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An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3 | by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown



The enterprise, projected by Judge Brown, and maintained and supervised by him throughout, has been prosecuted for the past twenty-two years. Its execution has been mainly the work of Dr. Britton. The text, founded upon a careful examination of living or herbarium specimens, has been chiefly prepared by him, with the assistance, however, of specialists in a few groups who have contributed the descriptions for certain families as stated in the footnotes. The figures also have been drawn by artists under his immediate supervision; except those of most of the grasses, drawn for the first edition by Mr. Holm, under the eye of Prof. Scribner, and those in the other families contributed by specialists who have supervised them; while the work in all its parts has been carefully revised by both authors. The keys to the genera and species, based upon a few distinctice characters, will, it is believed, greatly facilitate the determinations.

TitleAn Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol3
AuthorNathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown
PublisherCharles Scribner's Sons
Year1913
Copyright1913, Nathaniel L. Britton and Helen C. Brown
AmazonAn Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set.

An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions

From Newfoundland To The Parallel Of The Southern Boundary Of Virginia, And From The Atlantic Ocean Westward To The 102d Meridian

By Nathaniel Lord Britton, Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D. Director-In-Chief Of The New York Botanical Garden; Professor In Columbia University

And Hon. Addison Brown, A.B., LL.D. President Of The New York Botanical Garden

The Descriptive Text Chiefly Prepared By Professor Britton, With The Assistance Of Specialists In Several Groups', The Figures Also Drawn Under His Supervision

Second Edition - Revised And Enlarged In Three Volumes

Vol. III.

Gentianaceae To Compositae

Gentian To Thistle

-Symbols Used
0 is used after figures to indicate feet. ' is used after figures to indicate inches. is used after figures to indicate lines, or twelfths of an inch. ' over syllables indicates the accent, and the ...
-Family 15. Gentianaceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 20. 1829. Gentian Family
Bitter mostly quite glabrous herbs, with opposite (rarely verticillate) exstipu-late entire leaves, reduced to scales in Bartonia, and regular perfect flowers in terminal or axillary clusters, or soli...
-1. Centaurium Hill. Brit. Herb. 62. 1756. [Erythraea Neck. Elem. 2: 10. 1790.]
Herbs, mostly annual or biennial, with sessile or amplexicaul leaves, and small or middle sized, commonly numerous, pink, white or yellow flowers in cymes or spikes. Calyx tubular, 5-4-lobed or -divid...
-Centaurium Hill. Brit. Herb. 62. 1756. [Erythraea Neck. Elem. 2: 10. 1790.]. Continued
3. Centaurium Pulchellum (Sw.) Druce. Branching Centaury Fig. 3332 Gentiana pulchella Sw. Act. Holm. 1783: 84. f. 8, 9. 1783. Gentiana ramosissima Vill. Hist. Pl. Dauph. 2: 530. 1787. Erythraea ra...
-2. Sabbatia Adans. Fam. Pl. 2: 503. 1763
Annual or biennial erect usually branched glabrous herbs, with opposite or sometimes verticillate sessile or rarely petioled or clasping leaves, and rather large terminal and solitary or cymose pink r...
-2. Sabbatia Adans. Fam. Pl. 2: 503. 1763. Part 2
2. Sabbatia Paniculata (Michx.) Pursh. Branching Sabbatia Fig. 3337 C. paniculata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 146. 1803. S. paniculata Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 138. 1814. Stem usually freely branching, 4-an...
-2. Sabbatia Adans. Fam. Pl. 2: 503. 1763. Part 3
6. Sabbatia Campestris Nutt Prairie Sabbatia Fig. 3341 Sabbatia campestris Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (II.) 5: 197, 1833-37. Stem 4-angled, branched, 6'-15' high, the branches alternate or dicho...
-2. Sabbatia Adans. Fam. Pl. 2: 503. 1763. Part 4
10. Sabbatia Dodecandra (L.) B.S.P. Large Marsh Pink Fig. 3345 Chironia dodecandra L. Sp. Pl. 190. 1753. Chironia chloroides Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 147. 1803. Sabbatia chloroides Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept...
-3. Eustoma Salisb. Parad. Lond. Pl. 34. 1806
Erect usually branched glaucous annual herbs, with opposite sessile or clasping entire leaves. Flowers large, blue, purple or white, long-peduncled, axillary and terminal, solitary or paniculate. Caly...
-4. Gentiana [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 227. 1753
Erect mostly glabrous herbs, with opposite or rarely verticillate, entire sessile or short-petioled leaves. Flowers blue, purple, yellow or white, solitary or clustered, terminal or axillary. Calyx tu...
-4. Gentiana [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 227. 1753. Continued
3. Gentiana Procera Holm. Smaller Fringed Gentian Fig. 3349 Gentiana procera Holm, Ottawa Nat. 15: 11. 1901. Annual; similar to the preceding species but smaller; stem simple, or little branched, 3...
-5. Dasystephana [Reneal.] Adans. Fam. Pl. 2: 502. 1763
Mostly perennial herbs with opposite entire leaves, and large sessile or short-stalked flowers in terminal and axillary clusters, or sometimes solitary, usually 2-bracted under the calyx. Calyx mostly...
-Dasystephana [Reneal.] Adans. Fam. Pl. Part 2
2. Dasystephana Puberula (Michx.) Small. Downy Gentian Fig. 3354 Gentiana puberula Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 176. 1803. D. puberula Small, Fl. SE. U. S. 930. 1903. Perennial; stems usually solitary, l...
-Dasystephana [Reneal.] Adans. Fam. Pl. Part 3
5. Dasystephana Andrewsii (Griseb.) Small Closed Blue Or Blind Gentian Fig. 3357 ?Gentiana alba Muhl. Cat. Ed. 2, 29. 1818. ?Genliana clausa Raf. Med. Fl. 1: 210. 1832. G. Andrewsii Griseb. in Hook....
-Dasystephana [Reneal.] Adans. Fam. Pl. Part 4
8. Dasystephana Grayi (Kusnezow) Britton. Gray's Gentian Fig. 3360 Gentiana linearis var. latifolia A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 309. 1887. Gentiana Grayi Kusnezow, Act. Hort. Petrop. 13: 59. 1893...
-6. Pleurogyna Eschol. Linnaea 1: 187. 1826
Slender usually branched annual glabrous herbs, with opposite leaves, and rather large blue or white flowers in terminal narrow racemes or panicles, or solitary at the ends of the slender peduncles. C...
-7. Frasera Walt. Fl. Car. 87. 1788
Perennial or biennial erect glabrous mostly tall herbs, with opposite or verticillate leaves, and rather large white yellowish or bluish flowers, in terminal cymose panicles or thyrses. Calyx 4-parted...
-8. Halenia Borck. In Roem. Archiv 1: 25. 1796. [Tetragonanthus S. G. Gmel. Fl. Sib. 4: 114. Hyponym. 1769.]
Annual or perennial usually tufted glabrous herbs, with opposite leaves, and middle-sized white yellowish purple or blue flowers in terminal and axillary often panicled cymes. Calyx deeply 4-cleft or ...
-9. Obolaria L. Sp. Pl. 632. 1753
A low glabrous perennial herb, the stem simple or branched, the lower leaves reduced to opposite scales, the upper foliaceous, subtending the racemose-spicate or thyrsoid white or purplish flowers. Ca...
-10. Bartonia Muhl.; Willd. Neue Schrift Gcs. Nat. Fr. Berlin 3: 444. 1801
Slender or filiform erect glabrous annual or biennial herbs, the leaves reduced to minute opposite subulate scales, or some of them alternate, and white purplish or yellowish racemose or paniculate fl...
-Family 16. Menyanthaceae G. Don, Gard. Diet. 4: 167. 1837. Buckbean Family
Perennial aquatic or marsh herbs, with basal or alternate entire crenate or 3-foliolate leaves, and clustered regular perfect flowers. Calyx inferior, deeply 5-parted, persistent. Corolla funnel form ...
-1. Menyanthes [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 145. 1753
A perennial glabrous marsh herb, with creeping rootstocks, alternate long-petioled 3-foliolate basal leaves, and white or purplish flowers, racemose or panicled on long lateral scapes or peduncles. Ca...
-2. Nymphoides Hill, Brit. Herb. 77. 1756
[Limnanthemum S. G. Gmelin, Nov. Act. Acad. Petrop. 14: 527. pl. 17. f. 2. 1769.] Aquatic perennial herbs, with slender rootstocks. Leaves floating, petioled, ovate or orbicular, deeply cordate, enti...
-Family 17. Apocynaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 299. 1836. Dogbane Family
Perennial herbs, shrubs, vines, or some tropical genera trees, mostly with an acrid milky juice, with simple opposite alternate or verticillate exstipulate leaves, and perfect regular 5-parted cymose ...
-1. Amsonia Walt. Fl. Car. 98. 1788
Perennial herbs, with alternate membranous leaves, and rather large blue or bluish flowers, in terminal thyrsoid or corymbose cymes. Calyx 5-parted, the segments narrow, acuminate. Corolla mostly salv...
-3. Apocynum L. Sp. Pl. 213. 1753
Perennial branching herbs, with opposite entire leaves, and small white or pink flowers in terminal and sometimes axillary corymbed cymes. Calyx 5-parted, the segments acute. Corolla urceolate to camp...
-3. Apocynum L. Sp. Pl. 213. 1753. Continued
2. Apocynum Medium Greene. Intermediate Dogbane Fig. 3377 Apocynum medium Greene, Pittonia 3: 29. 1897. Apocynum speciosum G. S. Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 13: 83. 1899. Rootstock horizontal; ...
-4. Trachelospermum Lemaire, Jard. Fleur. 1: Pl. 61. 1851
Twining woody vines (some exotic species nearly erect shrubs), with opposite entire deciduous leaves, and small yellow greenish or white flowers in terminal and axillary compound cymes. Calyx small, d...
-Family 18. Asclepiadaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 302. 1836. Milkweed Family
Perennial herbs, vines or shrubs, mostly with milky juice, with opposite alternate or verticillate exstipulate leaves, and mostly umbellate perfect regular flowers. Calyx inferior, its tube very short...
-1. Asclepias L. Sp. Pl. 214. 1753
Perennial erect or decumbent herbs, with opposite verticillate or rarely alternate entire leaves, and middle-sized or small flowers in terminal or axillary umbels. Calyx 5-parted or 5-divided, usually...
-1. Asclepias L. Sp. Pl. 214. 1753. Part 2
1. Asclepias Tuberosa L. Butterfly-Weed Or -Flower. Pleurisy-Root Fig. 3383 Asclepias tuberosa L. Sp. Pl. 217. 1753. Hirsute-pubescent; stems stout, simple, or branched near the summit, ascending o...
-1. Asclepias L. Sp. Pl. 214. 1753. Part 3
4. Asclepias Rubra L. Red Milkweed Fig. 3386 Asclepias rubra L. Sp. Pl. 217. 1753. Nearly glabrous throughout; stem usually simple, 1- 4 high. Leaves opposite, rather distant, short-petio...
-1. Asclepias L. Sp. Pl. 214. 1753. Part 4
7. Asclepias Pulchra Ehrh. Hairy Milkweed Fig. 3389 Asclepias pulchra Ehrh.; Willd. Sp. Pl. 1: 1267. 1793. A. incarnata var. pulchra Pers. Syn. 1: 276. 1805. Similar to the preceding species and pe...
-1. Asclepias L. Sp. Pl. 214. 1753. Part 5
10. Asclepias Amplexicaulis J. E. Smith. Blunt-Leaved Milkweed Fig. 3392 A. amplexicaulis J. E. Smith, Georgia Insects 1:13. pl. 7. 1797. A. obtusifolia Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 115. 1803. Nearly gl...
-1. Asclepias L. Sp. Pl. 214. 1753. Part 6
13. Asclepias Exaltata (L.) Muhl. Poke Or Tall Milkweed Fig. 3395 A. Syriaca var. exaltata L. Sp. Pl. Ed. 2, 313. 1762. Asclepias exaltata Muhl. Cat. 28. 1813. A. phytolaccoides Pursh, Fl. Am. Sep...
-1. Asclepias L. Sp. Pl. 214. 1753. Part 7
16. Asclepias Syriaca L. Common Milkweed. Silkweed Fig. 3398 Asclepias syriaca L. Sp. Pl. 214. 1753. Asclepias Cornuti Dec. in DC. Prodr. 8: 564. 1844. Stem stout, usually simple, 3-5 hi...
-1. Asclepias L. Sp. Pl. 214. 1753. Part 8
19. Asclepias Ovalifolia Dec. Oval-Leaved Or Dwarf Milkweed Fig. 3401 Asclepias ovalifolia Dec. in DC. Prodr. 8: 567. 1844. Finely tomentose all over; stem simple, usually slender, erect, 10'- 2&de...
-1. Asclepias L. Sp. Pl. 214. 1753. Part 9
22. Asclepias Verticillata L. Whorled Milkweed Fig. 3404 Asclepias verticillata L. Sp. Pl. 217. 1753. . Roots slender, fascicled; stem slender, simple or branched, pubescent in lines above, leafy, ...
-2. Asclepiodora A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 12: 66. 1876
Erect or decumbent perennial herbs, similar to Asclepias, with alternate or opposite entire leaves, and rather large flowers in terminal solitary or corymbed umbels. Sepals lanceolate. Corolla rotate,...
-3. Acerates Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 316. 1817
Perennial herbs, similar to Asclcpias, with alternate or opposite thick leaves, and green or purplish flowers in terminal or axillary and short-peduncled or sessile umbels. Caly.x 5-parted or 5-divide...
-3. Acerates Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 316. 1817. Continued
3. Acerates Floridana (Lam.) A. S. Hitchc. Florida Milkweed Fig. 3411 Asclepias floridana Lam. Encycl. 1: 284. 1783. Acerates longifolia Elf. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 317. 1817. Acerates floridana A. S. ...
-4. Gonolobus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 119. 1803
[Ampelanus Raf.; Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 21: 314. 1894.] [Enslenia Nutt. Gen. 1: 164. 1818. Not Raf. 1817.] Perennial twining herbaceous vines, with petioled opposite cordate thin leaves, and smal...
-5. Cynanchum L. Sp. Pl. 212. 1753
[Vincetoxicum Moench, Meth. 717. 1794] Perennial twining herbaceous or slightly woody vines (some species erect herbs), with opposite or rarely verticillate or alternate leaves, and small yellowish gr...
-6. Vincetoxicum Walt. Fl. Car. 104. 1788
Twining or trailing perennial vines, with opposite usually cordate leaves, and rather large purple, brown, white or greenish flowers in axillary cyme-like Umbels or fascicles. Calyx 5-parted or deeply...
-6. Vincetoxicum Walt. Fl. Car. 104. 1788. Part 2
3. Vincetoxicum Hirsutum (Michx.) Britton. Hairy Vincetoxicum Fig. 3418 Gonolobus hirsutus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 119. 1803. V. hirsutum Britton, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 266. 1894. Stem downy, slender. ...
-6. Vincetoxicum Walt. Fl. Car. 104. 1788. Part 3
6. Vinceoxicum Snortii (A. Gray) Britton. Short's Vincetoxicum Fig. 3421 Gonolobus obliquus var. Shcrtii A. Gray, Syn. Fl. 2: Part 1, 104. 1878. G. Shortii A. Gray, loc. cit. Ed. 2, 404. 1886. V. S...
-Family 19. Dichondraceae Dumort. Anal. Fam. 20, 25. 1829. Dichondra Family
Consists only of the following genus: 1. Dichondra Forst. Char. Gen. Pl. 39. Pl. 40. 1776 Prostrate or creeping slender annual (sometimes perennial?) silky-pubescent or glabrous herbs, with nearly o...
-Family 20. Convolvulaceae Vent. Tabl. 2: 394. 1799. Morning-Glory Family
Herbs, some tropical species shrubs or trees, the stems twining, ascending, trailing or erect, with alternate exstipulate entire dentate lobed or dissected leaves, and regular perfect axillary cymose ...
-1. Stylisma Raf. Neog. 2. 1825
Herbs, mostly perennial and procumbent, with entire short-petioled or sessile leaves, and 1-5-flowered axillary peduncles; flowers white, purple, pink, or yellow. Sepals acute or obtuse. Corolla campa...
-2. Evolvulus L. Sp. Pl. Ed. 2, 391. 1762
Erect or diffuse branching, mostly silky-pubescent or pilose, annual or perennial herbs, with small usually entire leaves, and axillary solitary, racemose or paniculate, small blue pink or white flowe...
-3. Quamoclit [Tourn.] Moench, Meth. 453. 1794
Twining herbaceous vines, with petioled entire lobed or pinnately parted leaves, and cymose racemose or solitary peduncled axillary flowers. Sepals 5, herbaceous, equal, acuminate, mucronate or append...
-4. Ipomoea L. Sp. Pl. 159. 1753
Twining trailing ascending or rarely erect herbs, annual or perennial, with large showy axillary solitary or cymose flowers. Sepals equal or unequal. Corolla funnelform or cam-panulate, the limb entir...
-4. Ipomoea L. Sp. Pl. 159. 1753. Continued
3. Ipomoea Trichocarpa Ell. Small-Flowered Pink Morning-Glory Fig. 3432 Convolvulus carolinus L. Sp. Pl. 154. 1753. Ipomoea trichocarpa Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 1: 258. 1817. Ipomoea commutata R. & S...
-6. Convolvulus L. Sp. Pl. 153. 1753
Herbs (the following species perennials with slender roots or rootstocks) with trailing, twining or erect stems. Leaves entire dentate or lobed, mostly cordate or sagittate and petioled. Flowers axill...
-6. Convolvulus L. Sp. Pl. 153. 1753. Continued
2. Convolvulus Repens L. Trailing Or Hedge Bindweed Fig. 3437 Convolvulus repens L. Sp. Pl. 153. 1753. Convolvulus sepium var. repens A. Gray, Syn. Fl. 2: Part 1, 215. 1878. More or less pubescent...
-Family 21. Cuscutaceae Dumort, Anal. Fam. 20. 1829. Dodder Family
White or yellow slender parasites, dextrorsely twining, the leaves reduced to minute alternate scales, the small white, yellowish or pinkish flowers cymosely clustered. Calyx inferior, 5-lobed or 5-pa...
-1. Cuscuta [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 124. 1753
Characters of the family. The filiform twining stems are parasitic on herbs and shrubs by numerous minute suckers. The seeds germinate in the soil and the plantlet attaches itself to its host, its roo...
-1. Cuscuta [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 124. 1753. Part 2
2. Cuscuta Epithymum Murr. Thyme Dodder. Lesser Lucerne Or Clover Dodder Fig. 3443 Cuscuta Epithymum Murr. in L. Syst. Ed. 13, 140. 1774. Cuscuta Trifolii Bab. Phytol. 1: 467. 1843. Stems filiform,...
-1. Cuscuta [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 124. 1753. Part 3
5. Cuscuta Indecora Choisy. Pretty Dodder Fig. 3446 Cuscuta indecora Choisy, Mem. Soc. Gen. 9: 278. pl. 3. f. 5. 1841 C. pulcherrima Scheele, Linnaea 21: 750. 1848. Cuscuta decora Choisy; Engelm. T...
-1. Cuscuta [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 124. 1753. Part 4
9. Cuscuta Rostrata Shuttlw. Beaked Dodder Fig. 3450 Cuscuta rostrata Shuttlw.; Engelm. Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 5: 225. 1845. Stems coarse, yellowish white; flowers larger than in any of our other ...
-Family 22. Polemoniaceae Dc. Fl. Franc. 3: 645. 1805. Phlox Family
Herbs, some species slightly woody, with alternate or opposite entire lobed or dissected leaves. Flowers perfect, corymbose-capitate, cymose or paniculate, regular, or nearly regular. Calyx inferior, ...
-1. Phlox L. Sp. Pl. 151. 1753
Perennial or rarely annual, erect or diffuse herbs, with opposite entire leaves, or some of the upper ones alternate, and large blue purple red or white flowers, in terminal cymes or cymose panicles. ...
-1. Phlox L. Sp. Pl. 151. 1753. Part 2
1. Phlox Paniculata L. Garden Phlox Fig. 3454 Phlox paniculata L. Sp. Pl. 151. 1753. Stem erect, stout or slender, simple or branched above, glabrous or puberulent, 2-6 high. Leaves thin,...
-1. Phlox L. Sp. Pl. 151. 1753. Part 3
4. Phlox Ovata L. Mountain Phlox Fig. 3457 Phlox ovata L. Sp. Pl. 152. 1753. Phlox Carolina L. Sp. Pl. Ed. 2, 216. 1762. Glabrous or nearly so throughout; stems simple, slender, ascending from a d...
