This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Myosotis Lappula L. Sp. Pl. 131. 1753. Lappula echinata Gilib. Fl. Lithuan. 1: 25. 1781. Lappula Myosotis Moench, Meth. 417. 1794. Echinospermum Lappula Lehm. Asperif. 121. 1818. Lappula Lappula Karst. Deutsch. Fl. 979. 1880-83.
Annual, pale, leafy, hispid or appressed-pubes-cent, branched, 1°-2° high, the branches erect. Leaves linear, linear-oblong or the lowest spatu-late, sessile or the lower narrowed into petioles, ascending or erect, obtuse or obtusish at the apex, 1/2'-1 1/2' long; racemes leafy-bracted, more or less 1-sided; pedicels very short, stout, not deflexed in fruit; calyx-segments lanceolate, becoming unequal and spreading; corolla blue, about 1" broad; fruit globose-oval, 1 1/2" in diameter; the nutlets papillose or also prickly on the back, the margins armed with 2 rows of slender distinct prickles.
Cynoglossum pilosum Nutt. Gen. 1: 114. 1818. Not R. & P. 1794. Echinospermum texanum Scheele, Linnaea 25: 260. 1852. Echinospermum Redowskii var. cupulatum A. Gray in Brewer & Wats. Bot. Cal. 1: 530. 1876. Lappula texana Britton, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 273. 1894. L. Redowskii occidentalis Rydb. Contr. Nat. Herb. 3:
Annual, similar to the preceding species, 6'- 20 high, paniculately branched, the branches ascending or erect. Leaves linear or linear-oblong, mostly obtuse, the lower narrowed into petioles; racemes leafy-bracted; pedicels short, not deflexed in fruit; flowers about 1" broad; nutlets papillose-tuberculate on the back, the margins armed with a single row of flat, usually more or less confluent bristles, or these united into a cup.
In dry soil, Ontario to Manitoba, British Columbia, south to Nebraska, Texas and Arizona. Found also in ballast at Atlantic seaports. Nutlets with nearly distinct bristles and others with bristles united into a cup sometimes occur on the same fruit. April-Aug.
Biennial, pubescent; stem paniculately branched, 2°- 4° high, the branches slender, spreading. Basal leaves (seldom present at flowering time) ovate or nearly orbicular, cordate, long-petioled, mostly obtuse; stem leaves ovate-oblong or oval, acute or acuminate at the apex, narrowed to the base, peti-oled, 3'-8' long, 1'- 4' wide, the uppermost smaller, sessile; racemes very slender, divergent, bracted at the base, the bracts similar to the upper leaves; pedicels slender, short, recurved in fruit; corolla nearly white, about 1" broad; fruit globose, nearly 2" in diameter; nutlets covered on the margins and usually also on the back by the slender distinct flattened barbed prickles, the backs commonly also more or less papillose.
In dry woods and thickets, New Brunswick to Ontario, Minnesota, Georgia, Louisiana, Nebraska and Kansas. Called beargar's-ticks or -lice. Virginia mouse-ear. Soldiers. Stick-tight. Dysentery-root or -weed. June-Sept.
Echinospermum floribundum Lehm. in Hook. Fl.
Bor. Am. 2: 84. pl. 164. 1834. Lappula floribunda Greene, Pittonia 2: 182. 1891.
Biennial or perennial, rough-pubescent; stem stout, paniculately branched, 2°-5° high, the branches nearly erect. Leaves oblong, oblong-lanceolate, or linear-lanceolate, 2'- 4' long, 2"-10" wide, sessile, acute or obtuse at the apex, or the lower narrowed into petioles; racemes numerous, erect or nearly so, very densely flowered, bracted at the base, many of them in pairs; pedicels 2 "-4" long, reflexed in fruit; flowers blue or white, 3"-5" broad; fruit pyramidal, about 3" broad; nutlets keeled, papillose-tuberculate on the back, the margins armed with a single row of flat prickles, which are sometimes confluent at the base.
Western Ontario and Minnesota to Saskatchewan, British Columbia, south to New Mexico and California. June-Aug.
Annual, rough-puberulent; stem slender, erect, paniculately branched, 1°-3° high, the branches spreading or ascending. Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, mostly narrowed at both ends, 2-4' long, 2 1/2"-6" wide, the lower petioled, the upper sessile; racemes slender, many-flowered; pedicels slender, 2"-4" long, deflexed in fruit; corolla white or bluish, about 1" broad; fruit pyramidal, about 2" broad; nutlets keeled, papillose-tuberculate on the back, rarely with a few prickles on the keel, the margins armed with a single row of flat prickles, these sometimes few.
In thickets, Quebec to Manitoba, British Columbia, Iowa, Nebraska and Wyoming. Also in Europe and Asia. May-Aug.