" long; calyx-lobes broadly ovate, obtuse, about the length of the tube; corolla green, dull without, brownish purple and shining within, little contracted at the throat, the two lateral lobes slightly spreading, the upper lip erect, its lobes short, rounded; capsule subglobose, with a slender tip; sterile stamen deep purple.

In woods and thickets, Maine to South Dakota, North Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee. Scrofula-plant. Carpenter's-square. Ascends to 4000 ft. in North Carolina. July-Sept.

Scrophularia neglecta Rydb. differs from S. marylandica in the pubescent leaves, the larger corollas and larger capsules; it occurs in the western part of our range.

1 Scrophularia Marylandica L Maryland Figwort Heal 421

2. Scrophularia Leporella Bicknell. Hare Figwort

Fig. 3750

Scrophularia leporella Bicknell, Bull. Torr. Club 23: 317. 1896.

Stem puberulent below, viscid-glandular above, sharply 4-angled with flat sides, 3°-8° tall, simple, or somewhat branched. Leaves short-petioled, ovate to lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, mostly narrowed at the base, but sometimes subcordate, glabrous on both sides when mature, usually in-cised-dentate, 2'-10' long; flowers 4"-5" long, in elongated narrow thyrses; bractlets mostly alternate; calyx-lobes ovate, obtuse, or acute; corolla contracted at the throat, green to purple and shining without, dull within, the two lateral lobes erect; lobes of the upper lip often narrowly oblong; sterile stamen greenish yellow; capsule ovoid-conic.

In woods and along roadsides, Vermont to Minnesota, Virginia and Kansas. Ascends to 3500 ft. in Virginia. May-July.

3. Scrophularia Occidentalis (Rydb.) Bicknell. Western Figwort

Fig. 3751

Scrophularia nodosa occidentalis Rydb. Contr. Nat. Herb.

3: 517. 1896. Scrophularia occidentalis Bicknell, Bull. Torr. Club 23:

315. 1896.

Similar to S. leporella in habit, but with densely glandular panicle-branches. Stem more or less glandular; leaf-blades ovate to lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, incised or incised-serrate, at least those of the lower leaves hastately incised at the base; corolla 4"-5" long, the upper lip much shorter than the tube; capsules ovoid, 31/2"-4" long.

In low grounds and thickets, South Dakota to Oklahoma, Washington and California. June-Aug.

3 Scrophularia Occidentalis Rydb Bicknell Western  422