-1. Phlox L. Sp. Pl. 151. 1753. Part 4
8. Phlox Divaricata L. Wild Blue Phlox Fig. 3461 Phlox divaricata L. Sp. Pl l52. 1753. Finely viscid-pubescent; stems ascending or diffuse, slender, producing creeping or ascending leafy shoots fro...
-1. Phlox L. Sp. Pl. 151. 1753. Part 5
12. Phlox Kelseyi Britton. Kelsey's Phlox Fig. 3465 P. Kelseyi Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 19: 225. 1892. Many-stemmed from a woody root, the stems spreading, creeping, or ascending, sometimes 8' lon...
-1. Phlox L. Sp. Pl. 151. 1753. Part 6
16. Phlox Hoodii Richards. Hood's Phlox Fig. 3469 Phlox Hoodii Richards. App. Frank. Journ. 733. pl. 28. 1823. Densely tufted and branched from a woody root, 2'-4' high. Leaves imbricated, erect, r...
-2. Microsteris Greene, Pittonia 3: 300. 1898
Much-branched annual herbs, with entire leaves, all but the floral ones opposite, the small flowers solitary or in pairs in the upper axils. Calyx mostly campanulate, 5-cleft, scarious between the lob...
-3. Gilia R. & P. Prodr. Fl. Per. 47. 1798
Herbs with opposite or alternate, entire pinnatifid palmatifid or dissected leaves. Flowers small or large, solitary, cymose, capitate, thyrsoid, or paniculate. Calyx campanulate or tubular, 5-toothed...
-4 Gilia Spicata Nutt. Spicate Gilia
Fig. 3475 Gilia spicata Nutt Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. (II.) 1: 156. 1848. Perennial, woolly-tomentose; stems erect, rather stout, simple, solitary, or 2-4 from the woody root, 6'-18' high. Leav...
-4. Leptodactylon H. & A. Bot. Beech. Voy. 369. 1841
Low perennial herbs, somewhat woody, with alternate deeply pinnatifid or palmatifid leaves, their segments subulate and spinescent, the rather large flowers terminal, clustered or solitary. Calyx 4-5-...
-5. Polemonium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 162. 1753
Perennial or rarely annual herbs, with alternate pinnate membranous leaves, and mostly large cymose-paniculate or thyrsoid flowers. Calyx herbaceous, not angled nor ribbed, cam-panulate, 5-cleft to ab...
-6. Collomia Nutt. Gen. 1: 126. 1818
Annual or rarely perennial herbs, with alternate mostly entire leaves, and purple white or reddish capitate or cymose flowers. Calyx obpyramidal or cup-shaped, 5-cleft, scarious in the sinuses, accres...
-7. Navarretia R. & P. Fl. Per. 2: 8. 1799
Annual glabrous or viscid-pubescent herbs, with alternate spinose-pinnatifid leaves, or the lowest entire, and numerous small flowers in dense terminal bracted clusters. Calyx prismatic or obpyramidal...
-Family 23. Hydrophyllaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 271. 1836. Water-Leaf Family
Herbs, mostly hirsute, pubescent or scabrous, with alternate or basal, rarely opposite leaves, and perfect regular 5-parted flowers, in scorpioid cymes, spikes or racemes, or rarely solitary. Calyx in...
-I. Hydrophyllum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 146. 1753
Perennial or biennial herbs, with large lobed pinnatifid or pinnately divided leaves, and rather large, white blue or purple flowers, in terminal or lateral peduncled more or less scorpioid cymes. Cal...
-I. Hydrophyllum Virginianum L. Virginia Water-Leaf
Fig. 3484 H. virginianum L. Sp. Pl. 146. 1753. Perennial by scaly rootstocks; stems slender, glabrous or nearly so, simple or sparingly branched, ascending or erect, rather weak, 1-3 long....
-2. Nemophila Nutt. Journ. Phil. Acad. 2: 179. 1822
Annual diffuse pubescent slender and fragile herbs, with alternate or opposite mostly pinnatihd or lobed leaves. Flowers white, blue or variegated, solitary, peduncled, lateral or terminal. Calyx deep...
-3. Nyctelea Scop. Introd. 183. 1777
[Macrocalyx Trew, Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 2: 330 -332. pl. 7. f. I. Hyponym. 1761.] [Ellisia L. Sp. Pl. Ed. 2, 1662. 1763. Not Syst. Ed. 10, 1121. 1759.] Annual hirsute or pubescent branching slender herb...
-4. Phacelia Juss.; J. F. Gmel. Syst. 330. 1791
Annual, biennial or perennial, mostly hirsute hispid or scabrous herbs, with alternate entire dentate lobed pinnatifid or dissected leaves, the lowest rarely opposite, and blue purple violet or white ...
-4. Phacelia Juss.; J. F. Gmel. Syst. 330. 1791. Part 2
2. Phacelia Integrifolia Torr. Crenate-Leaved Phacelia Fig. 3491 P. integrifolia Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 2: 222. pl. 3. 1827. Annual or biennial; stem erect or ascending, rather stout, very leafy, co...
-4. Phacelia Juss.; J. F. Gmel. Syst. 330. 1791. Part 3
5. Phacelia Dubia (L.) Small. Small-Flowered Phacelia Fig. 3494 Polemonium dubium L. Sp. Pl. 163. 1753. Phacelia parviflora Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 140. 1814. Phacelia dubia Small, Bull. Torr. Club 21:...
-5. Nama L. Sp. Pl. 226. 1753
[Hydrolea L. Sp. Pl. Ed. 2, 328. 1762.] Perennial herbs, some tropical species shrubby, with alternate entire leaves, sometimes with spines in their axils, and b!ue cymose-clustered or racemose flowe...
-Family 24. Boraginaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 274. 1836. Borage Family
Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, shrubs, or some tropical species trees. Leaves alternate, very rarely opposite or verticillate, exstipulate, mostly entire and hispid, pubescent, scabrous or setos...
-1. Heliotropium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 130. 1753
Herbs or shrubs, with alternate mostly entire and petioled leaves, and small blue or white flowers, in scorpioid spikes, or scattered. Calyx-lobes or -segments lanceolate or linear. Corolla salverform...
-1. Heliotropium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 130. 1753. Continued
3. Heliotropium Spathulatum Rydb. Spatulate-Leaved Heliotrope Fig. 3504 H. spathulatum Rydb. Bull. Torr. Club 30: 262. 1903. Perennial, glabrous, fleshy, glaucous, branched, 1 - 1 1/2 hig...
-2. Cynoglossum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 134. 1753
Hirsute or hispid (rarely glabrous) mostly tall herbs, with alternate entire leaves, the basal long-petioled, and purple blue or white flowers in panicled, more or less scorpioid racemes. Calyx 5-clef...
-3. Lappula [Rivin.] Moench, Meth. 416. 1794
[Echinospermum Sw.; Lehm. Asperif. 113. 1818.] Annual or perennial rough-pubescent or canescent erect branching herbs, with alternate narrow entire leaves, and small or minute blue or white flowers, ...
-I. Lappula Lappula (L.) Karst. European Stickseed. Burseed
Fig. 3511 Myosotis Lappula L. Sp. Pl. 131. 1753. Lappula echinata Gilib. Fl. Lithuan. 1: 25. 1781. Lappula Myosotis Moench, Meth. 417. 1794. Echinospermum Lappula Lehm. Asperif. 121. 1818. Lappula La...
-4. Allocarya Greene, Pittonia, 1: 12. 1887
Mostly annual low herbs, with linear entire leaves, the lowest often opposite, and small flowers in terminal spikes or racemes. Pedicels thickened at the summit, persistent. Calyx 5-divided, persisten...
-5. Cryptantha Lehm. Sem. Hort. Hamburg. 1832. F. & M. Ind. Sem
Hort. Petrop. 2: 35. 1836. [Krynitzkia F. & M. Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 7: 52. 1841.] Low annual setose or hispid branched herbs, with narrow alternate entire leaves, and small mostly white flowers, in...
-6. Oreocarya Greene, Pittonia, 1: 57. 1887
Perennial or biennial hispid or strigose-pubescent herbs, mostly with thick woody roots, alternate or basal narrow leaves, and small white racemose-paniculate or densely thyrsoid flowers. Calyx very d...
-7. Pneumaria Hill, Veg. Syst. 7: 40. Pl 37. 1764
A perennial fleshy glabrous glaucous diffusely branched herb, with alternate entire leaves, and small blue pinkish or white flowers in loose terminal leafy-bracted racemes. Calyx-lobes triangular-ovat...
-8. Mertensia Roth, Catal. Bot. 1: 34. 1797
Perennial glabrous or pubescent herbs, with alternate sometimes punctate leaves, and rather large blue purple or white flowers, in panicles, cymes, or racemes. Calyx-lobes lanceolate or linear, little...
-9. Amsinckia Lehm. Del. Sem. Hort. Hamb. 7. 1831
Annual hispid or setose herbs, with narrow leaves, the yellow flowers in scorpioid spikes. Calyx 5-parted, the segments linear. Corolla salverform or funnelform, the tube slender, naked or minutely cr...
-10. Asperugo [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 138. 1753
An annual rough-hispid procumbent herb, with alternate entire leaves, or the uppermost sometimes opposite, and small blue or nearly white flowers, short-pedicelled and 1-3 together in the upper axils....
-11. Myosotis [Dill.] L. Sp. Pl. 131. 1753
Low annual biennial or perennial, more or less pubescent, branching, diffuse or erect herbs, with alternate entire leaves, and small blue pink or white flowers in many-flowered elongated bractless mor...
-11. Myosotis [Dill.] L. Sp. Pl. 131. 1753. Continued
3. Myosotis Arvensis (L.) Hill. Field Scorpion-Grass Or Mouse-Ear Fig. 3531 Myosotis scorpioides var. arvensis L. Sp. Pl. 131. 1753. Myosotis arvensis Hill, Veg. Syst. 7: 55. 1764. Annual or bienni...
-12. Lithospermum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 132. 1753
Annual or perennial, erect branching or rarely simple, pubescent hirsute or hispid herbs, with alternate entire leaves, and small or large, white yellow or blue flowers in leafy-bracted spikes or race...
-12. Lithospermum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 132. 1753. Part 2
2. Lithospermum Officinale L. Gromwell Fig. 3536 Lithospermum officinale L. Sp. Pl. 132. 1753. Perennial, finely puberulent; stem usually much branched, 2-4 high, leafy. Leaves lanceolate...
-12. Lithospermum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 132. 1753. Part 3
6. Lithospermum Canescens (Michx.) Lehm. Hoary Puccoon Fig. 3540 Batschia canescens Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 130. pl. 14- 1803. Lithospermum canescens Lehm. Asperif. 305. 1818. Perennial, hirsute, s...
-13. Onosmodium Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 132. 1803
Perennial stout hispid or hirsute branching herbs, with alternate entire strongly Veined leaves, and rather small yellowish or greenish white proterogynous flowers, in terminal leafy-bracted scorpioid...
-13. Onosmodium Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 132. 1803. Continued
3. Onosmodium Molle Michx. Soft-Hairy False Gromwell Fig. 3544 O. molle Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 133. 1803. Stem erect, branched above, about 2 high, hispid-pubescent or strigose, the branches s...
-14. Symphytum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 136. 1753
Erect coarse hairy perennial branching herbs, with thick mucilaginous roots, alternate entire leaves, those of the stem mostly clasping, the uppermost tending to be opposite, the lower long-petioled. ...
-15. Borago [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 137. 1753
Hirsute or hispid annual or biennial branching herbs, with alternate entire leaves, and showy blue flowers, in terminal loose leafy racemes. Calyx deeply 5-cleft or 5-parted. Corolla rotate, the tube ...
-16. Lycopsis L. Sp Pl. 138. 1753
Annual bristly-hispid branched erect or diffuse herbs, with alternate leaves, and small blue or bluish flowers, in dense leafy-bracted terminal spike-like scorpioid racemes. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla sl...
-17. Echium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 139. 1753
Biennial or perennial mostly bristly-hirsute branching herbs, with alternate leaves, and rather large blue violet or rarely white flowers, in leafy-bracted scorpioid spikes. Calyx 5-parted, the segmen...
-Family 25. Verbenaceae J. St. Hil. Expos. Fam. 1: 245. 1805. Vervain Family
Herbs, shrubs or some tropical genera trees, with opposite verticillate or rarely alternate leaves, and perfect, more or less irregular, or sometimes regular flowers, in terminal or axillary spikes, r...
-1. Verbena [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 18. 1753
Herbs (some exotic species shrubby), mostly with opposite leaves, and variously colored bracted flowers, in terminal solitary corymbed or panicled spikes. Calyx usually tubular, 5-angled, more or less...
-1. Verbena [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 18. 1753. Part 2
2. Verbena Urticifolia L. White Or Nettle-Leaved Vervain Fig. 3553 Verbena urticifolia L. Sp. Pl. 20. 1753. V. urticifolia riparia Britton, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 276. 1894. V. riparia Raf.; Small & H...
-1. Verbena [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 18. 1753. Part 3
5. Verbena Stricta Vent. Hoary Or Mullen-Leaved Vervain Fig. 3556 V. stricta Vent. Descr. Pl. Jard. Cels. pl. 53. 1800. Verbena rigens Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 14. 1803. Perennial, densely soft-pubes...
-2. Lippia Houst; L. Sp. Pl. 633. 1753
Perennial herbs, or shrubs, with opposite, sometimes verticillate, or rarely alternate leaves, and small bracted flowers, in axillary or terminal, mostly peduncled spikes or heads. Calyx small, membra...
-3. Callicarpa L. Sp. Pl. I I I. 1753
Shrubs or trees, with opposite leaves, and small blue purple or white flowers in axillary cymes. Calyx short, campanulate, 4-toothed (rarely 5-toothed), or truncate. Corolla-tube short, expanded above...
-Family 26. Labiatae B. Juss. Hort. Trian. 1759. Mint Family
Aromatic punctate herbs, or shrubs (a few tropical species trees), mostly with 4-sided stems and simple opposite leaves; stipules none. Flowers irregular, perfect, variously clustered, the inflorescen...
-I. Ajuga L. Sp. Pl. 561. 1753
Annual or perennial, often stoloniferous herbs, mostly with dentate leaves, and rather large verticillate-clustered flowers in terminal spikes, or in the upper axils. Calyx ovoid or campanulate, 10-ma...
-2. Teucrium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 562. 1753
Herbs or shrubs, with dentate entire or laciniate leaves, and rather small pink, white or purplish flowers, in terminal bracted spikes or heads, or verticillate in the upper axils. Calyx tubular-campa...
-2. Teucrium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 562. 1753. Continued
3. Teucrium Occidentale A. Gray. Hairy Germander Fig. 3568 Teucrium occidentale A. Gray, Syn. Fl. 2: 349. 1878. T. boreale Bicknell, Bull. Torr. Club 28: 171. 1901. Perennial, villous or pubescent;...
-3. Isanthus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 3. Pl. 30. 1803
An annual erect finely viscid-pubescent much-branched herb, with narrow entire or few-toothed leaves, and small blue flowers in loose axillary cymes. Calyx broadly campanulate, 10 - nerved, nearly equ...
-4. Trichostema [Gronov.] L. Sp. Pl. 598. 1753
Annual or perennial erect branching herbs, some western species shrubby, with lanceolate oblong or linear entire or slightly repand leaves. Flowers small, or middle-sized, pink, blue, purple, or white...
-5. Scutellaria [Rivin.] L. Sp. Pl. 598. 1753
Annual or perennial bitter herbs, some species shrubby. Flowers blue to violet, in terminal or axillary bracted mostly secund spike-like racemes, or solitary or 2-3 together in the axils. Calyx campan...
-5. Scutellaria [Rivin.] L. Sp. Pl. 598. 1753. Part 2
2. Scutellaria Serrata Andr. Showy Skullcap Fig. 3576 Scutellaria serrata Andr. Bot. Rep. pl. 494. 1809. S. laevigata Aiken; Eaton, Man. Ed. 6, 333. 1833. Perennial, glabrous, or puberulent above; ...
-5. Scutellaria [Rivin.] L. Sp. Pl. 598. 1753. Part 3
5. Scutellaria Pilosa Michx. Hairy Skullcap Fig. 3579 Scutellaria pilosa Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 11. 1803. Scutellaria ovalifolia Pers. Syn. 2: 136. 1807. S. hirsuta Short, Transyl. Journ. Med. 8: 58...
-5. Scutellaria [Rivin.] L. Sp. Pl. 598. 1753. Part 4
8. Scutellaria Parvula Michx. Small Skullcap Fig. 3582 S. parvula Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 11. 1803. Scutellaria ambigua Nutt. Gen. 2: 37. 1818. S.. parvula var. mollis A. Gray, Syn. Fl. 21: 38o. 1...
-5. Scutellaria [Rivin.] L. Sp. Pl. 598. 1753. Part 5
12. Scutellaria Galericulata L. Hooded Willow-Herb. Marsh Or European Skullcap Fig. 3586 Scutellaria galericulata L. Sp. Pl. 599. 1753. Perennial by filiform stolons, not tuber-bearing, puberulent ...
-6. Marrubium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 582. 1753
Perennial branching mostly woolly herbs, with petioled dentate rugose leaves, and small white or purplish flowers in dense axillary clusters, the juice bitter. Calyx tubular, 5-10-nerved, regularly 5-...
-7. Sideritis [Tourn.1 L. Sp. Pl. 574. 1753
Annual or perennial, usually pubescent herbs or shrubs, with opposite, entire or toothed leaves, and small white, pink, or yellowish flowers in axillary clusters which are separated or contiguous. Cal...
-8. Agastache Clayt.; Gron. Fl. Virg. 88. 1762
[Vleckia Raf. Med. Rep. (II.) 5: 308. 1808.] [Lophanthus Benth. Bot. Reg. 15: under pl. 1282. 1829. Not Adans. 1763.] Tall erect perennial herbs, with serrate, mainly ovate, petioled leaves, and yel...
-9. Meehania Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 21: 32. 1894
A low pubescent spreading or decumbent herb, with long-petioled cordate leaves, trailing leafy stolons, and large blue flowers in terminal secund bracted spikes. Calyx campanulate, 15-nerved, slightly...
-10. Nepeta [Rivin.] L. Sp. Pl. 570. 1753
Herbs, with dentate or incised leaves, and mostly white or blue rather small flowers in verticillate clusters, usually crowded in terminal spikes, or axillary and cymose. Calyx tubular, somewhat obliq...
-11. Glecoma L. Sp. Pl. 578. 1753
Low diffuse creeping herbs, with long-petioled nearly orbicular or reniform crenate leaves, and rather large blue or violet flowers in small axillary verticillate clusters. Calyx oblong-tubular, 15-ne...
-12. Moldavica [Tourn.] Adans. Fam. Pl 2: 190. 1763
Herbs, with dentate entire or incised leaves, and blue or purple flowers in axillary and terminal bracted clusters, the bracts pectinate in our species. Calyx tubular, 15-nerved, straight or incurved,...
-13. Prunella L. Sp. Pl. 600. 1753
Perennial simple or sometimes branched herbs, with petioled leaves, and rather small clustered purple or white flowers, in terminal and sometimes also axillary, dense bracted spikes or heads. Calyx ob...
-14. Dracocephalum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 594. 1753
[Physostegia Benth. Lab. Gen. & Sp. 504. 1834.] Erect perennial glabrous or puberulent herbs, with serrate, dentate or entire leaves, and large or middle-sized, bracted purple violet, pink or white f...
-15. Synandra Nutt. Gen. 2: 29. 1818
An annual or biennial, somewhat hirsute, simple or little branched herb, with longpetioled ovate cordate crenate leaves, and large whitish flowers in a terminal leafy-bracted spike. Calyx campanulate-...
-16. Phlomis [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 584. 1753
Tall perennial herbs, or shrubs. Calyx tubular or tubular-campanulate, 5-10-nerved, the limb mostly equally 5-toothed. Corolla-tube usually with a woolly ring within, shorter than or exceeding the cal...
-17. Galeopsis L. Sp. Pl. 579. 1753
Erect annual branching herbs, with broad or narrow leaves, and rather small yellow red purple or mottled verticillate-clustered flowers in the upper axils, or forming terminal dense or interrupted spi...
-18. Leonurus L. Sp. Pl. 584. 1753
Tall erect herbs, with palmately cleft, parted or dentate leaves, and small white or pink flowers verticillate in dense axillary clusters. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 5-nerved, nearly regular and equal...
