This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
H. virginianum L. Sp. Pl. 146. 1753.
Perennial by scaly rootstocks; stems slender, glabrous or nearly so, simple or sparingly branched, ascending or erect, rather weak, 1°-3° long. Lower and basal leaves long-petioled, 6'-10' long, pinnately divided into 5-7 oblong ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute or acutish, sharply toothed or incised segments 1'-2' long, glabrous or with few scattered hairs; upper leaves similar, short-petioled, smaller, with fewer segments; cymes slender-pedun-cled, simple or forked, dense or at length open; flowers white or violet, purple, darkest at high altitudes, short-pedicelled; pedicels strigose-pubescent; calyx-segments narrowly linear, hispid, spreading, the sinuses not ap-pendaged; corolla about 4" long, its segments erect; capsule globose, nearly 2" in diameter.
H. patens Britton, of Minnesota, differs in having the calyx-segments appressed to the corolla, the corolla-segments with spreading tips.
Perennial by scaly rootstocks, villous-hirsute all over; stem rather stout, 2°-3° high. Lower leaves long-petioled, 8-12' long, deeply pinnatilid or pinnately divided into 7-13 oval or ovate obtuse coarsely dentate segments 1-3' long; upper leaves similar, smaller, shorter-petioled and with fewer segments; cymes long-peduncled, simple or forked, very dense; peduncles stout; pedicels short; flowers nearly white; calyx cleft to below the middle, its lobes lanceolate, erect, white-hispid, the sinuses not appendaged; corolla 5"-6" long; anthers oblong; capsule globose, densely white-hispid, 1 1/2" in diameter, enclosed by the calyx.
In rich woods, Virginia to Ohio, Illinois, Alabama and Tennessee. Ascends to 4000 ft. in Virginia.
H. appendiculatum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 134. 1803.
Biennial, rough-hairy all over; stem slender, simple or usually branched, weak, 1°-2° long, somewhat viscid above. Lower and basal leaves long-petioled, pinnatifid or pinnately divided into 5-7 ovate or oval, acute or obtusish, irregularly dentate or incised, membranous segments; upper leaves smaller and shorter-petioled, ovate to orbicular, variously lobed, the lobes acute and dentate; cymes loose, branched, the slender pedicels 4"- 10" long; calyx parted to near the base, enlarging in fruit, the segments triangular-lanceolate, acuminate, spreading, with a short reflexed appendage in each sinus; corolla violet or purple, 6-7" long; stamens little exserted; capsule about 1 1/2" in diameter.
In woods, Ontario to New York, North Carolina, west to Minnesota and Kansas. May-June.
H. canadense L. Syst. Ed. 10, 919. 1759.
Perennial by scaly rootstocks; stems rather slender, commonly simple, glabrous or nearly so, 1°-2 1/2° high. Leaves nearly orbicular, cordate, sparingly pubescent, at least above, palmately 5-9-lobed, the lower long-petioled, often 12' broad, occasionally with 1 or 2 pairs of small segments on the petiole; upper leaves smaller, but usually 4'-7' broad; lobes ovate, acuminate, dentate; peduncles shorter than the leaves; cymes dense or becoming loose, simple or forked; pedicels short, nearly glabrous; calyx cleft nearly to the base, its segments linear-lanceolate, acute, nearly or quite glabrous, sometimes with a minute tooth in each sinus; corolla campanulate-rotate, white to purplish anthers linear-oblong; capsule 2" in diameter.
In woods, Vermont to New York, North Carolina, Ontario, Illinois and Kentucky. Ascends to 4000 ft. in Virginia. June-Aug.