This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Valeriana Locusta var. radiata L. Sp. Pl. 34. 1753. Fedia radiata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 118. 1803. Valerianella radiata Dufr. Hist. Val. 57. 1811.
Glabrous, or minutely pubescent below, 6'-18' high. Basal and lower leaves spatulate, obtuse, entire, the upper lanceolate, usually dentate; cymes 4"-6" broad, dense; bracts small, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate; corolla white, 1" long; fruit narrowly ovate-tetragonal, finely pubescent or sometimes glabrous, 1" long, 1/2" thick, the empty cavities as thick as or thicker than the beaked fertile one and separated from each other by a broad shallow groove.
Valerianella stenocarpa Krok, Kongl. Svensk. Akad. Handl. 5: 64. 1866.
Similar to the preceding species and perhaps better regarded as a race of it. Fruit oblong-tetragonal, slightly smaller, glabrous or sometimes pubescent; sterile cavities not as thick as the oblong seed-bearing one, and separated from each other by a narrow groove.
Prairies and woodlands, Kansas and Missouri to Texas. March-June.
Fedia Woodsiana T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 52. 1841. Valerianella Woodsiana Walp. Rep. 2: 527. 1843. F. umbilicata Sulliv. Am. Journ. Sci. 42: 50. 1842. Fedia patallaria Sulliv.; A. Gray, Man. 183. 1848.
Usually larger than any of the preceding species, sometimes 30 high, glabrous or very nearly so throughout. Basal and lower leaves spatulate, obtuse, entire; upper leaves lanceolate or linear-oblong, usually dentate; cymes 3"-6" broad, few-flowered; bracts comparatively large, lanceolate; corolla white, about 1" long; fruit glabrous, nearly globular to saucer-shaped, about 1" in diameter, the empty cavities inflated, introrse with a depression or concavity between them, as broad as the fertile one.
In moist soil, New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio to Tennessee and Texas. May-July.
Fedia longiflora T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 51. 1841. Valerianella longiflora Walp. Rep. 2: 527. 1843.
Glabrous; stem usually several times forked, 6'-12' high. Leaves very obtuse, the basal ones spatulate, 1'-21/2' long, 4"-8" wide, those of the stem oblong or spatulate-oblong, smaller, somewhat clasping; cymes dense, corymbed, commonly numerous, several-many-flowered; corolla salverform, pink or purplish, about 6" long, the almost filiform tube 3-4 times as long as the somewhat irregular 5-parted limb, the lobes linear-oblong; bracts with small gland-tipped teeth; fruit broadly ovate or nearly orbicular in outline, the empty cavities divergent, larger than the oblong seed-bearing one.
In moist rocky situations, Missouri and Arkansas. April-May.