-19. Lamium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 579. 1753
Annual or perennial mostly diffuse herbs, with crenate dentate or incised, usually cordate leaves, and rather small flowers, verticillate in axillary and terminal clusters. Calyx tubular-campanulate, ...
-20. Ballota L. Sp. Pl. 582. 1753
Perennial pubescent or tomentose herbs, some species shrubby, with dentate or crenate leaves, and small bracted flowers in axillary clusters. Calyx tubular-funnelform, 10-nerved, 5-10-toothed, the tee...
-21. Stachys [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 580. 1753
Annual or perennial glabrous pubescent or hirsute herbs, with small or rather large purple yellow red or white flowers, loosely verticillate-clustered in terminal dense or interrupted spikes, or also ...
-21. Stachys [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 580. 1753. Part 2
2. Stachys Atlantica Britton. Coast' Hedge Nettle Fig. 3616 Stachys atlantica Britton, Man. 792. 1901. Perennial, glabrous or with a few hairs at the nodes of the stem, weak, diffuse, 8'-16' long. ...
-21. Stachys [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 580. 1753. Part 3
6. Stachys Palustris L. Hedge Nettle. Marsh Or Clown's Woundwort Fig. 3620 Stachys palustris L. Sp. Pl. 580. 1753. Perennial, hirsute or pubescent all over; stem erect, strict, simple or somewhat b...
-21. Stachys [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 580. 1753. Part 4
9. Stachys Aspera Michx. Rough Hedge Nettle Or Woundwort Fig. 3623 Stachys aspera Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 5. 1803. Stachys hispida Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 407. 1814. S.. palustris var. aspera A. Gray,...
-22. Betonica [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 573. 753
Annual or perennial herbs, similar to Stachys. Lower leaves very long-petioled. Verticils many-flowered, in terminal spikes. Calyx nearly equally 5-toothed, 5-10-nerved. Corolla purple, the tube excee...
-23. Salvia [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 23. 1753
Herbs, or some species shrubs, with clustered usually showy flowers, the clusters mostly spiked, racemed, or panicled. Calyx ovoid, tubular or campanulate, mostly naked in the throat, 2-lipped; upper ...
-23. Salvia [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 23. 1753. Part 2
2. Salvia Pratensis L. Meadow Sage Fig. 3630 Salvia pratensis L. Sp. Pl. 25. 1753. Perennial, pubescent or puberulent; stem erect, rather stout, simple or little branched, sparingly leafy. Basal le...
-23. Salvia [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 23. 1753. Part 3
5. Salvia Urticifolia L. Nettle-Leaved Or Wild Sage Fig. 3633 Salvia urticifolia L. Sp. Pl. 24. 1753- Perennial, pubescent, or nearly glabrous; stem glandular above, rather slender, ascending or ere...
-24. Monarda L. Sp. Pl. 22. 1753
Perennial or annual erect aromatic herbs, with dentate or serrate leaves, and rather large white red purple yellowish or mottled flowers, in dense capitate clusters, mostly bracteate and bracteolate, ...
-24. Monarda L. Sp. Pl. 22. 1753. Part 2
2. Monarda Clinopodia L. Basal Balm Fig. 3637 Monarda clinopodia L. Sp. Pl. 22. 1753. Pycnanthemum Monardella Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 8. pl. 34. 1803. Perennial; stem slender, simple, or with few lo...
-24. Monarda L. Sp. Pl. 22. 1753. Part 3
6. Monarda Bradburiana Beck. Bradbury Monarda Fig. 3641 Monarda Bradburiana Beck, Am. Journ. Sci. 10: 260. 1826. Perennial, sparingly villous or glabrate; stem slender, often simple, 1- 2...
-25. Blephilia Raf. Journ. Phys. 89: 98. 1819
Perennial hirsute or pubescent erect herbs, with axillary and terminal dense glomerules of rather small purplish or bluish flowers, or the glomerules in terminal more or less interrupted spikes. Calyx...
-26. Hedeoma Pers. Syn. 2: 131. 1807
Annual or perennial, strongly aromatic and pungent herbs, with small entire or crenulate leaves, and small blue or purple flowers in axillary clusters, these crowded into terminal, leafy-bracted spike...
-27. Melissa [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 592. 1753
Leafy branching herbs, with broad dentate leaves, and rather small white or yellowish axillary clustered somewhat secund flowers. Calyx oblong-campanulate, deflexed in fruit, 13-nerved, nearly naked i...
-28. Satureia [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 567. 1753
Herbs or shrubs, with small entire leaves, sometimes with smaller ones fascicled in their axils, and bracted purple flowers in dense terminal or axillary clusters. Calyx campanulate, mostly 10-nerved,...
-29. Clinopodium L. Sp. Pl. 587. 1753
[Calamintha Moench, Meth. 408. 1794.] Herbs, or low shrubs, with entire or sparingly dentate leaves, and rather large flowers variously clustered. Calyx tubular or oblong, mostly gibbous at the base, ...
-29. Clinopodium L. Sp. Pl. 587. 1753. Continued
3. Clinopodium Acinos (L.) Kuntze. Basil-Thyme. Basil Balm Fig. 3654 Thymus Acinos L. Sp. Pl. 591. 1753. Melissa Acinos Benth. Lab. Gen. & Sp. 389. 1834. Cal. Acinos Benth. in DC. Prodr. 12: 230. 18...
-30. Hyssopus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 569. 1753
A perennial erect herb, the stem somewhat woody at the base, with narrow, entire leaves, and small bracted purple or blue flowers, in dense clusters in the upper axils, and forming elongated terminal ...
-31. Origanum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 588. 1753
Perennial branching herbs, some species shrubby, with rather small crenate-dentate or entire leaves, and small bracted pink or purple flowers, in dense terminal glomerules. Calyx ovoid or campanulate,...
-32. Thymus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 590. 1753
Perennial herbs, or low shrubby creeping plants, with small mostly entire leaves, and small purple flowers clustered in terminal glomerules, or in the axils of the leaves. Calyx ovoid, villous in the ...
-33. Koellia Moench, Meth. 407. 1794
[Brachystemon and Pycnanthemum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 5, 7. 1803.] Perennial erect, mostly branched, glabrous cinereous canescent or pubescent herbs, with small white or purple-dotted flowers, in term...
-33. Koellia Moench, Meth. 407. 1794. Part 2
2. Koellia Flexuosa (Walt.) Macm. Narrow-Leaved Mountain-Mint Fig. 3661 Satureja Thymus virginicus L. Mant. 2: 409. 1771. Not S. virginica L. 1753. Origanum flexuosum Walt. Fl. Car. 165. 1788. Koell...
-33. Koellia Moench, Meth. 407. 1794. Part 3
5. Koellia Clinopodioides (T. & G.) Kuntze. Basil Mountain-Mint Fig. 3664 Pycnanthemum clinopodioides T. & G.; A. Gray, Am. Journ. Sci. 42: 45. 1842. Koellia clinopodioides Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 52...
-33. Koellia Moench, Meth. 407. 1794. Part 4
8. Koellia Incana (L.) Kuntze. Hoary Mountain-Mint Fig. 3667 Clinopodium incanum L. Sp. Pl. 588. 1753. Pycnanthemum incanum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 7. 1803. Koellia incana Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 520. ...
-33. Koellia Moench, Meth. 407. 1794. Part 5
11. Koellia Mutica (Michx.) Britton. Short-Toothed Mountain-Mint Fig. 3670 Brachystemon muticum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 6. pl. 32. 1803. Koellia mutica Britton, Mem. Torr. Club 4: 145. 1894. Stem s...
-34. Cunila L. Syst. Ed. 10, 1359. 1759
Perennial branching herbs, or low shrubs, with dentate or entire leaves, and rather small, clustered, purple or white flowers. Calyx tubular-ovoid, 10-13-nerved, villous in the throat, equally 5-tooth...
-35. Lycopus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 21. 1753
Herbs, perennial by slender stolons or suckers, with erect or diffuse stems, petioled or sessile leaves, and small white or purple flowers, bracted and verticillate in dense axillary clusters. Calyx c...
-35. Lycopus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 21. 1753. Continued
3. Lycopus Sessilifolius A. Gray. Sessile-Leaved Water Hoarhound Fig. 3675 Lycopus europaeus var. sessilifolius A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 345. 1867. Lycopus sessilifolius A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 8: 285...
-36. Mentha [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 576. 1753
Erect or diffuse odorous herbs, with simple sessile or petioled mostly punctate leaves, and small whorled purple pink or white flowers, the whorls axillary or in terminal dense or interrupted spikes. ...
-36. Mentha [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 576. 1753. Part 2
2. Mentha Piperita L. Peppermint Fig. 3681 Mentha piperita L. Sp. Pl. 576. 1753. Perennial by subterranean suckers; stems glabrous, mostly erect, branched, 1-3 high. Leaves lanceolate, pe...
-36. Mentha [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 576. 1753. Part 3
5. Mentha Rotundifdlia (L.) Huds. Round-Leaved Mint Fig. 3684 Mentha spicata var. rotundifolia L. Sp. Pl. 576. 1753. Mentha rotundifolia Huds. Fl. Angl. 221. 1762. Perennial by leafy stolons, cane...
-36. Mentha [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 576. 1753. Part 4
9. Mentha Cardiaca Gerarde. Small-Leaved Mint Fig. 3688 Mentha Cardiaca Gerarde; Baker, Journ. Bot. 2: 245. 1865. Pubescent or glabrate, often much branched, 1 1/2-2 1/2 high, the upper b...
-37. Collinsonia L. Sp. Pl 28
1753; Tall perennial aromatic herbs, with large membranous petioled leaves, and terminal loosely panicled racemes of small, yellowish, mostly opposite flowers. Calyx campanulate, short, 10-nerved, 2-...
-38. Perilla Ard.; L. Gen. Pi. Ed. 6, Add. 578. 1764
Annual herbs, with petioled purple or discolored leaves, and small flowers in loose bracted racemes. Calyx campanulate, 10-nerved, 5-cleft, nearly regular in flower, enlarging, declined and becoming 2...
-39. Elsholtzia Willd. In Roem. & Ust. Mag. Bot. 11:3. 1790
Herbs, with thin mostly petioled leaves, and small or minute clustered flowers, in terminal bracted spikes. Calyx campanulate or ovoid, 10-nerved, scarcely oblique, enlarging in fruit, not bearded in ...
-Family 27. Solanaceae Pers. Syn. 1: 214. 1805. Potato Family
Herbs, shrubs, vines, or some tropical species trees, with alternate or rarely opposite, exstipulate entire dentate lobed or dissected leaves, and perfect regular or nearly regular cymose flowers. Cal...
-1. Physalodes Boehm. In Ludwig, Def. 41. 1760
[Nicandra Adans. Fam. Pl. 2: 219. 1763.] An annual erect branching glabrous herb, with alternate petioled thin sinuate-dentate or lobed leaves, and large light blue peduncled nodding flowers, solitary...
-2. Physalis L. Sp. Pl. 182. 1753
Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes a little woody below, with entire or sinuately toothed leaves. Peduncles slender, in ours solitary from the axils of the leaves. Calyx campanulate, 5-toothed, in f...
-2. Physalis L. Sp. Pl. 182. 1753 . Part 2
1. Physalis Pubescens L. Low Hairy Ground-Cherry Fig. 3696 Physalis pubescens L. Sp. Pl. 183. 1753- Annual; stem generally diffuse or spreading, much branched, angled, often a little swollen at the ...
-2. Physalis L. Sp. Pl. 182. 1753 . Part 3
4. Physalis Missounensis Mack. & Bush. Missouri Ground-Cherry Fig. 3699 Physalis missouriensis Mack. & Bush, Fl. Jackson Co. 167. 1902. Annual; stem spreading, often zigzag, branched, striate, or s...
-2. Physalis L. Sp. Pl. 182. 1753 . Part 4
8. Physalis Subglabrata Mackenzie And Bush. Smooth Ground-Cherry Fig. 3703 ?Physalis philadelphica Lam. Encycl. 2: 101. 1786. P. subglabrata Mackenzie & Bush, Trans. Acad. St. Louis 12: 86. 1902. P...
-2. Physalis L. Sp. Pl. 182. 1753 . Part 5
11. Physalis Lanceolate Michx. Prairie Ground-Cherry Fig. 3706 Physalis lanceolata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 149. 1803. Physalis pennsylvanicn var. lanceolata A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 382. 1867. Perennia...
-2. Physalis L. Sp. Pl. 182. 1753 . Part 6
14. Physalis Heterophylla Nees. Clammy Ground-Cherry Fig. 3709 Physalis viscosa Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 157. 1814. Not L. 1753. Physalis heterophylla Nees, Linnaea 6: 463. 1831. Physalis virginiana A. ...
-2. Physalis L. Sp. Pl. 182. 1753 . Part 7
17. Physalis Viscosa L. Stellate Ground-Cherry. Yellow-Henbane Fig. 3712 Physalis viscosa L. Sp. Pl. 183. 1753. Physalis pennsylvanica L. Sp. Pl. Ed. 2, 1670. 1763. Perennial from a slender creepi...
-3. Quincula Raf. Atl. Journ. 145. 1832
A low and diffuse somewhat scurfy herb, with a stout perennial root. Leaves from sinuate to pinnatifid, somewhat fleshy. Peduncles most commonly in pairs from the axils of the leaves, sometimes solita...
-4. Leucophysalis Rydberg, Mem. Torr. Club 4: 365. 1896
A tall erect viscid and villous annual, with entire leaves, the blade decurrent on the petiole. Peduncles generally in fascicles of 2-4 in the axils. Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed, at first a little infl...
-5. Chamaesaracha A. Gray, Bot. Cal. 1: 540. 1876
Perennials, with entire to pinnatifid leaves, the blades decurrent on the petioles. Peduncles solitary, or in fascicles of 2-4 in the axils. Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed, in fruit somewhat enlarged, but...
-6. Solanum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 184
1753. Herbs or shrubs, often stellate-pubescent, sometimes climbing. Flowers cymose, umbel-liform, paniculate, or racemose, white, blue, purple, or yellow. Calyx campanulate or rotate, mostly 5-...
-6. Solanum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 184. Part 2
2. Solanum Trifldrum Nutt. Cut-Leaved Nightshade Fig. 3718 Solatium triflorum Nutt. Gen. 1: 128. 1818. Annual, sparingly pubescent with simple hairs, or glabrous; stem branched, 1-3 high....
-6. Solanum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 184. Part 3
5. Solanum Torreyi A. Gray. Torrey's Nightshade Fig. 3721 S. Torreyi A. Gray, Proc. Am. 'Acad. 6: 44. 1862. Perennial, hoary with a stellate pubescence of 8-12-rayed hairs, more or less armed with ...
-7. Lycopersicon Mill. Gard. Dict. Abr. Ed. 4. 1754
Annual, or rarely perennial, coarse branching or feebly climbing herbs, with 1-2-pinnately divided leaves, and lateral irregular raceme-like cymes of small yellowish flowers opposite the leaves. Calyx...
-8. Lycium L. Sp. Pl. 191. 1753
Shrubs, or woody vines, often spiny, with small alternate entire leaves, commonly with smaller ones fascicled in their axils, and white greenish or purple, axillary or terminal, solitary or clustered ...
-9. Hyoscyamus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 179. 1753
Erect coarse viscid-pubescent narcotic annual biennial or perennial herbs, with alternate mostly lobed or pinnatifid leaves, and large nearly regular flowers, the lower solitary in the axils, the uppe...
-10. Datura L. Sp. Pl. 179. 1753
Annual or perennial erect tall branching narcotic herbs, some tropical species shrubs or trees, with alternate petioled entire sinuate-dentate or lobed leaves, and large solitary erect short-peduncled...
-11. Nicotiana [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 180. 1753
Annual or perennial viscid-pubescent acrid narcotic herbs or shrubs, with large alternate entire or slightly undulate leaves, and rather large white yellow greenish or purplish flowers, in terminal, o...
-12. Petunia Juss. Ann. Mus. Paris 2: 215. Pl. 47. 1803
Viscid-pubescent annual or perennial branching herbs, with entire leaves, and axillary or terminal solitary white violet or purple flowers (in cultivation sometimes variegated). Calyx deeply 5-cleft o...
-Family 28. Scrophulariaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 288. 1826. Fig Wort Family
Herbs, shrubs or trees, with opposite or alternate exstipulate leaves, and perfect mostly complete and irregular flowers (corolla wanting in one species of Synthyris). Calyx inferior, persistent, 4-5-...
-1. Verbascum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 177. 1753
Biennial or rarely perennial, mostly tall and erect herbs, with alternate dentate pinnatifid or entire leaves, and rather large yellow purple red or white flowers, in terminal spikes, racemes or panic...
-2. Cymbalaria Medic. Phil. Bot. 2: 70. 1791
Perennial creeping or spreading herbs, with long-petioled, mostly lobed, palmately veined leaves, and solitary axillary white to violet flowers. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla irregular, 2-lipped, short-spur...
-3. Kickxia Dumort. Fl. Belg. 35. 1827
[Elatinoides Wettst. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pfl. Fam. 4: Abt. 3b, 58. 1891.] Mostly annual spreading or creeping herbs, with pinnately veined, short-petioled entire toothed or lobed leaves, and soli...
-4. Chaenorrhinum [Dc] Lange; Willk. & Lange, Prodr. Fl. Hisp. 2:
577. 1870. Herbs with alternate, usually entire leaves, and violet, blue or white axillary flowers. Calyx 5-parted, the segments narrow. Corolla similar to that of Linaria, but with an open throat ...
-5. Linaria [Tourn.] Mill. Gard. Dict. Abr. Ed. 4. 1754
Herbs, some exotic species shrubby, with alternate entire dentate or lobed leaves, or the lower and those of sterile shoots opposite or verticillate, and yellow white blue purple or variegated flowers...
-6. Antirrhinum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 612. 1753
Annual or perennial herbs, with alternate leaves, or the lower and those of sterile shoots opposite, and mostly large red purple yellow or white flowers, in terminal racemes, or solitary in the upper ...
-7. Scrophularia [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 619. 1753
Perennial strong-smelling herbs, some exotic species shrubby, with mostly opposite large leaves, and small purple greenish or yellow proterogynous flowers, in terminal panicled cymes or thyrses. Calyx...
-8. Chelone [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 611. 1753
Perennial, mostly glabrous branched or simple herbs, with opposite serrate petioled leaves, and large white red or purple flowers, in terminal and axillary dense spikes. Calyx 5-parted, bracted at the...
-9. Pentstemon Mitchell; Soland. In Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 511. 1789
Perennial herbs, mostly branched from the base only, with opposite or rarely verticillate leaves, or the upper occasionally alternate, and large, usually showy, blue purple red or white flowers, in te...
-Pentstemon Mitchell; Soland. In Ait. Hort. Kew. Part 2
1. Pentstemon Hirsutus (L.) Willd. Hairy Beard-Tongue Fig. 3755 Chelone hirsuta L. Sp. Pl. 611. 1753. P. pubescens Soland. in Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 360. 1789. Pentstemon hirsutus Willd. Sp. Pl. 3: 22...
-Pentstemon Mitchell; Soland. In Ait. Hort. Kew. Part 3
4. Pentstemon Erianthera Pursh. Crested Beard-Tongue Fig. 3758 Pentstemon erianthera Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 737. 1814. Pentstemon cristatus Nutt. Gen. 2: 52. 1818. Puberulent below, glandular-villous...
-Pentstemon Mitchell; Soland. In Ait. Hort. Kew. Part 4
7. Pentstemon Digitalis (Sweet) Nutt. Foxglove Beard-Tongue Fig. 3761 Chelone Digitalis Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. 2: pl. 120. 1825-27. Pentstemon Digitalis Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (II.) 5: 181. 1...
-Pentstemon Mitchell; Soland. In Ait. Hort. Kew. Part 5
II. Pentstemon Cobaea Nutt. Cobaea Beard-Tongue Fig. 3765 Pentstemon Cobaea Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (II.) 5: 182. 1833-37. Stem stout, densely and finely pubescent below, glandular-pubescent ab...
-Pentstemon Mitchell; Soland. In Ait. Hort. Kew. Part 6
15. Pentstemon Angustifolius Pursh. Pale-Blue Beard-Tongue Fig. 3769 P. angustifolius Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 738. 1814. Pentstemon coeruleus Nutt. Gen. 2: 52. 1818. Glabrous and glaucous; stem slende...
-10. Collinsia Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phil, 1: 190. Pl. 9. 1817
Winter-annual or biennial herbs, with opposite or verticillate leaves, and blue pink white or variegated flowers, verticillate, or solitary in the axils. Calyx campanulate, 5-cleft. Corolla irregular,...
-11. Paulownia Sieb. & Zucc. Fl. Jap. 1: 25. Pl. 10. 1835
A large tree, with the aspect of Catalpa, with broad opposite entire or 3-lobed, petioled pubescent leaves, and large violet flowers in terminal panicles. Calyx deeply 5-cleft, the lobes short. Coroll...
-12. Mimulus L. Sp. Pl 634. 1753
Erect or decumbent herbs, with opposite mostly dentate leaves. Flowers axillary, solitary, peduncled, pink, violet, or yellow, usually showy. Calyx prismatic, 5-angled, 5-toothed, the upper tooth usua...
-12. Mimulus L. Sp. Pl 634. 1753. Continued
3. Mimulus Langsdorffii Donn. Langsdorff's Yellow Monkey-Flower Fig. 3777 Mimulus Langsdorffii Donn; Sims. Bot. Mag. pl. 1501. 1812. Mimulus guttatus DC. Cat. Hort. Monsp. 127. 1818. Perennial by...
-13. Conobea Aubl. Pl. Guian. 2: 639. Pl. 258. 1775
Herbs, with opposite pinnately parted pinnatifid incised or serrate leaves, and small blue or white peduncled flowers, solitary or two together in the axils. Calyx 5-parted, the segments narrow, equal...
-14. Bramia Lam. Encycl. 1: 459. 1783
[Monniera P. Br. Civ. & Nat. Hist. Jam. 269. pl. 28. f. 3. Hyponym. 1755. Not L. 1759.] [Herpestis Gaertn. Fruct. & Sem. 3: 186. pl. 214. 1805.] Diffuse or prostrate herbs, with opposite mostly enti...
-15. Hydrotrida Willd
Perennial aromatic succulent creeping herbs, usually pubescent. Stems terete. Leaves opposite; blades broadest below the middle, palmately nerved, entire or shallowly toothed, punctate, partly claspin...
-16. Mecardonia R. & P. Syst. 164. 1798
Perennial relatively rigid herbs, with 4-angled erect or diffuse, but rarely creeping stems. Leaves opposite; blades toothed, narrowed at the base, pinnately nerved. Flowers solitary on slender axilla...
-17. Gratiola L. Sp. Pl. 17. 1753
Erect or diffuse glabrous or glandular-pubescent herbs, with opposite sessile, entire or dentate leaves, and yellow or whitish peduncled flowers solitary in the axils. Peduncles 2-bracteolate at the s...
-18. Sophronanthe Benth.; Lindl. Introd. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 445 1836
Annual or perennial rigid caulescent herbs, with rough-pubescent foliage. Leaves opposite; blades entire or toothed, sessile. Flowers solitary in the axils, short-peduncled or nearly sessile. Calyx se...
-19. Ilysanthes Raf. Ann. Nat. 13. 1820
Annual or biennial glabrous slender branching herbs, with opposite, mostly dentate and sessile leaves, and small purplish peduncled flowers solitary in the axils. Peduncles not bracteolate. Calyx 5-pa...
-20. Micranthemum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 10. Pl. 12. 1803
Creeping or ascending, branched small leafy annual glabrous herbs, with opposite obovate oval or orbicular sessile entire leaves, and minute white or purplish short-peduncled flowers, solitary in some...
-21. Limosella L. Sp. Pl. 631. 1753
Low glabrous succulent floating or creeping, tufted annual herbs (or perennial by stolons?), with filiform stems rooting at their nodes, basal slender-petioled entire leaves, and filiform 1-flowered s...
-22. Synthyris Benth. In Dc. Prodr. 10: 454. 1846
Perennial herbs, with thick rootstocks, simple erect stems, large petioled basal leaves, those of the stem much smaller, alternate, sessile, or clasping, bract-like. Flowers small, pink or purple, in ...
-23. Veronica [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 9. 1753
Annual or perennial herbs (some exotic species shrubs or trees), with opposite and alternate, rarely verticillate leaves, and mostly small blue purple pink or white flowers, terminal or axillary, race...
-23. Veronica [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 9. 1753. Part 2
2. Veronica Americana Schwein. American Brooklime Fig. 3797 V. americana Schwein.; Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10: 468. 1846. Similar to the preceding species, perennial by stolons or leafy shoots, glabro...
-23. Veronica [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 9. 1753. Part 3
5. Veronica Chamaedrys L. Germander Speedwell Fig. 3800 Veronica Chamaedrys L. Sp. Pl. 13. 1753. Perennial; stem ascending, simple or branched, slender, pubescent in two lines, 4' - 12' high. Leave...
-23. Veronica [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 9. 1753. Part 4
8. Veronica Peregrina L. Purslane Speedwell. Neckweed Fig. 3803 Veronica peregrina L. Sp. Pl. 14. 1753. Annual, glabrous, or glandular-puberulent; stem erect or ascending, simple or branched, 3'-12...
-23. Veronica [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 9. 1753. Part 5
12. Veronica Hederaefolia L. Ivy-Leaved Speedwell Fig. 3807 Veronica hederaefolia L. Sp. Pl. 13. 1753. Annual, pubescent; stems slender, diffusely branched, 3'-18' long. Leaves orbicular or broader...
-24. Leptandra Nutt. Gen. 1: 7. 1818
Tall stout erect perennial herbs, with verticillate or opposite leaves, and small minutely bracted white or blue flowers, in dense peduncled spike-like racemes, terminal, or in the upper axils. Calyx ...
-25. Digitalis [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl 621. 1753
Tall biennial or perennial herbs, the stems simple, or branched at the base, with alternate dentate or entire leaves, and large showy purple yellowish or white flowers, in long terminal commonly 1-sid...
-26. Buchnera L. Sp. Pl. 630. 1753
Erect, perennial or biennial, simple or branched, strict hispid or scabrous herbs, blackening in drying, the lower leaves opposite, the upper sometimes alternate. Flowers rather large, white, blue, or...
-27. Afzelia J. G. Gmel. Syst. Nat. 2: 927. 1796
[Seymeria Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 736. 1814.] Erect stout branched annual or perennial herbs, mostly with opposite leaves, at least the lower 1-2-pinnately parted or dissected, and yellow flowers solita...
-28. Dasystoma Raf. Journ. Phys. 89: 99. 1819
Large erect simple or branched, glandular-puberulent, pubescent or glabrous, annual or perennial herbs, partly parasitic on the roots of other plants, with opposite, whorled or some alternate leaves, ...
-28. Dasystoma Raf. Journ. Phys. 89: 99. 1819. Continued
3. Dasystoma Serrata (Benth.) Small. Serrate False Foxglove Fig. 3814 D. Drummondii serrata Benth, in DC. Prodr. 10: 521. 1846. G. grandiflora integriuscula A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. 21: 291. 1871. ...
-29. Agalinis Raf. N. Fl. 2: 61. 1836
Erect branching annual or perennial herbs, some South American species shrubby, mainly with opposite and sessile leaves. Flowers showy, usually large, purple, violet, yellow, red, or rarely white, rac...
-29. Agalinis Raf. N. Fl. 2: 61. 1836. Part 2
2. Agalinis Aspera (Dougl.) Britton. Rough Purple Agalinis. Fig 3819 G aspera Dougl.; Benth. in DC. Prodr. 10: 517. 1846. Annual, 1- 2 high, hispidulous-scabrous with rough stiff short whi...
-29. Agalinis Raf. N. Fl. 2: 61. 1836. Part 3
6. Agalinis Paupercula (A Gray) Britton. Small-Flowered Agalinis Fig. 3823 Gerardia purpurea var. paupercula A. Gray, Syn. 2: Part 1, 293. 1878. Gerardia intermedia Porter; A. Gray, loc. cit. As sy...
-29. Agalinis Raf. N. Fl. 2: 61. 1836. Part 4
10. Agalinis Parvifolia (Chapm.) Small. Ten-Lobed Agalinis Fig. 3827 Gerardia parvifolia Chapm. Fl. S. U. S. 300. 1860. Gerardia decemloba Greene, Pittonia 4: 51. 1899. Annual, pale green, usually...
-30. Otophylla Benth, In Dc. Prodr. 10: 512. 1846
Annual caulescent herbs, with hirsute-pubescent foliage. Leaves opposite; blades entire or pinnately divided, all or some of them auricled at the base, sessile. Flowers in terminal spikes. Calyx of 5 ...
-31. Castilleja Mutis; L. F. Suppl. 47. 1781
Herbs, parasitic on the roots of other plants, with alternate leaves, and red yellow purple or white flowers, in dense leafy-bracted spikes, the bracts often brightly colored and larger than the flowe...
-31. Castilleja Mutis; L. F. Suppl. 47. 1781. Continued
3. Castilleja Minor A. Gray. Small-Flowered Painted-Cup Fig. 3835 Castilleja affinis var. minor A. Gray, Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. 119. 1859. Castilleja minor A. Gray, in Brew. & Wats. Bot. Cal. 1: 5...
-32. Orthocarpus Nutt. Gen. 2: 56. 1818
Annual or rarely perennial herbs, mostly with alternate leaves, and yellow white or purplish flowers, in bracted usually dense spikes, the bracts sometimes brightly colored. Calyx tubular or tubular-c...
-33. Schwalbea [Gronov.] L. Sp. Pl. 606. 1753
A perennial erect finely pubescent and minutely glandular, simple or sparingly branched, leafy herb, with sessile entire 3-nerved leaves, and rather large yellowish-purple flowers in a terminal bracte...
-34. Euphrasia [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 604. 1753
Annual or perennial low mostly branched herbs, parasitic on other plants, with opposite dentate or incised leaves, and small blue purplish yellow or white often variegated flowers in terminal leafy-br...
-35. Bartsia L. Sp. Pl. 602. 1753
Annual or perennial herbs, partly parasitic on the roots of other plants, with opposite leaves, and purple pink red or yellow flowers, in terminal leafy-bracted spikes. Calyx cam-panulate or tubular, ...
-36. Odontites Gmel. Fl. Sib. 3: 213. 1768
Annual erect herbs, half parasitic on the roots of other plants, with small opposite leaves, and yellow or red flowers in terminal bracted spikes or racemes. Calyx 4-toothed. Corolla with a narrow tub...
-37. Pedicularis [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 607. 1753
Herbs, with alternate opposite or rarely verticillate, pinnately lobed cleft or pinnatifid leaves, and yellow red purple or white flowers, in terminal spikes or spike-like racemes. Calyx tubular, clef...
-37. Pedicularis [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 607. 1753. Part 2
2. Pedicularis Euphrasioides Steph. Eyebright Pedicularis Fig. 3847 P. euphrasoides Steph.; Willd. Sp. Pl. 3: 204. 1801. Biennial or annual, puberulent; stem branched, 6'-15' high, the branches asc...
-37. Pedicularis [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 607. 1753. Part 3
5. Pedicularis Canadensis L. Wood Or Head Betony. Lousewort Fig. 3850 Pedicularis canadensis L. Mant. 86. 1767. Perennial, hirsute, pubescent, or glabrate below; stems commonly tufted, ascending or...
-38. Elephantella Rydb. Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 1: 362. 1900
Herbs similar to Pedicularis in habit. Leaves pinnately parted or pinnately divided. Inflorescence erect. Calyx 2- lipped, often campanulate. Corolla very strongly 2-lipped, the tube short, the upper ...
-39. Rhinanthus L. Sp. Pl. 603. 1753
Annual erect mostly branched herbs, with opposite leaves, and yellow blue violet or variegated flowers, in terminal 1-sided leafy-bracted spikes, or solitary in the upper axils. Calyx compressed, 4-to...
-40. Melampyrum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 605. 1753
Annual branching herbs, with opposite leaves, and small white yellow violet or variegated flowers, solitary in the upper axils, or in terminal bracted spikes. Calyx 4-toothed, the 2 upper teeth somewh...
-Family 29. Lentibulariaceae Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 686. 1847. Bladderwort Family
Aquatic plants, or if terrestrial usually on moist ground, the leaves in a basal rosette, or borne along floating stems, or more or less root-like, or wanting. Inflorescence scapose. Flowers solitary ...
-1. Pinguicula [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 17. 1753
Acaulescent herbs, with fibrous roots, naked 1-flowered circinate scapes, and leaves in a basal rosette, the upper surface commonly glandular and covered with a viscid secretion. Calyx 5-lobed, more o...
-2. Vesiculina Raf. Fl. Tellur. 4: 109. 1838
Aquatic herbs, with horizontal submerged stems, the branches verticillate, and verticil-lately or oppositely decompound. Leaves, at least in the adult plant, none. Bladders terminal on the ultimate br...
-3. Utricularia L. Sp. Pl. 18. 1753
Aquatic herbs, with horizontal submerged leafy stems. Leaves alternate, dissected, sometimes root-like, 2-8-parted from the very base, and thus often appearing opposite or verticillate, the segments d...
-3. Utricularia L. Sp. Pl. 18. 1753. Part 2
2. Utricularia Pumila Walt. Two-Flowered Bladderwort Fig. 3862 Utricularia pumila Walt. Fl. Car. 64. 1788. Utricularia biflora Lam. 111. 1: 50. 1791. U. longirostris LeConte; Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga....
-3. Utricularia L. Sp. Pl. 18. 1753. Part 3
5. Utricularia Minor L. Lesser Bladder-Wort Fig. 3865 Utricularia minor L. Sp. Pl. 18. 1753. Stems creeping on the bottom in shallow water, 4'-12' long, sparingly branched. Leaves alternate, with f...
-3. Utricularia L. Sp. Pl. 18. 1753. Part 4
8. Utricularia Radiata Small. Small Swollen Bladderwort Fig. 3868 Utricularia inflata var. minor Chapm. Fl. S. U. S. 282. 1860. Not U. minor L. 1753. Utricularia radiata Small, Fl. SE. U. S. 1090. ...
-4. Lecticula Barnhart
Herbs, with horizontal usually submerged leafy stems. Leaves alternate, 3-parted from the very base, the middle lobe erect and linear, the lateral lobes capillary and root-like, bladder-bearing; bladd...
-5. Setiscapella Barnhart
Terrestrial herbs, with short root-like branches from the base of the scape. Leaves delicate, some basal, erect, with linear blades, usually evanescent and rarely seen, others root-like, borne on the ...
-6. Stomoisia Raf. Fl. Tellur. 4: 108. 1838
Terrestrial scapose herbs, with tufts of root-like bladder-bearing branches arising from near the base of the scape, and few extremely delicate leafy branches radiating horizontally from the same regi...
-Family 30. Orobanchaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 287. 1836. Broom-Rape Family
Erect, simple or branched, brown yellowish purplish or nearly white root-parasites, the leaves reduced to alternate appressed scales, the flowers perfect, irregular (rarely cleistogamous), sessile in ...
-1. Thalesia Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 2: 267. 1818
[Anoplanthus Endl. Icon. Gen. Pl. 12. pl. 72. 1838.] [Aphyllon A. Gray, Man. 290. 1848.] Glandular or viscid-pubescent simple-stemmed herbs, parasitic on the roots of various plants, with scattered sc...
-2. Orobanche [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 632. 1753
Glandular-pubescent, erect simple or branched, reddish yellowish violet or nearly white herbs, parasitic on the roots of various plants, with scattered scales, and spicate or racemose, complete and pe...
-3. Conopholis Wallr. Orobanch. 78. 1825
An erect stout simple glabrous, densely scaly, light brown herb, parasitic on the roots of trees, with yellowish flowers 2-bracteolate under the calyx, in a thick dense bracted spike, the bracts simil...
-4. Leptamnium Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 2: 267. Feb. 1818
[Epifagus Nutt. Gen. 2: 60. 1818.] An erect slender glabrous, purplish or yellowish, rather stiff branching herb, parasitic on the roots of the beech, with few small scattered scales, and sessile dimo...
-Family 31. Bignoniaceae Pers. Syn. 2: 168. 1807. Trumpet-Creeper Family
Trees, shrubs or woody vines, a few exotic species herbs, with opposite (rarely alternate) compound or simple leaves, and mostly large and showy, clustered terminal or axillary, more or less irregular...
-I. Anisostichus Bureau, Mon. Bignon. 43. 1864
Woody vines, with opposite 2-foliolate leaves, the terminal leaflet reduced to a tendril, and large flowers in axillary cymes. Calyx campanulate, the limb merely undulate, truncate or slightly 5-tooth...
-2. Bignonia L. Sp. Pl. 633. 1753
Climbing woody vines with aerial rootlets, with opposite pinnately compound leaves, and large showy red or orange flowers, in terminal corymbs. Calyx tubular-campanulate, somewhat unequally 5-toothed....
-3. Catalpa Scop. Introd. 170. 1771
Trees, or some exotic species shrubs, with opposite or rarely verticillate simple petioled leaves, and large showy white or mottled flowers in terminal panicles or corymbs. Calyx closed in the bud, sp...
-Family 32. Martyniaceae Link, Handb. 1: 504. 1829. Unicorn-Plant Family
Herbs, with opposite leaves, or the upper sometimes alternate, and perfect irregular flowers, racemose in our species. Calyx inferior, 4-5-cleft or 4-5-parted or sometimes split to the base on the low...
-1. Martynia L. Sp. Pl. 618. 1753
Coarse diffusely branched glandular-pubescent and viscid strong-scented herbs, with opposite or alternate long-petioled leaves, and large violet purple whitish or mottled flowers in short terminal rac...
-Family 33. Acanthaceae J. St. Hil. Expos. Fam. 1: 236. 1805. Acanthus Family
Herbs, or some tropical genera shrubs or small trees, with opposite simple exstipulate leaves, and irregular or nearly regular perfect flowers. Calyx inferior, persistent, 4-5-parted or 4-5-cleft, the...
-1. Dyschoriste Nees, In Wall. P1. As. Rar. 3: 81. 1832
[Calophanes Don; Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. (II). pl. 181. 1833.] Erect or procumbent perennial herbs or shrubs, with entire leaves (smaller ones some-tibes fascicled in their axils), and blue or purple,...
-2. Ruellia [Plumier] L. Sp. Pl. 634. 1753
Perennial herbs, or shrubs, mostly pubescent, with entire or rarely dentate leaves, and large violet blue white or yellow flowers, solitary or clustered in the axils, or cymose in terminal panicles, o...
-3. Dianthera L. Sp. Pl. 27. 1753
Herbs mostly perennial, with entire or rarely dentate leaves, and small or large very irregular flowers, variously clustered or solitary in the axils. Calyx deeply 4-5-parted, the segments narrow. Cor...
-4. Diapedium Konig; Konig & Sims, Ann. Bot. 2: 189. 1806
[Dicliptera Juss. Ann. Mus. Paris, 9: 267. 1807.] Erect or diffuse branched pubescent or glabrous herbs, with entire petioled leaves, and blue red or violet flowers, subtended by involucres of 2-4 dis...
-Family 34. Phrymaceae Schauer In Dc. Prodr. 11: 520. 1847. Lopseed Family
An erect perennial herb with divaricate branches, opposite membranous simple leaves, and small irregular purplish flowers, distant in slender elongated spikes. Calyx cylindric, 2-lipped; upper lip 2-c...
-I. Phryma L. Sp. Pl. 601. 1753
1. Phryma Leptostachya L. Lopseed Fig. 3897 Phyrma Leptostachya L. Sp. Pl. 601. 1753. Puberulent; stem 1 1/2-3 high, somewhat 4-sided, sometimes constricted above the nodes, branched abov...
-Family 35. Plantaginaceae Lindl. Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 267. 1836. Plantain Family
Annual or perennial, mostly acaulescent or short-stemmed, rarely stoloniferous herbs, with basal, or, in the caulescent species, opposite or alternate leaves, and small perfect polygamous or monoeciou...
-1. Plantago [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 112. 1753
Acaulescent or leafy-stemmed herbs, the scapes arising from the axils of the basal or alternate leaves, bearing terminal spikes or heads of small greenish or purplish flowers (flowers solitary in a fe...
-1. Plantago [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 112. 1753. Part 2
2. Plantago Rugelii Dene. Rugel's Or Pale Plantain Fig. 3899 Plantago Rugelii in DC. Prodr. 13: Part 1, 700. 1852. Similar to the preceding species, the spikes less dense, at least toward the base,...
-1. Plantago [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 112. 1753. Part 3
5. Plantago Eriopoda Torr. Saline Plantain Fig. 3902 Plantago glabra Nutt. Gen. 1: 100. 1818? Plantago eriopoda Torr. Ann. Lyc. N. Y. 2: 237. 1827. Perennial, succulent; rootstock long, usually de...
-1. Plantago [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 112. 1753. Part 4
8. Plantago Purshii R. & S. Pursh's Plantain Fig. 3905 Plantago Purshii R. & S. Syst. 3: 120. 1818. Plantago gnaphalioides Nutt. Gen. 1: 100. 1818. Plantago patagonica var. gnaphalioides A. Gray, Ma...
-1. Plantago [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 112. 1753. Part 5
11. Plantago Pusilla Nutt. Slender Plantain Fig. 3908 Plantago pusilla Nutt. Gen. 1: 100. 1818. Annual, puberulent; scapes filiform, 2-7' high, longer than the linear-filiform, mostly entire, blunt...
-2. Littorella L. Mant. 2: 295. 1771
A low perennial succulent herb, with linear entire basal leaves and monoecious flowers, the staminate solitary or two together at the summits of slender scapes, the pistillate sessile among the leaves...
-Family 36. Rubiaceae B. Juss. Hort. Trian. 1759. Madder Family
Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with simple, opposite or sometimes verticillate. mostly stipulate leaves, and perfect, often dimorphous or trimorphous, regular and nearly symmetrical flowers. Calyx-tube adna...
-1. Houstonia L. Sp. Pl. 105. 1753
Erect or diffuse, usually tufted herbs, with opposite entire often ciliate leaves, and small blue purple or white, mostly dimorphous flowers. Calyx-tube globose or ovoid, 4-lobed, the lobes distant. C...
-1. Houstonia L. Sp. Pl. 105. 1753. Part 2
2. Houstonia Serpyllifolia Michx. Thyme-Leaved Bluets Fig. 39i3 Houstonia serpyllifolia Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 85. 1803. Hedyotis serpyllifolia T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 39. 1841. Perennial; stems pros...
-1. Houstonia L. Sp. Pl. 105. 1753. Part 3
6. Houstonia Purpurea L. Large Houstonia. Venus'-Pride Fig. 3917 Houstonia purpurea L. Sp. Pl. 105. 1753. Hedyotis purpurea T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 40. 1841. Oldenlandia purpurea A. Gray, Man. Ed. 2, 1...
-2. Oldenlandia [Plumier] L. Sp. Pl 119. 1753
Erect or diffuse slender herbs, with opposite leaves, and small axillary or terminal solitary or clustered, white or pink flowers. Calyx-tube obovoid or subglobose, the limb 4-toothed. Corolla rotate ...
-3. Cephalanthus L. Sp. Pl 95. 1753
Shrubs, or small trees, with opposite or verticillate short-petioled entire leaves, and terminal or axillary, densely capitate, bracteolate small white or yellow flowers. Calyx-tube obpyramidal, its l...
-4. Mitchella L. Sp. Pl. III. 1753
Creeping herbs, with opposite petioled, entire or undulate, evergreen leaves, and white axillary or terminal peduncled geminate dimorphous flowers, their ovaries united. Calyx-tube ovoid, the limb 3-6...
-5. Spermacoce L. Sp. Pl. 102. 1753
Herbs, with 4-sided stems, opposite pinnately veined stipulate leaves, and small white flowers, in dense axillary and terminal clusters. Calyx-tube obovoid or obconic, its limb 4-toothed. Corolla funn...
-6. Diodia L. Sp. Pl. 104. 1753
Decumbent or ascending branching herbs, with opposite, mostly sessile, entire conspicuously stipulate leaves, and small axillary white lilac or purple flowers. Calyx-tube obconic or obovoid, the limb ...
-7. Galium L. Sp. Pl. 105. 1753
Annual or perennial herbs, with 4-angled slender stems and branches, apparently verticil-late leaves, and small white, green, yellow or purple flowers, mostly in axillary or terminal cymes or panicles...
-7. Galium L. Sp. Pl. 105. 1753. Part 2
1. Galium Verum L. Yellow Bedstraw. Lady's Bedstraw Fig. 3928 Galium verum L. Sp. Pl. 107. 1753. Perennial from a somewhat woody base, erect or ascending, simple or branched, 6'-2i high. Stems...
-7. Galium L. Sp. Pl. 105. 1753. Part 3
5. Galium Vaillantii Dc. Vaillant's Goose-Grass Or Cleavers Fig. 3932 Galium Vaillantii DC. Fl. France 4: 263. 1805. Galium Aparine var. Vaillantii Koch, Fl. Germ. 330. 1837. Similar to the preced...
-7. Galium L. Sp. Pl. 105. 1753. Part 4
9. Galium Circaezans Michx. Wild Liquorice. Cross-Cleavers Fig. 3936 G. circaezans Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 80. 1803. Galium circaezans glabellum Britton, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 303. 1894. Perennial, mo...
-7. Galium L. Sp. Pl. 105. 1753. Part 5
13. Galium Latifolium Michx. Purple Bedstraw Fig. 3940 Galium latifolium Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 79. 1803. Perennial, erect, smooth and glabrous (rarely hispid), branched, 1-2 high. Leaves...
-7. Galium L. Sp. Pl. 105. 1753. Part 6
17. Galium Tinctdrium L. Stiff Marsh Bed-Straw. Wild Madder Fig. 3944 Galium tinctorium L. Sp. Pl. 106. 1753. Galium trifidum var. latifolium Torr. Fl. N. & Mid. States, 78. 1826. Galium tinctoriu...
-7. Galium L. Sp. Pl. 105. 1753. Part 7
Ax. Galium Palustre L. Marsh Bedstraw Fig. 3948 Galium palustre L. Sp. Pl. 105. 1753. Galium trifidum var. bifolium Macoun, Cat. Can. Plants 202. 1884? Perennial, stem erect and rather slender, abo...
-8. Sherardia [Dill.] L. Sp. Pl. 102. 1753
Slender annual procumbent or diffuse herbs, with verticillate spiny-pointed leaves, and small nearly sessile pink or blue flowers, in terminal and axillary involucrate heads. Calyx-tube obovoid, its l...
-9. Asperula L. Sp. Pl. 103. 1753
Erect or ascending branching perennial herbs, with 4-angled stems, verticillate leaves, and small white pink or blue flowers in terminal or axillary, mostly cymose clusters. Calyx-tube somewhat didymo...
-Family 37. Caprifoliaceae Vent. Tabl. 2: 593. 1799. Honeysuckle Family
Shrubs, trees, vines, or perennial herbs, with opposite simple or pinnate leaves, and perfect, regular or irregular, mostly cymose flowers. Stipules none, or sometimes present. Calyx-tube adnate to th...
-1. Sambucus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 269. 1753
Shrubs or trees (or some exotic species perennial herbs), with opposite pinnate leaves, serrate or laciniate leaflets, and small white or pinkish flowers in compound depressed or thyrsoid cymes. Calyx...
-2. Viburnum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 267. 1753
Shrubs or trees, with entire dentate or lobed, sometimes stipulate leaves, and white or rarely pink flowers in compound cymes, the outer flowers sometimes radiant and neutral. Calyx-tube ovoid or turb...
-2. Viburnum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 267. 1753. Part 2
2. Viburnum Opulus L. Cranberry-Tree. Wild Guelder-Rose. High Bush-Cranberry Fig. 3958 Viburnum Opulus L. Sp. Pl. 268. 1753. V. trilobum Marsh. Arb. Am. 162. 1785. V. americanum Mill. Gard. Dict. Ed...
-2. Viburnum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 267. 1753. Part 3
5. Viburnum Pubescens (Ait.) Pursh. Downy-Leaved Arrow-Woo Fig. 3961 Viburnum dentatum var. pubescens Ait. Hort. Kew. 1: 372. 1789. V. pubescens Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 202. 1814. A shrub, 2-5&d...
-2. Viburnum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 267. 1753. Part 4
8. Viburnum Venosum Britton. Veiny Arrow-Wood Fig. 3964 Viburnum venosum Britton, Man. 871. 1901. V. venosum Canbyi Render, Rhodora 6: 60. 1904. A shrub, 6 high or less, the bark grayish-brown...
-2. Viburnum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 267. 1753. Part 5
12. Viburnum Lentago L. Nanny-Berry. Sheep- Or Sweet-Berry. Sweet Viburnum Fig. 3968 Viburnum Lentago L. Sp. Pl. 268. 1753. A shrub, or often a small tree, sometimes 300 high and with a trunk diame...
-3. Triosteum L. Sp. Pl. 176. 1753
Perennial herbs, with simple terete stems and opposite connate-perfoliate or sessile leaves narrowed below the middle. Flowers axillary, perfect, solitary or clustered, sessile, yellowish, green, or p...
-4. Linnaea [Gronov.] L. Sp. Pl. 631. 1753
Creeping, somewhat woody herbs, with opposite evergreen petioled obovate or orbicular leaves, and perfect pink or purplish flowers borne in pairs at the summit of elongated terminal peduncles. Calyx-t...
-5. Symphoricarpos [Dill.] Ludwig, Def. 35. 1760
Shrubs, with opposite deciduous short-petioled simple leaves, and small white or pink, perfect flowers, in axillary or terminal clusters. Calyx-tube nearly globular, the limb 4-5-toothed. Corolla camp...
-6. Lonicera L. Sp. Pl. 173. 1753
Erect or climbing shrubs, with opposite mostly entire leaves; flowers spicate, capitate or geminate, usually somewhat irregular. Calyx-tube ovoid or nearly globular, the. limb slightly 5-toothed. Coro...
-6. Lonicera L. Sp. Pl. 173. 1753. Part 2
2. Lonicera Hirsuta Eaton. Hairy-Honeysuckle Fig. 3980 L. hirsuta Eaton, Man. Ed. 2, 307. 1818. Twining, the branches hirsute and glandular-pubescent. Upper one or two pairs of leaves connate-perfo...
-6. Lonicera L. Sp. Pl. 173. 1753. Part 3
5. Lonicera Sullivantii A. Gray. Sul-Livant's Honeysuckle Fig. 3983 Lonicera Sullivantii A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 19: 76. 1883. Similar to the preceding species, very glaucous. Leaves oval or obo...
-6. Lonicera L. Sp. Pl. 173. 1753. Part 4
9. Lonicera Coerulea L. Blue Or Mountain Fly-Honeysuckle Fig. 3987 Lonicera coerulea L Sp. Pl. 174. 1753. Lonicera villosa Muhl. Cat. 23. 1813. Erect, shrubby, 1-3 high, the twigs sometim...
-6. Lonicera L. Sp. Pl. 173. 1753. Part 5
12. Lonicera Xylosteum L. Fly-Honeysuckle Fig. 3990 Lonicera Xylosteum L. Sp. Pl. 174. 1753. A shrub, 3-7 high, the foliage densely ap-pressed-pubescent when young. Leaves ovate, oval, or...
-7. Diervilla [Toum.] Mill. Gard. Dict. Abr. Ed. 8. 1754
Shrubs, with opposite leaves, and yellow axillary and terminal cymose or solitary flowers. Calyx-tube slender, elongated, narrowed below, the limb with 5 linear persistent lobes. Corolla narrowly funn...
-Family 38. Adoxaceae Fritsch; Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pfl. Fam. 4: 170. 1891. Moschatel Family
A glabrous perennial slender herb, with scaly or tuberiferous rootstocks, basal and opposite ternately compound leaves, and small green flowers in terminal capitate clusters. Calyx-tube hemispheric, a...
-1. Adoxa L. Sp. Pl. 367. 1753
Characters of the family. [Greek, without glory, i. e., insignificant.] 1. Adoxa Moschatelhna L. Musk-Root. Hollow-Root. Moschatel Fig. 3994 Adoxa Moschatellina L. Sp. Pl. 367. 1753. Stems simp...
-Family 39. Valerianaceae Batsch, Tabl. Aff. 227. 1802. Valerian Family
Herbs with opposite leaves, no stipules, and usually small perfect or polygamo-dioecious flowers, in corymbed panicled or capitate cymes. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, its limb inconspicuous or none...
-1. Valeriana [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 31. 1753
Perennial, strong-smelling, mostly tall herbs, the leaves mainly basal and the cymose flowers paniculate in our species. Calyx-limb of 5-15 bristle-like plumose teeth, short and inrolled in flower, bu...
-1. Valeriana [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 31. 1753. Continued
3. Valeriana Uliginosa (T. & G.) Rydb. Marsh Or Swamp Valerian. Fig 3997 Valeriana dioica Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 727. 1814. Not L. 1753. V. sylvatica uliginosa T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 47. 1841. V. uligin...
-2. Valerianella [Tourn.] Mill. Gard. Dict. Abr. Ed. 4. 1754
Annual dichotomously branched herbs, the basal leaves tufted, entire, those of the stem sessile, often dentate, the flowers in terminal, compact or capitate, in our species corymbed or panicled cymes....
-Valerianella [Tourn.] Mill. Gard. Dict. Abr. Ed. 4. 1754. Continued
3. Valerianella Radiata (L.) Dufr. Beaked Corn Salad Fig. 4002 Valeriana Locusta var. radiata L. Sp. Pl. 34. 1753. Fedia radiata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 118. 1803. Valerianella radiata Dufr. Hist. Va...
-Family 40. Dipsacaceae Lindl. Veg. Kingd. 699. 1847. Teasel Family
Perennial biennial or annual herbs, with opposite or rarely verticillate leaves, and perfect gamopetalous flowers in dense involucrate heads. Stipules none. Flowers borne on an elongated or globose re...
-1. Dipsacus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 97. 1753
Rough-hairy or prickly tall erect biennial or perennial herbs, with opposite dentate entire or pinnatifid, usually large leaves, and blue or lilac flowers in dense terminal peduncled oblong heads in o...
-2. Scabiosa [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 98. 1753
Herbs, with opposite leaves, no prickles, and blue pink or white flowers in peduncled involucrate heads. Bracts of the involucre herbaceous, separate, or slightly united at the base. Scales of the pub...
-3. Succisa (Vaill.) Moench. Meth. 488. 1794
Herbs, similar to Scabiosa, with opposite leaves, the flowers in long-peduncled heads, subtended by a several-many-leaved involucre. Scales of the receptacle herbaceous or capillary. Involucels groove...
-Family 41. Cucurbitaceae B. Juss. Hort. Trian. 1759. Gourd Family
Climbing or trailing, herbaceous vines, usually with tendrils. Leaves alternate, petioled, generally palmately lobed or dissected. Flowers solitary or racemose, monoecious or dioecious. Calyx-tube adn...
-1. Pepo [Tourn.] Mill. Gard. Dict. Abr. Ed. 4. 1754
Rough prostrate vines, rooting at the nodes, with branched tendrils, usually lobed leaves mostly cordate at the base, and large yellow axillary monoecious flowers. Calyx-tube campanulate, usually 5-lo...
-2. Melothria L. Sp. Pl. 35. 1753
Slender, mostly climbing vines, with simple or rarely bifid tendrils, lobed or entire thin leaves, and small white or yellow monoecious flowers, the staminate clustered, the pistillate often solitary....
-3. Micrampelis Raf. Med. Rep. (II.) 5: 350. 1808. [Echinocystis T. & G. Fl. N. A. 1: 542. 1840.]
Mostly annual climbing herbs, with branched tendrils, lobed or angled leaves, and small white monoecious flowers. Calyx-tube campanulate, 5-6-lobed. Corolla very deeply 5-6-parted. Stamens 3 in the st...
-4. Cyclanthera Schrad. Ind. Sem. Hort. Goett. 1831
Climbing, annual or perennial, mostly glabrous vines, with forked or simple tendrils, usually digitately compound leaves and small white or greenish monoecious flowers. Calyx cup-shaped, 5-toothed. Co...
-5. Sicyos L. Sp. Pl. 1013. 1753
Annual climbing vines, with branched tendrils, angled or lobed leaves, and small white or green monoecious flowers. Calyx-tube campanulate or cup-shaped, 5-toothed. Corolla campanulate or rotate, 5-pa...
-Family 42. Campanulaceae Juss. Gen. 163. 1789. Bellflower Family
Herbs (some tropical species shrubs or even trees), with alternate exstipulate leaves, usually milky juice, and racemose spicate paniculate or solitary perfect flowers. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary,...
-1. Campanula [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 163. 1753
Perennial or annual herbs, with alternate or basal leaves. Flowers large or small, solitary, racemose, paniculate, or glomerate, regular, complete, blue, violet, or white. Calyx-tube hemispheric, turb...
-1. Campanula [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 163. 1753. Part 2
2. Campanula Rotundifolia L. Harebell. Blue Bells Of Scotland Fig. 4016 Campanula rotundifolia L. Sp. Pl. 163. 1753. Campanula rotundifolia velutina DC. Fl. France 6: 432. 1815. C. linifolia var. La...
-1. Campanula [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 163. 1753. Part 3
5. Campanula Glomerata L. Clustered Bellflower. Dane's Blood Fig. 4019 Campanula glomerata L. Sp. Pl. 166. 1753. Perennial by short rootstocks; stem stout, simple, erect, pubescent, leafy, 1-2...
-2. Specularia Heist.; Fabr. Enum. Pl. Hort. Helmst. 225. 1703
[Legouzia Durand, Fl. Bourg. 2: 26. 1782.] Annual herbs, with alternate toothed or entire leaves, the stem and branches long, slender. Flowers axillary, sessile or nearly so, 2-bracted, or the upper ...
-3. Jasione L. Sp. Pl. 928. 1753
Herbs, the flowers in terminal heads subtended by a many-leaved involucre. Calyx-tube campanulate, adnate to the ovary, the limb 5-divided. Corolla at first tubular, splitting later to the base into 5...
-Family 43. Lobeliaceae Dumort. Comm. Bot. 57. 1822. Lobelia Family
Herbs, or in tropical regions rarely shrubs or trees, often with milky sap which contains a narcotic-acid poison, with alternate, exstipulate, simple, entire, toothed or pinnately parted leaves and so...
-1. Lobelia L. Sp. Pl. 929. 1753
Herbs (some tropical species shrubs), with alternate or basal leaves and racemose spicate or paniculate, often leafy bracted, red, yellow, blue or white flowers. Calyx-tube turbinate, hemispheric or o...
-1. Lobelia L. Sp. Pl. 929. 1753. Part 2
1. Lobelia Dortmanna L. Water Lobelia. Water Gladiole Fig. 4028 Lobelia Dortmanna L. Sp. Pl. 929. 1753. Perennial, aquatic, glabrous throughout, somewhat fleshy; roots numerous, white, fibrous; ste...
-1. Lobelia L. Sp. Pl. 929. 1753. Part 3
5. Lobelia Amoena Michx. Southern Lobelia Fig. 4032 Lobelia amoena Michx. FI. Bor. Am. 2: 152. 1803. Lobelia amoena glandulifera A. Gray, Syn. Fl. 2: 4. 1878. Nearly glabrous throughout, perennial;...
-1. Lobelia L. Sp. Pl. 929. 1753. Part 4
8. Lobelia Glandulosa Walt. Glandular Lobelia Fig. 4035 Lobelia glandulosa Walt. Fl. Car. 218. 1788. Perennial; stem slender, leafy below, nearly naked above, simple, glabrous, or sparingly pubesce...
-1. Lobelia L. Sp. Pl. 929. 1753. Part 5
11. Lobelia Inflata L. Indian Or Wild Tobacco. Eyebright Fig. 4038. Lobelia Inflata L. Sp. Pl. 931. 1753 Annual, pubescent or hirsute, very acrid; stem leafy, commonly paniculately branched, 1-...
-Family 44. Cichoriaceae Reichenb. Fl. Excurs. 248. 1831. Chicory Family
Herbs (two Pacific Island genera trees), almost always with milky, acrid or bitter juice, alternate or basal leaves, and yellow, rarely pink, blue purple or white flowers in involucrate heads (anthodi...
-1. Cichorium [Tourn.] L, Sp. Pl. 813. 1753
Erect branching herbs, with alternate and basal leaves, those of the stem and branches usually very small and bract-like, and large heads of blue purple pink or white flowers, peduncled, or in sessile...
-2. Lapsana L. Sp. Pl. 811. 1753
Annual erect branching herbs, with alternate dentate or pinnatifid leaves, and small panicled slender-peduncled heads of yellow flowers. Involucre nearly cylindric, its principal bracts in 1 series, n...
-3. Serinia Raf. Fl. Ludov. 149. 1817
[Apogon Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 2: 267. 1824.] Low glaucescent branching annual herbs, with alternate clasping entire or lobed leaves, or those of the stem sometimes appearing as if opposite, and few s...
-4. Krigia Schreb. Gen. Pl. 532. 1791
An annual herb, with scapose stems, basal, entire, sinuate-dentate or pinnatifid leaves, and a small or middle-sized head of yellow flowers, solitary at the end of the scape. Involucre campanulate, it...
-5. Cynthia D. Don, Edinb. Phil. Journ. 12: 305. 1829
Perennial herbs, with tufted basal leaves, the large many-flowered heads at the ends of simple or branched scapes. Flowers orange or yellow. Bracts of the involucre 9-18, reflexed in fruit, lanceolate...
-6. Cymbia (T. & G.) Standley, Contr. Nat. Herb. 13: 354. 1911
An annual acaulescent herb, the leaves forming rosettes, the scapes monocephalous. Involucral bracts 5-8, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, remaining erect in fruit. Receptacle naked. Rays yellow, 5-toothed....
-7. Arnoseris Gaertn. Fr. & Sem. 2: 355. Pl. 157. 1791
A low annual scapose herb, glabrous, or nearly so, with tufted basal dentate or nearly entire leaves. Scapes several or numerous, simple or branched, upwardly thickened below the solitary heads of yel...
-8. Hypochaeris [Vaill.] L. Sp. Pl 810. 1753
Mostly perennial herbs, with scapose, often branched stems and mostly basal tufted leaves, pinnatifid to entire, those of the scapes few, scale-like, very small, or none. Heads mostly large, long-pedu...
-9. Apargia Scop. Fl. Cam. Ed. 2, 2: 113. 1772
Perennial scapose herbs, with tufted basal, mostly pinnatifid leaves, branched and scaly, or simple and naked scapes, and large heads of yellow flowers, solitary at the end of the scape or of its bran...
-10. Picris L. Sp. Pl. 792. 1753
Erect hispid, mostly branching, leafy herbs, with alternate leaves (in our species), and rather large, usually corymbose or paniculate heads of yellow flowers. Involucre campanulate or cup-shaped, its...
-11. Ptiloria Raf. Atl. Journ. 145. 1832
[Stephanomeria Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (II.) 7: 427. 1841.] Annual or perennial, mostly glabrous, often glaucous herbs, with erect, simple or branched, usually rigid stems, alternate or basal, e...
-12. Tragopogon [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 789. 1753
Biennial or perennial, erect usually branched, somewhat succulent herbs, with slender fleshy tap-roots, alternate entire linear-lanceolate long-acuminate leaves, clasping at the base, and long-peduncl...
-13. Malacothrix Dc. Prodr. 7: 192. 1838
Annual or perennial, branching or scapose herbs, with alternate or basal, mostly pinnatifid leaves, and long-peduncled panicled or solitary heads of yellow or rarely white flowers. Involucre campanula...
-14. Chondrilla [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 796. 1753
Perennial herbs, with stiff divaricately branched stems, the basal leaves large and mostly pinnatifid, those of the stem small, narrow, alternate, and few middle sized heads of yellow flowers mostly s...
-15. Leontodon L. Sp. Pl. 798. 1753
[Taraxacum (Hall.) Ludwig, Def. 175. 1760.] Perennial acaulescent herbs, with basal tufted pinnatifid or sinuate-dentate leaves, and large heads of yellow flowers, solitary, or very rarely 2 or 3 tog...
-16. Sonchus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 793. 1753
Annual or perennial succulent herbs, with alternate, mostly auriculate-clasping, entire dentate lobed or pinnatifid, prickly-margined leaves, and large or middle-sized, peduncled corymbose or panicula...
-17. Lactuca [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 795. 1753
Tall leafy herbs, with small panicled heads of yellow, white, pink, or blue flowers, and alternate leaves. Involucre cylindric, its bracts imbricated in several series, the outer shorter, or of 1 or 2...
-17. Lactuca [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 795. 1753. Part 2
2. Lactuca Saligna L. Willow Lettuce Fig. 4069 Lactuca saligna L. Sp. Pl. 796. 1753. Biennial, light green; stem slender, smooth or nearly so, 2 high or more, the very slender branches erect-a...
-17. Lactuca [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 795. 1753. Part 3
6. Lactuca Canadensis L. Wild Or Tall Lettuce. Wild Opium Fig. 4073 Lactuca canadensis L. Sp. Pl. 796. 1753. Lactuca elongata Muhl.; Willd. Sp. Pl. 1525. 1804. Lactuca canadensis montana Britton, in...
-17. Lactuca [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 795. 1753. Part 4
9. Lactuca Villosa Jacq. Hairy-Veined Blue Lettuce Fig. 4076 L. villosa Jacq. Hort. Schoen. 3: 62. pl. 367. 1798. Sonchus acuminatus Willd. Sp. Pl. 3: 1521. 1804. Mulgedium acuminatum DC. Prodr. 7: ...
-18. Lygodesmia D. Don, Edinb. Phil. Journ. 6: 311. 1829
Perennial or annual glabrous rigid branching herbs, with linear leaves, or the basal and lower ones sometimes broader and pinnatifid, those of the stem very narrow and entire or reduced to linear scal...
-19. Agoseris Raf.; D. Dietr. Syn. Pl. 4: 1332. 1847
[Troximon Nutt. Fras. Cat. 1813. Not Gaertn. 1791.] Perennial or annual herbs, mostly acaulescent, with tufted usually sessile basal leaves, and solitary heads of yellow or rarely purple flowers at t...
-19. Agoseris Raf.; D. Dietr. Syn. Pl. 4: 1332. 1847. Continued
3. Agoseris Cuspidata (Pursh) D. Dietr. Prairie False Dandelion Fig. 4083 Troximon cuspidatum Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 742. 1814. Troximon marginatum Nutt. Gen. 2: 128. 1818. Agoseris cuspidata D. Dietr...
-21. Crepis L. Sp. Pl. 805. 1753
Perennial, biennial or annual herbs, with alternate or basal, mostly toothed or pinnatifid leaves, and small or middle-sized heads, usually paniculate or corymbose, of yellow or orange flowers. Involu...
-21. Crepis L. Sp. Pl. 805. 1753. Part 2
3. Crepis Runcinata (James) T. & G. Naked Stemmed Hawksbeard Fig. 4088 Hieracium runcinatum James in Long's Exp. 1: 453. 1823. Crepis runcinata T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 487. 1843. Crepis perplexans Ryd...
-21. Crepis L. Sp. Pl. 805. 1753. Part 3
6. Crepis Biennis L. Rough Hawksbeard Fig. 4091 Crepis biennis L. Sp. Pl. 807. 1753. Biennial, or sometimes annual; stem pubescent or hirsute, leafy, at least below, branched above, 2-3 h...
-22. Hieracium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 799. 1753
Perennial hispid scabrous glandular or glabrous herbs, with alternate or basal leaves, and small middle-sized or large, solitary corymbose or paniculate heads of yellow orange or red flowers. Involucr...
-22. Hieracium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 799. 1753. Part 2
1. Hieracium Murdrum L. Wall Hawk-Weed Fig. 4094 Hieracium murorum L. Sp. Pl. 802. 1753. Stem pubescent or glabrate, simple, or with 1 or 2 branches, 1-2 1/2 high. Basal leaves thin, ovat...
-22. Hieracium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 799. 1753. Part 3
4. Hieracium Scabriusculum Schwein. Narrow-Leaved Hawkweed Fig. 4097 H. scabriusculum Schwein. in Long's Exp. 2: 394. 1824. Stem rather slender, glabrous or puberulent, sometimes hispid below, usua...
-22. Hieracium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 799. 1753. Part 4
7. Hieracium Scabrum Michx. Rough Hawkweed Fig. 4100 H. scabrum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 86. 1803. Stem stout, leafy, mostly hirsute or hispid below and glandular-pubescent above, strict, 1-4&de...
-22. Hieracium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 799. 1753. Part 5
10. Hieracium Venosum L. Rattlesnake-Weed. Poor Robin's Plantain Fig. 4103 Hieracium venosum L. Sp. Pl. 800. 1753. Stems solitary or several from the same root, slender, glabrous, or with a few his...
-22. Hieracium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 799. 1753. Part 6
13. Hieracium Pilosella L. Mouse-Ear Hawk-Weed Fig. 4106 Hieracium Pilosella L. Sp. Pl. 800. 1753. Hieracium Pilosella peleterianum Mer. Nouv. Fl. Paris, Ed. 2, 230. 1821. Stoloniferous, pilose-pub...
-23. Nabalus Cass. Dict. Sci. Nat. 34: 94. 1825
Perennial, herbs with alternate, mostly petioled, dentate lobed or pinnatifid leaves, or the upper auriculate and clasping, and numerous small heads of ligulate white yellowish or purplish flowers in ...
-23. Nabalus Cass. Dict. Sci. Nat. 34: 94. 1825. Part 2
2. Nabalus Albus (L.) Hook. Rattlesnake-Root. White Lettuce Fig. 4111 Prenanthes alba L. Sp. Pl. 798. 1753. Nabalus albus Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 294. 1833. Glabrous and glaucous; stem commonly purp...
-23. Nabalus Cass. Dict. Sci. Nat. 34: 94. 1825. Part 3
5. Nabalus Nanus (Bigel.) Dc. Low Rattlesnake-Root, Or Lion's-Foot Fig.4114 Prenanthes alba var. nana Bigel. Fl. Bost. Ed. 2, 286. 1824. Nabalus nanus DC. Prodr. 7: 241. 1838. Prenanthes nana Torr....
-23. Nabalus Cass. Dict. Sci. Nat. 34: 94. 1825. Part 4
8. Nabalus Asper (Michx.) T. & G. Rough White-Lettuce Fig. 4117 Prenanthes aspera Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 83. 1803. Nabalus asper T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 483. 1843. Scabrous or rough-puberulent; stem v...
-Family 45. Ambrosiaceae Reichenb. Consp. 112. 1828. Ragweed Family
Annual or perennial herbs, monoecious, or sometimes dioecious, many of them weeds, some shrubby, with alternate leaves, or the lower opposite, and small heads of greenish or white flowers subtended by...
-1. Iva L. Sp. Pl. 988. 1753
Puberulent or scabrous herbs, with thick opposite leaves, or the upper alternate, and small nodding, axillary and solitary, spicate racemose or paniculate heads of greenish flowers. Involucre hemisphe...
-1. Iva L. Sp. Pl. 988. 1753. Continued
3. Iva Imbricata Walt. Sea-Coast Marsh Elder Fig. 4122. Iva Imbricata Walt. Fl. Car. 232. 1788 Perennial by woody roots, glabrous or nearly so throughout, fleshy; stem 1-2 high, simple, or...
-2. Ambrosia [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 987. 1753
Monoecious (rarely dioecious) branching herbs, with alternate or opposite, mostly lobed or divided leaves, and small heads of green flowers, the staminate spicate or racemose, the pistillate solitary ...
-3. Gaertneria Med. Act. Pal. 3: 244
1785. Phil. Bot. 45. 1789. [Franseria Cav. Icon. 2: 78. pl. 200. 1793.] Hispid or tomentose branching herbs, with the aspect of Ambrosias, sometimes woody at the base, with mostly alternate lobed ...
-4. Xanthium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 987. 1753
Monoecious annual branching coarse rough or spiny herbs, with alternate lobed or dentate leaves, and rather small heads of greenish discoid flowers, the staminate ones capitate-clustered at the ends o...
-4. Xanthium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 987. 1753. Continued
3. Xanthium Echinatum Murr. Beach Clotbur Fig. 4134 X. echinatum Murr. Comm. Goett. 6: 32, pl. 4. 1783. X. macuiatum Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 344. 1818. X. oviforme Wallr. Beitr. Bot. 1: 240. 1842. S...
-Family 46. Compositae Adans. Fam. Pl. 2: 103. 1763. Thistle Family
Herbs, rarely shrubs (some tropical forms trees), with watery or resinous (rarely milky) sap, and opposite alternate or basal exstipulate leaves. Flowers perfect, pistillate, or neutral, or sometimes ...
-Compositae Adans. Fam. Pl. 2: 103. 1763. Thistle Family. Continued
17. Oonopsis. 2. Heads with both ray-flowers and disk-flowers (in our species). a. None of the leaves cordate; pappus mostly as long as the achene, or longer. Leaves bristly-serrate or pinnatifid. ...
-1. Vernonia Schreb. Gen. Pl. 2: 541. 1791
Erect branching perennial herbs, or some tropical species shrubby, with alternate (very rarely oposite), in our species sessile leaves, and discoid cymose-paniculate heads of purple pink or white tubu...
-1. Vernonia Schreb. Gen. Pl. 2: 541. 1791. Part 2
3. Vernonia Glauca (L.) Britton. Broad-Leaved Iron-Weed Fig. 4142 Serratula glauca L. Sp. Pl. 818. 1753. Vernonia noveboracensis var. latifolia A. Gray, Syn. Fl. 1: Part 2, 89. 1884. Vernonia glauc...
-1. Vernonia Schreb. Gen. Pl. 2: 541. 1791. Part 3
7. Vernonia Baldwinii Torr. Baldwin's Iron-Weed Fig. 4146 V. Baldwinii Torr. Ann. Lyc. N. Y. 2: 211. 1827. Cacalia Baldwinii Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 969. 1891. Vernonia interior Small, Bull. Torr. C...
-2. Elephantopus [Vaill.] L. Sp. Pl. 814. 1753
Perennial rigid pubescent herbs, with alternate or basal, simple pinnately-veined leaves, and in our species glomerate bracted heads of blue or purple flowers in branching corymbs. Heads discoid, 2-5-...
-3. Sclerolepis Cass. Bull. Soc. Philom. 1816: 198. 1816
Slender aquatic herbs, with linear entire verticillate leaves, and solitary (rarely 2-4) discoid peduncled terminal heads of small purplish flowers. Involucre broadly campanulate or hemispheric. Bract...
-4. Eupatorium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 836. 1753
Erect, mostly branching, perennial herbs, with opposite or verticillate, or sometimes alternate, often punctate leaves, and in our species cymose-paniculate discoid heads of white, blue or purple flow...
-4. Eupatorium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 836. 1753. Part 2
1. Eupatorium Capillifolium (Lam.) Small. Dog-Fennel. Hog-Weed Fig. 4152 Artemisia capillifolia Lam. Encycl. I: 267. 1783. Eupatorium foeniculeides Walt. Fl. Car. 199. 1788. E. foeniculaceum Wind. S...
-4. Eupatorium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 836. 1753. Part 3
5. Eupatorium Serotinum Michx. Late-Flowering Thorough Wort Fig. 4156 E. serotinum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 100. 1803. Much branched, finely and densely pubescent, or glabrate below, 4-8 hi...
-4. Eupatorium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 836. 1753. Part 4
9. Eupatorium Torreyanum Short. Tor-Rey's Thorough Wort Fig. 4160 Eupatorium Torreyanum Short, 2nd Suppl. Cat. Pl. Ky. 5. 1836. Eupatorium hyssopifolium var. laciniatum A. Gray, Syn. Fl. 1: Part 2,...
-4. Eupatorium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 836. 1753. Part 5
13. Eupatorium Verbenaefolium Michx. Rough Or Vervain Thoroughwort Fig. 4164 Eupatorium pilosum Walt. Fl. Car. 199. 1788. ? Eupatorium verbenaefolium Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 98. 1803. E. teucriifoli...
-4. Eupatorium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 836. 1753. Part 6
17. Eupatorium Resinosum Torr. Resin Boneset Fig. 4168 E. resinosum Torr. DC. Prodr. 5: 176. 1836. Slender, finely pubescent and resinous, 2-3 high, branched at the summit, the infloresce...
-4. Eupatorium [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 836. 1753. Part 7
21. Eupatorium Coelestinum L. Mist-Flower. Blue Boneset Fig. 4172 Eupatorium coelestinum L. Sp. Pl. 838. 1753. Conoclinium coelestinum DC. Prodr. 5: 135. 1836. Pubescent or puberulent, branched, 1&...
-5. Mikania Willd. Sp. Pl. 3: 1742. 1804
[Willughbaea Neck. Elem. 1: 82. Hyponym. 1790.] Herbaceous twining vines, or some tropical species erect shrubs, with opposite, petioled leaves, and discoid, mostly cymose-paniculate heads of whitish...
-6. Coleosanthus Cass. Dict. 10: 36. 1817
[Brickellia Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 2: 200. 1824.] Herbs or shrubs, with opposite or alternate leaves, and discoid heads of white yellowish or pink flowers, in panicles or cymes, or rarely solitary. Inv...
-7. Kuhnia L. Sp. Pl. Ed. 2, 1662. 1763
derennial herbs, with alternate punctate resinous-dotted leaves, and discoid heads of white or purplish flowers in terminal cymose corymbs. Involucre turbinate-campanulate, its bracts striate, imbrica...
-8. Lacinaria Hill, Veg. Syst. 4: 49. Pl. 46. 1762
[Liatris Schreb. Gen. Pl. 542. 1791.] Erect perennial herbs, usually from a globular tuber, simple or little branched, with alternate, entire, narrow 1-5-nerved leaves, and spicate or racemose discoid...
-8. Lacinaria Hill, Veg. Syst. 4: 49. Pl. 46. 1762. Part 2
2. Lacinaria Cylindracea (Michx.) Kuntze. Cylindric Blazing Star Fig. 4178 Liatris cylindracea Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 93. 1803. Liatris graminifolia Willd. Sp. Pl. 3: 1636. 1804. Lacinaria cylindra...
-8. Lacinaria Hill, Veg. Syst. 4: 49. Pl. 46. 1762. Part 3
6. Lacinaria Pycnostachya (Michx.) Kuntze. Prairie Or Hairy Button-Snakeroot Fig. 4182 Liatris pycnostachya Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 91. 1803. Lacinaria pycnostachya Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 349. 1891. ...
-8. Lacinaria Hill, Veg. Syst. 4: 49. Pl. 46. 1762. Part 4
9. Lacinaria Graminifolia (Walt.) Kuntze. Loose-Flowered Button- Snakeroot Fig. 4185 Anonymos graminifolius Walt. Fl. Car. 197. 1788. Liatris graminifolia Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 2: 508. 1814. Not Wi...
-9. Trilisa Cass. Dict. Sci. Nat. 55: 310. 1828
Erect perennial herbs, with fibrous roots and alternate simple leaves; those of the stem sessile or clasping, the basal ones narrowed into petioles. Heads small, discoid, of 5-10 purple, or white flow...
-10. Gutierrezia Lag. Gen. & Sp. Nov. 30. 1816
Erect branching, usually glabrous and often glutinous herbs, or shrubs, with linear entire alternate leaves, and small heads of both tubular and radiate yellow flowers, corymbosely paniculate in our s...
-11. Amphiachyris [Dc] Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. II. 7: 313. 1841
Erect, much branched, glabrous herbs, with small alternate entire leaves, and very numerous small heads of both tubular and radiate yellow flowers, solitary or clustered at the ends of the branches. I...
-12. Grindelia Willd. Gesell. Nat. Fr. Berl. Mag. 1: 260. 1807
Perennial or biennial herbs, sometimes woody at the base, with alternate sessile or clasping leaves, usually spinulose-dentate, and rather large heads of both discoid and radiate yellow flowers, solit...
-13. Heterotheca Cass. Dict. Sci. Nat. Ax: 130. 1821
Erect, hirsute or pubescent, branching herbs, with alternate, mostly dentate leaves, and rather large heads of both discoid and radiate yellow flowers, generally solitary at the ends of the branches. ...
-14. Chrysopsis [Nutt.] Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 2: 333. 1824
[Diplogon Raf. Amer. Month. Mag. 2: 268. 1818. Not Poiret, 1811.] Perennial or biennial, rarely annual, branching herbs, with alternate sessile entire leaves, or the basal ones dentate, and large man...
-14. Chrysopsis [Nutt.] Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 2: 333. 1824. Continued
2. Chrysopsis Falcata (Pursh) Ell. Sickle-Leaved Golden Aster Fig. 4196 Inula falcata Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 532. 1814. Chrysopsis falcata Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 2: 336. 1824. Corymbosely branched abo...
-15. Chondrophora Raf. New Fl. N. A. 4: 79. 1836
[Bigelowia DC. Mem. Comp. pl. 5. 1833. Not Bigelovia Spreng. 1821.] Perennial stiff herbs, with alternate entire leaves, and corymbose-paniculate discoid heads of yellow flowers. Involucre obl...
-16. Chrysothamnus Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (II) 7: 323. 1840
Low shrubs, with equably leafy branches, hard wood, linear leaves, and discoid heads of yellow perfect flowers. Heads narrow, 5-7-flowered. Involucre oblong to narrowly campanulate, its bracts more or...
-17. Oonopsis [Nutt] Greene, Pittonia 3: 45. 1896
Shrubs or herbs, the following species glabrous, mostly tufted, with woody roots, the stems leafy to the top. Leaves entire, linear to lanceolate. Heads cymose at the end of the stem or branches. Invo...
-18. Prionopsis Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (II) 7: 329. 1841
A glabrous annual or biennial herb, leafy to the top, with sessile spinulose-dentate leaves, and large heads of yellow radiate and tubular flowers. Involucre broadly hemispheric, its bracts imbricated...
-19. Sideranthus Fraser, Cat. 1813; Sweet, Hort. Brit. 227. 1826
[Eriocarpum Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (II) 7: 320. 1841.] Perennial or annual herbs or shrubs with alternate spinulose-dentate or lobed leaves and many-flowered heads of tubular or of both tubular ...
-20. Stenotus Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (II) 7: 334. 1841
Low undershrubs, with coriaceous narrow entire evergreen leaves, scapose or leafy stems, and rather large heads of both radiate and tubular yellow flowers. Involucre mostly hemispheric, its bracts imb...
-21. Isopappus T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 239. 1841
Rough-hairy annual or biennial herbs, loosely paniculately branched, with alternate linear to lanceolate, 1-nerved, entire or somewhat toothed leaves, and small slender-peduncled heads of radiate and ...
-22. Solidago L. Sp. Pl. 878. 1753
Perennial erect herbs, sometimes woody at the base, simple, or little branched, with alternate simple toothed or entire leaves, and small heads of both tubular and radiate, yellow or rarely white flow...
-22. Solidago L. Sp. Pl. 878. 1753. Part 2
1. Solidago Squarrdsa Muhl. Stout Ragged Golden-Rod Fig. 4213 Solidago squarrosa Muhl. Cat. 76. 1813. Stem stout, simple, or rarely branched above, glabrous or puberulent, 2-5 high. Upper...
-22. Solidago L. Sp. Pl. 878. 1753. Part 3
5. Solidago Curtisii T. & G. Curtis' Golden-Rod Fig. 4217 Solidago Curtisii T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 200. 1841. Stem glabrous or sparingly pubescent, simple or branched, slender, 1 1/2-3 high...
-22. Solidago L. Sp. Pl. 878. 1753. Part 4
9. Solidago Monticola T. & G. Mountain Golden-Rod Fig. 4221 Solidago Curtisii var. monticola T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 200. 1841. Solidago monticola T. & G.; Chapm. Fl. S. States 209. 1860. Slender, g...
-22. Solidago L. Sp. Pl. 878. 1753. Part 5
13. Solidago Multiradiata Ait. Northern Golden-Rod Fig. 4225 Solidago multiradiata Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 218. 1789. Stem glabrous or somewhat pubescent above, rather slender, 6-15' high. Leaves firm, ...
-22. Solidago L. Sp. Pl. 878. 1753. Part 6
17. Solidago Speciosa Nutt. Showy Or Noble Golden-Rod Fig. 4229 Solidago speciosa Nutt. Gen. 2: 160. 1818. Stem stout, glabrous below, often rough above, usually simple, 3-7 high. Leaves ...
-22. Solidago L. Sp. Pl. 878. 1753. Part 7
20. Solidago Racemosa Greene. River-Bank Golden-Rod Fig. 4232 5. racemosa Greene, Pittonia 3: 160. 1897. Nearly glabrous, sometimes glutinous; stems simple, usually somewhat glutinous, 6'-18' high....
-22. Solidago L. Sp. Pl. 878. 1753. Part 8
24. Solidago Odora Ait. Sweet Or Anise-Scented Golden-Rod Fig. 4236 Solidago odora Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 214. 1789. Solidago odora inodora A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, 244. 1867. Slender; stem simple, glabrou...
-22. Solidago L. Sp. Pl. 878. 1753. Part 9
28. Solidago Patula Muhl. Rough-Leaved Or Spreading Golden-Rod Fig. 4240 Solidago patula Muhl.; Willd. Sp. Pl. 3: 2059 1804. Stem stout, rather rigid, usually simple, glabrous, or sometimes puberul...
-22. Solidago L. Sp. Pl. 878. 1753. Part 10
31. Solidago Elliottii T. & G. Elliott's Golden-Rod Fig. 4243 Solidago Elliottii T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 218. 1841. Solidago elliptica Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 2: 376. 1824. Not Ait. 1789. Stem glabrous,...
-22. Solidago L. Sp. Pl. 878. 1753. Part 11
35. Solidago Arguta Ait. Cut-Leaved Golden-Rod Fig. 4247 Solidago arguta Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 213. 1789. S. Muhlenbergii T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 214. 1841. S. Vaseyi Heller, Muhlenbergia 1: 7. 1900. S. H...
-22. Solidago L. Sp. Pl. 878. 1753. Part 12
38. Solidago Glaberrima Martens. Missouri Golden-Rod Fig. 4250 Solidago glaberrima Martens, Bull. Acad. Brux. 8: 68. 1841. S. moritura Steele, Contr. Nat. Herb. 13: 370. 1911. Stem glabrous, rathe...
-22. Solidago L. Sp. Pl. 878. 1753. Part 13
42. Solidago Nemoralis Ait. Gray, Field, Or Dwarf Golden-Rod. Dyer's Weed Fig. 4254 Solidago nemoralis Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 213. 1789. Solidago nemoralis arenicola Burgess; Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. 3...
-22. Solidago L. Sp. Pl. 878. 1753. Part 14
45. Solidago Drummondii T. & G. Drummond's Golden-Rod Fig. 4257 Solidago Drummondii T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 217. 1841. Stem rather slender, 1-3 high, finely soft-pubescent. Leaves rather thi...
-22. Solidago L. Sp. Pl. 878. 1753. Part 15
49. Solidago Houghtonii T. & G. Houghton's Golden-Rod Fig. 4261 Solidago Houghtonii T. & G.; A. Gray, Man. 211. 1848. Stem slender, glabrous below, sparingly pubescent above, 1 -2 high. Leaves...
-23. Euthamia Nutt. Gen. 2: 162. 1818
Erect, paniculately-branched herbs, perennial by long rootstocks, with linear or linear-lanceolate, entire, sessile, 1-5-nerved punctate leaves, and very numerous small heads of both tubular and radia...
-23. Euthamia Nutt. Gen. 2: 162. 1818. Continued
3. Euthamia Leptocephala (T. & G.) Greene. Western Bushy Golden-Rod Fig. 4264 Solidago leptocephala T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 226. 1841. Euthamia leptocephala Greene, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 321. 1894. Stem...
-24. Brachychaeta T. & G. Fl N. A. 2: 194. 1841
An erect, perennial herb, with the aspect of a golden-rod. Leaves alternate, the lower and basal ones large, cordate, long-petioled, the upper ovate, short-petioled or sessile. Heads composed of both ...
-25. Aphanostephus Dc. Prodr. 5: 310. 1836
Erect or ascending canescent branching herbs, with alternate leaves, and rather large heads of both tubular and radiate flowers, solitary at the ends of the branches. Involucre hemispheric, its bracts...
-26. Bellis [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 886. 1753
Tufted herbs, with branching or scapose stems, alternate or basal leaves, and rather large heads of both tubular and radiate flowers, solitary at the ends of the branches, or of the monocephalous scap...
-27. Townsendia Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 16. 1834
Tufted scapose or branching herbs, with alternate, entire, linear or spatulate leaves, and large heads of both tubular and radiate flowers. Involucre hemispheric or broadly campanulate; bracts imbrica...
-28. Chaetopappa Dc. Prodr. 5: 301. 1836
Annual slender much branched herbs, with small alternate entire leaves, and small long-peduncled heads of both tubular and white or purple radiate flowers. Involucre narrowly campanulate, its bracts l...
-29. Boltonia L'Her. Sert. Angl. 16. 1788
Perennial glabrous branching herbs, with striate or angled stems, alternate, entire, sessile or clasping leaves, and numerous rather large heads of both tubular and radiate flowers, paniculate, or sol...
-30. Sericocarpus Nees, Gen. & Sp. Ast. 148. 1833
Erect perennial herbs, with alternate leaves, and middle-sized heads of both tubular and radiate flowers, in terminal cymose panicles. Involucre ovoid, oblong, or campanulate, its bracts coriaceous, w...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753
Perennial or rarely annual, mostly branching herbs, with alternate leaves, and corymbose or paniculate (rarely racemose or solitary) heads of both tubular and radiate flowers. Involucre hemispheric, c...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. Continued
28. A. nebraskensis. Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, 2-2 wide. 29. A. amethystinus. ** Leaves, at least the lower, serrate. Stem usually pilose; bracts very glandular. 30. A. modestus. Stem...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 2
1. Aster Carmesinus Burgess. Crimson-Disk Aster Fig. 4282 Stems erect, delicate, closely tufted, 1-2 high, glabrous, reddish brown, terete. Leaves all petioled, glabrate, very thin, but fi...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 3
4. Aster Furcatus Burgess. Forking Aster Fig. 4285 Aster furcatus Burgess; Britt. & Brown, III. Fl. 3: 358. 1898. Stem leafy, 1 1/2 high, or less, loosely forked above. Leaves hispid above, hispidu...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 4
8. Aster Schreberi Nees. Schreber's Aster Fig. 4289 Aster Schreberi Nees, Syn. Ast. 16. 1818. Stem stout, 2-3 high, with long internodes. Basal leaves often in extensive colonies, thin, d...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 5
12. Aster Violaris Burgess. Violet-Leaf Aster Fig. 4293 Aster violaris Burgess; Britt. & Brown, III. Fl. 3: 361. 1898. Caudex thick, fleshy; plant glabrate, bluish green, minutely glandular; stem s...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 6
16. Aster Shortii Hook. Short's Aster Fig. 4297 Aster Shortii Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 9. 1834. Stem roughish or smooth, slender, panicu-lately branched above, 2-4 high. Leaves thick, glabro...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 7
19. Aster Lowrieanus Porter. Lowrie's Or Fall Aster Fig. 4300 Aster cordifolius var. laevigatus Porter, Bull. Torr. Club 16: 67. 1889. Not A. laevigatus Lam. 1783. Aster Lowrieanus Porter, Bull. To...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 8
22. Aster Sagittifolius Willd. Arrow-Leaved Aster Fig. 4303 Aster sagittifolius Willd. Sp. Pl. 3: 2035. 1804. Stem stout, or slender, strict, glabrous, or sparingly pubescent above, 2-5 h...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 9
25. Aster Phlogifolius Muhl. Thin-Leaved Purple Aster Fig. 4306 A. phlogifolius Muhl.; Willd. Sp. Pl. 3: 2034. 1804. Aster patens var. phlogifolius Nees, Gen. & Sp. Ast. 49. 1832. Similar to the p...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 10
28. Aster Nebraskensis Britton. Nebraska Aster Fig. 4309 Aster nebraskensis Britton, in Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. 3: 375. 1898. Stem strictly erect, slender, stiff, rough to the base, simple, or wit...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 11
32. Aster Tardiflorus L. Northeastern Aster Fig. 4313 Aster .ardiflorus L. Sp. Pl. Ed. 2, 1231. 1763. Aster patulus Lam. Encycl. 1: 308. 1783. Stem glabrous, slightly pubescent, or villous, corymb...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 12
35. Aster Concinnus Willd. Narrow-Leaved Smooth Aster Fig. 4316 Aster concinnus Willd. Enum. 884. 1809. Similar to narrow-leaved forms of Aster laevis, and perhaps a race of that species, glabrous,...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 13
39. Aster Novi-Belgii L. New York Aster Fig. 4320 Aster novi-belgii L. Sp. Pl. 877. 1753. Aster novi-belgii elodes A. Gray, Syn. Fl. 12: 190. 1884. Aster novi-belgii litoreus A. Gray, loc. cit. 189....
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 14
42. Aster Phyllodes Rydb. Large-Bracted Aster Fig. 4323 Aster phyllodes Rydb. Bull. Torn Club 37: 145. 1910. Stem rather slender, somewhat branched, loosely pubescent, 2s high. Leaves obl...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 15
46. Aster Grandiflorus L. Large-Flowered Aster Fig. 4327 Aster grandiflorus L. Sp. Pl. 877. 1753. Stem rather stiff, divaricately much branched, hispid with short hairs, 1-21/2 high. Leav...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 16
50. Aster Radula Ait. Low Rough Aster. File-Blade Aster Fig. 4331 Aster Radula Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 210. 1789. Aster biflorus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 114. 1803. Aster strictus Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 556....
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 17
54. Aster Hirsuticaulis Lindl. Hairy-Stemmed Aster Fig. 4335 A. hirsuticaulis Lindl.; DC. Prodr. 5: 242. 1836. Aster lateriflorus hirsuticaulis Porter, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 324. 1894. Stem slender, ...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 18
57. Aster Commutatus (T. & G.) A. Gray. White Prairie Aster Fig. 4338 Aster ramulosus var. incanopilosus Lindl. in DC. Prodr. 5: 243. 1836. Aster multiflorus var. commutatus T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 12...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 19
60. Aster Paniculatus Lam. Tall White Or Panicled Aster Fig. 4341 Aster paniculatus Lam. Encycl. 1: 306. 1783. Aster bellidiflortts Willd. Enum. 886. 1809. Aster tenuifolius var. bellidiflorus T. ...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 20
63. Aster Faxoni Porter. Faxon's Aster Fig. 4344 Aster polyphyllus Willd. Enum. 888. 1809. Not Moench, 1802. Aster Faxoni Porter, Mem. Torr. Club 5: 323. 1894. A. ericoides Randi Britton, in Britt. ...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 21
66. Aster Priceae Britton. Miss Price's Aster Fig. 4347 Aster Priceae Britton, Manual 960. 1901. Stem pubescent, widely branched, 1-21/2 high. Basal leaves oblanceolate, obtuse or acutish...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 22
70. Aster Nemoralis Ait. Bog Aster Fig. 4351 Aster nemoralis Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 198. 1789. Aster nemoralis Blakei Porter, Bull. Torr. Club 21: 311. 1894. Stem puberulent, slender, simple, or corym-...
-31. Aster L. Sp. Pl. 872. 1753. Part 23
73. Aster Tenuifolius L. Perennial Salt-Marsh Aster Fig. 4354 Aster tenuifolius L. Sp. Pl. 873. 1753. Aster flexuosus Nutt. Gen. 2: 154. 1818. Perennial, glabrous and fleshy; stem flexuous, striate...
-32. Leucelene Greene, Pittonia 3: 147. 1896
Low perennial herbs, with much branched leafy stems, sessile, rather rigid, narrow, entire leaves and small heads of both tubular and radiate white flowers, solitary at the ends of the numerous slende...
-33. Brachyactis Ledeb. Fl. Ross. 2: 495. 1846
Annual, nearly glabrous, somewhat fleshy herbs, with narrow chiefly entire leaves, and small racemose or racemose-paniculate heads of tubular, or also radiate purplish flowers. Involucre campanulate. ...
-34. Machaeranthera Nees, Gen. & Sp. Ast. 224. 1832
Annual, biennial or perennial branched herbs, with leafy stems, alternate, mostly serrate or pinnatifid leaves, the teeth or lobes usually bristle-tipped, and large heads of both tubular and radiate f...
-35. Erigeron L. Sp. Pl. 863. 1753
Branching or scapose herbs, with alternate or basal leaves, and corymbose, paniculate or solitary, peduncled heads of both tubular and radiate (rarely all tubular) flowers. Involucre hemispheric, cyli...
-35. Erigeron L. Sp. Pl. 863. 1753. Part 2
1. Erigeron Uniflorus L. Arctic Erigeron Fig. 4361 Erigeron uniflorus L. Sp. Pl. 864. 1753- Perennial by short branching rootstocks; stems slender, single or .tufted, more or less pubescent, simple,...
-35. Erigeron L. Sp. Pl. 863. 1753. Part 3
5. Erigeron Pumilus Nutt. Low Erigeron. Daisy Fig. 4365 Erigeron pumilis Nutt. Gen. 2: 147. 1818. Perennial by a deep root; stems tufted, hirsute, slender, simple, or branched, 4'-10' high. Leaves ...
-35. Erigeron L. Sp. Pl. 863. 1753. Part 4
9. Erigeron Pulchellus Michx. Robin's Or Poor Robin's Plantain Fig. 4369 E. pulchellus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 124. 1803. E. bellidifolius Muhl.; Willd. Sp. Pl. 3: 1958. 1804. Perennial by stolons a...
-35. Erigeron L. Sp. Pl. 863. 1753. Part 5
12. Erigeron Bellidiastrum Nutt. Western Daisy Fleabane Fig. 4372 Erigeron Bellidiastrum Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (II) 7: 307. 1841. Annual, much branched, 6'-15' high, cinereous-pubescent throu...
-35. Erigeron L. Sp. Pl. 863. 1753. Part 6
16. Erigeron Vermis (L.) T. & G. Early Fleabane Fig. 4376 Aster vermis L. Sp. Pl. 876. 1753. E. nudicaulis Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 124. 1803. Erigeron vermis T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 176. 1841. Perenn...
-36. Leptilon Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 2: 268. 1818
[Caenotus Raf. Fl. Tell. 2: 50. 1836.] Annual or biennial herbs, with small racemose thyrsoid or panicled heads of white flowers, the rays small, usually shorter than the diameter of the disk, or non...
-37. Doellingeria Nees, Gen. & Sp. Ast. 177. 1832
Perennial leafy herbs, the lower leaves reduced to scales or sheaths, the upper large, mostly entire, acute or acuminate in our species. Basal leaves none. Heads corymbose, usually numerous; involucre...
-38. Ionactis Greene, Pittonia 3: 245. 1897
Low, mostly branching, perennial herbs with numerous narrow, entire, 1-nerved leaves, and rather large and showy heads of tubular and radiate flowers terminating the stem and branches. Basal leaves no...
-39. Baccharis L. Sp. Pl. 860. 1753
Dioecious shrubs or herbs, with alternate leaves, and paniculate or corymbose heads of tubular flowers. Involucre campanulate in our species, its bracts imbricated in several series, the outer shorter...
-40. Filago Loefl.; L. Sp. Pl 927. 1753. [Evax Gaertn. Fr. & Sem. 2: 393. Pl. 165. F. 3. 1791.]
White-woolly annual herbs, with alternate entire leaves, and small discoid clustered heads, usually subtended by leafy bracts. Bracts of the involucre few and scarious. Receptacle convex or elongated,...
-41. Gifola Lass. Bull. Soc. Fhilom
1819: 143. 1819. [Filago L. Gen. Pl. Ed. 5- 1758. Not Sp. Pl. 927. 1753.] White-woolly herbs, closely resembling those of the preceding genus, with alternate, entire leaves, and small discoid ...
-42. Pluchea Cass. Bull. Soc. Philom. 1817: 31. 1817
Pubescent or glabrous herbs, or some tropical species shrubby, with alternate dentate leaves, and small heads of tubular flowers in terminal corymbose cymes. Involucre ovoid, campanulate, or nearly he...
-43. Antennaria Gaertn. Fruct. & Sem. 2: 410. Pl. 167. 1791
Perennial woolly dioecious or polygamo-dioecious herbs, with alternate and basal leaves, and small discoid many-flowered heads usually capitate, glomerate or corymbose. Involucre oblong, ovoid or camp...
-Antennaria Gaertn. Fruct. & Sem. Part 2
1. Antennaria Carpathica (Wahl.) Hook. Carpathian Everlasting Fig. 4393 Gnaphalium carpathicum Wahl. Fl. Carp. 258. pl. 3. 1814. Antennaria carpathica Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 329. 1833. Plant flocco...
-Antennaria Gaertn. Fruct. & Sem. Part 3
4. Antennaria Parlinii Fernald. Parlin's Cat's-Foot Fig. 4396 Antennaria Parlinii Fernald, Gard. & For. 10: 284. 1897. A. arnoglossa Greene, Pittonia 3: 318. 1898. A. Parlinii arnoglossa Fernald, P...
-Antennaria Gaertn. Fruct. & Sem. Part 4
7. Antennaria Microphylla Rydb. Small-Leaved Cat's-Foot Fig. 4399 A. microphylla Rydb. Bull. Torr. Club 24: 303. 1897. ?A. parvifolia Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (II) 7: 406. 1841. Stem slender, 8...
-Antennaria Gaertn. Fruct. & Sem. Part 5
11. Antennaria Neglecta Greene. Field Cat's-Foot Fig. 4403 Antennaria neglecta Greene, Pittonia 3: 173. 1897. An ennaria petaloidea Fernald, Rhodora 1: 73. 1899. A. neglecta simplex Peck, Bull. N. Y...
-44. Anaphalis Dc. Prodr. 6:271. 1837
Perennial white-tomentose or woolly herbs, with leafy erect stems, in our species alternate entire leaves, and small corymbose discoid heads of dioecious flowers. Involucre oblong to campanulate, its ...
-45. Gnaphalium L. Sp. Pl. 850. 1753
Woolly erect or diffusely branched herbs, with alternate leaves, and discoid heads of pistillate and perfect flowers arranged in corymbs, spikes, racemes, or capitate. Receptacle flat, concex or conic...
-45. Gnaphalium L. Sp. Pl. 850. 1753. Part 2
3. Gnaphalium Decurrens Ives. Clammy Everlasting. Winged Cudweed Fig. 4408 Gnaphalium decurrens Ives, Am. Journ. Sci. 1: 380. pl. 1. 1819. Annual or biennial, similar to the two preceding species, ...
-45. Gnaphalium L. Sp. Pl. 850. 1753. Part 3
7. Gnaphalium Norvegicum Gunner. Norwegian Cudweed Fig. 4412 G. norvegicum Gunner, Fl. Norveg. 2: 105. 1772. Perennial; stem simple, 6'-18' high. Leaves lanceolate to spatulate, elongated, acute, n...
-46. Adenocaulon Hook. Bot. Misc. 1: 19. 1830
Perennial herbs, with broad alternate slender-petioled leaves, woolly beneath, and pani-cled small 5-10-flowered heads of tubular flowers. Involucre campanulate, composed of a few herbaceous bracts. R...
-47. Inula L. Sp. Pl. 881. 1753
Perennial, mostly tomentose or woolly herbs, with alternate and basal leaves, and large heads of both tubular and radiate yellow flowers. Involucre hemispheric or campanulate, its bracts imbricated in...
-48. Polymnia L. Sp. Pl. 926. 1753
Perennial herbs (some tropical species woody), with opposite membranous lobed or angled leaves, or the lower alternate, and mostly large corymbose-paniculate heads of both tubular and radiate yellow o...
-49. Melampodium L. Sp. Pl. 921. 1753
Herbs, some species woody, with opposite entire or dentate leaves, and terminal peduncled heads of both tubular and radiate, white or yellow flowers in our species. Involucre hemispheric, its bracts i...
-50. Acanthospermum Schrank, Pl. Rar. Hort. Monac. Pl 53. 1819
Annual rather coarse herbs, with pubescent foliage and erect or creeping stems, opposite, broad, often leathery, toothed leaves, and radiate but inconspicuous heads, axillary to leaflike bracts. Invol...
-51. Silphium L. Sp. Pl. 919. 1753
Tall perennial herbs, with resinous juice, opposite whorled or alternate leaves, and large corymbose or paniculate (rarely solitary) peduncled heads of both tubular and radiate yellow flowers. Involuc...
-51. Silphium L. Sp. Pl. 919. 1753. Continued
3. Silphium Trifoliatum L. Whorled Rosin-Weed Fig. 4423 Silphium trifoliatum L. Sp. Pl. 920. 1753. Stem glabrous, sometimes glaucous, corym-bosely branched at the summit, 4-7 high. Leaves...
-52. Chrysogonum L. Sp. Pl. 920. 1753
Pubescent perennial herbs, with opposite and basal petioled leaves, and slender-peduncled-axillary and terminal, rather large heads of both tubular and radiate, yellow flowers. Involucre hemispheric, ...
-53. Berlandiera Dc. Prodr. 5: 517. 1836
Perennial canescent or pubescent herbs, with alternate leaves and rather large, peduncled solitary or corymbose heads of both tubular and radiate yellow-flowers. Involucre depressed-hemispheric, its b...
-54. Engelmannia T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 283. 1841
Perennial hirsute herbs, with alternate pinnatifid leaves, and corymbose slender-peduncled rather large heads of both tubular and radiate yellow flowers. Involucre hemispheric, its bracts imbricated i...
-55. Parthenium L. Sp. Pl. 988. 1753
Perennial, mostly pubescent or canescent herbs, or shrubs, with alternate leaves, and small corymbose or paniculate heads of both tubular and radiate white or yellow flowers. Involucre broadly campanu...
-56. Crassina Scepin, Sched. Acido Veg. 42. 1758
[Zinnia L. Syst. Ed. 10, 1221. I759-] Annual or perennal herbs, some species shrubby, with opposite, entire, or sparingly serrate, mostly narrow and sessile leaves, and large or middle-sized heads of...
-57. Heliopsis Pers. Syn. 2: 473. 1807
Perennial herbs (a tropical species annual), with opposite petioled 3-ribbed leaves, and large peduncled terminal and axillary heads of tubular and radiate yellow flowers. Involucre hemispheric or bro...
-58. Verbesina L. Sp. Pl. 901. 1753
Erect or diffuse branching pubescent or hirsute herbs, with opposite leaves, and small peduncled terminal and axillary heads of tubular and radiate whitish flowers. Involucre hemispheric or broadly ca...
-59. Tetragonotheca (Dill.) L. Sp. Pl. 903. 1753
Erect perennial mostly branched herbs, with opposite, sessile or connate-perfoliate, broad dentate leaves, and large peduncled heads of tubular and radiate yellow flowers. Involucrte depressed-hemisph...
-60. Spilanthes Jacq. Stirp. Am. 214. Pl. 126. 1763
Annual or perennial branching herbs, with opposite, usually toothed leaves and rather small, long-peduncled discoid and radiate heads, terminal, or in the upper axils, or rays wanting in some species....
-61. Rudbeckia L. Sp. Pl. 906. 1753
Perennial or biennial (rarely annual), mostly rigid, usually rough or hispid herbs, with alternate undivided lobed or pinnatifid leaves, and large long-peduncled heads of tubular (mostly purple) and r...
-61. Rudbeckia L. Sp. Pl. 906. 1753. Part 2
2. Rudbeckia Subtomentosa Pursh. Sweet Cone-Flower Fig. 4443 Rudbeckia subtomentosa Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 575. 1814. Densely and finely cinereous-pubescent and scabrous; stem branched above, 2-...
-61. Rudbeckia L. Sp. Pl. 906. 1753. Part 3
5. Rudbeckia Fulgida Ait. Orange Or Brilliant Cone-Flower Fig. 4446 Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 251. 1789. R. spathulata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 144. 1803. Rudbeckia missouriensis Engelm.; B...
-61. Rudbeckia L. Sp. Pl. 906. 1753. Part 4
8. Rudbeckia Grandifldra Gmelin. Large-Flowered Cone-Flower Fig. 4449 Rudbeckia grandiflora Gmelin; DC. Prodr. 5: 556. 1836. Perennial; stem 1 3/4-3 tall, scabrous or hispid throughout. ...
-62. Dracopis Cass. Dict. Sci. Nat. 35: 273. 1825.46:400. 1827
An annual caulescent herb, with smooth and glaucous foliage, and alternate broad thickish. entire or slightly serrate, 1-ribbed, clasping leaves. Heads radiate, showy. Involucre flat, many-flowered, o...
-63. Ratibida Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 2: 268. 1818
[Lepachys Raf Journ. Phys. 89: 100. 1819.] Perennial herbs, with alternate pinnately divided or parted leaves, and long-peduncled terminal heads of tubular and radiate flowers, the disk-flowers gray ...
-64. Echinacea Moench, Meth. 591. 1794
[Brauneria Neck. Elem. 1: 17. Hyponym. 1790.] Perennial erect branched or simple herbs, with thick black roots, thick rough alternate or opposite, 3-5-nerved entire or dentate, undivided leaves, and l...
-65. Borrichia Adans. Fam. Pl. 2: 130. 1763
Fleshy, more or less canescent, branching shrubs of the sea-coast, with opposite entire or denticulate, cuneate oblong spatulate or obovate, 1-3-nerved leaves, and terminal large long-peduncled heads ...
-66. Helianthus [Vaill.] L. Sp. Pl. 904. 1753
Erect, annual or perennial, mostly branched herbs, with opposite or alternate, simple leaves, and large peduncled corymbose or solitary heads of both tubular and radiate flowers, the rays yellow, the ...
-66. Helianthus [Vaill.] L. Sp. Pl. 904. 1753. Part 2
1. Helianthus Annuus L. Common Sunflower Fig. 4461 Helianthus annuus L. Sp. Pl. 904. 1753. Helianthus lenticularis Dougl. Bot. Reg. pl. 1265. 1829. Stem hispid or scabrous, stout, branched above, ...
-66. Helianthus [Vaill.] L. Sp. Pl. 904. 1753. Part 3
4. Helianthus Orgyalis Dc. Linear-Leaved Sunflower Fig. 4464 H. giganteus var. crinitus Nutt. Gen. 2: 177. 1818? Helianthus orgyalis DC. Prodr. 5: 586. 1836. Perennial by slender rootstocks; stems ...
-66. Helianthus [Vaill.] L. Sp. Pl. 904. 1753. Part 4
7. Helianthus Subrhomboideus Rydb. Rhombic-Leaved Sunflower Fig. 4467 Helianthus subrhomboideus Rydb. Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 1: 419. 1900. Stem simple, sparingly hirsute, usually tinged with red. Le...
-66. Helianthus [Vaill.] L. Sp. Pl. 904. 1753. Part 5
10. Helianthus Microcephalus T. & G. Small Wood Sunflower Fig. 4470 Helian hus parvifloms Bernh.; Spreng. Syst. 3: 617. 1826. Not H.B.K. 1820. H. microcephalus T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 329. 1842. Stem...
-66. Helianthus [Vaill.] L. Sp. Pl. 904. 1753. Part 6
13. Helianthus Dalyi Britton. Judge Daly's Sunflower Fig. 4473 Helianthus Dalyi Britton, Journ. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 2: 89. 1901. Perennial by a fusiform tuber 1' - 1 3/4' long; stem slender, simple, r...
-66. Helianthus [Vaill.] L. Sp. Pl. 904. 1753. Part 7
17. Helianthus Divaricatus L. Rough Or Woodland Sunflower Fig. 4477 Helianthus divaricatus L. Sp. PL 906. 1753. Perennial by slender rootstocks; stem glabrous throughout, or pubescent at the summit...
-66. Helianthus [Vaill.] L. Sp. Pl. 904. 1753. Part 8
Ax. Helianthus Tracheliifolius Mill. Throatwort Sunflower Fig. 4481 Helianthus tracheliifolius Mill. Gard. Dict. Ed. 8, No. 7. 1768. Similar to the following species, but the stem usually roughish-...
-66. Helianthus [Vaill.] L. Sp. Pl. 904. 1753. Part 9
24. Helianthus Laetiflorus Pers. Showy Sunflower Fig. 4484 Helianthus laetiflorus Pers. Syn. 2: 476. 1807. Perennial; stem scabrous or hispid, leafy, 4-8 high. Leaves oval-lanceolate or o...
-67. Ridan Adans. Fam. Pl. 2: 130. 1763
[Actinomeris Nutt. Gen. 2: 181. 1818.] Rough-pubescent, rather coarse, herbs with alternate or opposite, simple, more or less toothed leaves, usually decurrent on the stem and branches, and corymbose,...
-68. Phaethusa Gaertn. Fr. & Sem. 2: 425. 1791
Perennial, pubescent or scabrous herbs (some tropical species shrubby), with alternate or opposite dentate leaves often decurrent on the stem and branches, and corymbose or solitary heads of both tubu...
-69. Ximenesia Cav. Icones 2: 60. 1793
Pubescent caulescent herbs, with alternate or sometimes opposite, simple, toothed or somewhat laciniate leaves, and solitary or few, radiate, showy, peduncled heads. Involucre rather flat, of narrow s...
-70. Coreopsis L. Sp. Pl. 907. 1753
Anual or perennial, mostly erect herbs, with opposite leaves, or the upper alternate, and large long-peduncled heads of both tubular and radiate flowers, the rays yellow, or brown at the base, or brow...
-70. Coreopsis L. Sp. Pl. 907. 1753. Part 2
2. Coreopsis Crassifolia Ait. Thick-Leaved Or Hairy Tickseed Fig. 4493 Coreopsis crassifolia Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 253. 1789. Coreopsis lanceolata var. villosa Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 137. 1803. Perenn...
-70. Coreopsis L. Sp. Pl. 907. 1753. Part 3
6. Coreopsis Tripteris L. Tall Tickseed Fig. 4497 Coreopsis tripteris L. Sp. Pl. 908. 1753. Perennial; stem glabrous, much branched above, 4-8 high. Leaves petioled, glabrous, or very nea...
-70. Coreopsis L. Sp. Pl. 907. 1753. Part 4
9. Coreopsis Verticillata L. Whorled Tickseed Fig. 4500 Coreopsis verticillata L. Sp. P1. 907. 1753. Perennial; stem stiff, much branched, slender, leafy, 1-2 high. Leaves sessile, glabro...
-70. Coreopsis L. Sp. Pl. 907. 1753. Part 5
13. Coreopsis Rosea Nutt. Small Rose Or Pink Tickseed Fig. 4504 Coreopsis rosea Nutt. Gen. 2: 179. 1818. Perennial by slender rootstocks; stems at length much branched, slender, strict, glabrous, 6...
-71. Bidens L. Sp. Pl. 831. 1753
Annual or perennial herbs, with opposite serrate lobed divided or dissected leaves, or the uppermost alternate, and mostly large heads of both tubular and radiate flowers, or the rays none, or rudimen...
-71. Bidens L. Sp. Pl. 831. 1753. Part 2
2. Bidens Cernua L. Smaller Or Nodding Bur-Marigold Fig. 4506 Bidens cernua L. Sp. Pl. 832. 1753. Coreopsis Bidens L. loc. cit. 908. 1753. Annual; stems glabrous, or hispid, usually erect, branched...
-71. Bidens L. Sp. Pl. 831. 1753. Part 3
5. Bidens Bidentoides (Nutt.) Britton. Swamp Beggar-Ticks Fig. 4509 Diodonta bidentoides Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc (II) 7: 361. 1841. Coreopsis bidentoides T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 339. 1842. B. bident...
-71. Bidens L. Sp. Pl. 831. 1753. Part 4
8. Bidens Vulgata Greene. Tall Beggar-Ticks Fig. 4512 Bidens vulgata Greene, Pittonia 4: 72. 1899. B. frondosa puberula Wiegand, Bull. Torr. Club 26: 408. 1899. Taller, sometimes 9 high, glabr...
-71. Bidens L. Sp. Pl. 831. 1753. Part 5
11. Bidens Trichosperma (Michx.) Britton. Tall Tickseed-Sunflower Fig. 4545 C. trichosperma Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 139. 1803. B. trichosperma Britton, Bull. Torr. Club 20: 281. 1893. Coreopsis tri...
-72. Megalodonta Greene, Pittonia 4: 270. 1901
Perennial aquatic herbs, with opposite or whorled leaves, those of the submersed ones filiformly dissected, those of the emersed ones serrate to laciniate, and solitary peduncled showy heads with both...
-73. Thelesperma Less. Linnaea 6: 511. 1831
Glabrous annual or perennial herbs, with opposite linear and undivided, or finely dissected leaves, and long-peduncled heads of both tubular and radiate flowers, or the rays wanting. Involucre hemisph...
-74. Galinsoga Cav. Icon. 3: 41. 1794
Annual branching herbs, with opposite, mostly petioled, dentate or entire leaves, and small peduncled heads of both tubular and radiate flowers, terminal and in the upper axils. Involucre hemispheric ...
-75. Endorima Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 4: 195. 1819
[Balduina Nutt. Gen. 2: 175. 1818. Not Baldwinia Raf. F. 1818.] Perennial, caulescent, simple or branched, erect herbs, with alternate entire narrow punctate leaves, and large terminal heads of both t...
-76. Marshallia Schreb.; Gmelin, Syst. 1208. 1791
Perennial, often tufted, simple or branched herbs, with basal or alternate, entire leaves, and large long-peduncled discoid heads of purple, pink or white, glandular-pubescent flowers. Involucre hemis...
-77. Psilostrophe Dc. Prodr. 7: 261. 1838
[Riddellia Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (II) 7: 271. 1841.] Branched annual or perennial woolly herbs, often nearly glabrous when old, with alternate leaves, and middle-sized heads of both tubular and ...
-78. Flaveria Juss.; Gmelin, Syst. 1269. 1791
Glabrous or minutely puberulent, light-green, mostly annual herbs, with opposite sessile entire or serrate leaves, and small 1-several-flowered, usually sessile, oblong and densely cymose-capitate hea...
-79. Hymenopappus L'Her.; Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2. 103. 1803
Perennial or biennial, erect herbs, with angled stems, alternate or basal, mostly pinnatifid or dissected leaves, and corymbose or solitary, small or rather large discoid heads, of white or yellow flo...
-Hymenopappus L'Her.; Michx. Fl. Bor. Part 2
3. Hymenopappus Tenuifolius Pursh. Woolly White Hymenopappus Fig. 4531 Hymenopappus tenuifolius Pursh, Am. Sept. 742. 1814. Biennial; stem lightly tomentose, or at length glabrate, 1- 2 h...
-Hymenopappus L'Her.; Michx. Fl. Bor. Part 3
1. Othake Sphacelatum (Nutt.) Rydb. Hooker's Othake Fig. 4534 Stevia sphacelata Nutt.; Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 2: 214. 1827. Palafoxia Hookeriana T. & G. Fl. N. A. 2: 368. 1842. Polypteris Hookeriana ...
-81. Picradeniopsis Rydb.; Britton, Man. 1008. 1901
Herbs more or less woolly, with opposite leaves, and small corymbose heads, of both tubular and radiate yellow flowers. Involucre campanulate or hemispheric, its bracts in 1 or 2 series, herbaceous, o...
-82. Tetraneuris Greene, Pittonia 3: 265. 1898
[Actinella Nutt. (1818), not Pers. (1807), nor Actinea Juss. (1803).] Branched or scapose, villous-pubescent or glabrous, bitter and aromatic punctate herbs, with alternate or basal, often punctate le...
-83. Hymenoxys Cass. Dict. Sci
Nat. 55: 278. 1828. [Picradenia Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 317. 1833.] Pubescent herbs with branching stems and alternate entire or dissected leaves, the blades or divisions narrow, usually linear or fil...
-84. Helenium L. Sp. Pl. 886. 1753
Erect, mostly branching herbs, with alternate, mainly decurrent, punctate bitter entire or dentate leaves, and large peduncled heads of both tubular and radiate, yellow or brownish-yellow flowers, or ...
-85. Gaillardia Foug. Mem. Acad. Sci. Paris 1786:
5. pl. 1, 2. 1788. Branching or scapose, more or less pubescent herbs, with alternate or basal leaves, and large peduncled heads of both tubular and radiate flowers, or rays wanting. Involucre depress...
-86. Boebera Willd. Sp. Pl. 3: 2125. 1804
Erect or diffuse, branching, annual, or perennial, strong-scented, more or less glandular herbs, with opposite, mostly finely dissected leaves, and small peduncled heads of both tubular and radiate ye...
-87. Thymophylla Lag. Gen. Et Sp. Nov. 25. 1816
[Hymenatherum Cass. Bull. Soc. Philom. 1817: 12. 1817.] Annual or perennial herbs, some species low undershrubs, with gland-dotted foliage and involucre, alternate or opposite leaves, and small heads...
-88. Pectis L. Syst. Nat. Ed. 10, 1221
1759- Annual or perennial, diffuse prostrate or erect, mostly glabrous herbs, gland-dotted and strong-scented, with opposite narrow sometimes ciliate leaves, and small usually cymose heads of both ...
-89. Achillea [Vaill.] L. Sp. Pl. 898. 1753
Herbs, mostly perennial, with erect leafy stems, finely dissected, pinnatifid or serrate alternate leaves, and small heads of both tubular and radiate flowers, corymbose at the ends of the stem and br...
-89. Achillea [Vaill.] L. Sp. Pl. 898. 1753. Part 2
3. Achillea Lanulosa Nutt. Woolly Yarrow Fig. 4554 Achillea lanulosa Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. 7: 36. 1834. Similar to the preceding species, perennial by rootstocks, 1-2 1/2 high, densel...
-89. Achillea [Vaill.] L. Sp. Pl. 898. 1753. Part 3
1. Anthemis Cotula L. Mayweed. Dog's Or Fetid Camomile. Dillweed Fig. 4556 Anthemis Cotula L. Sp. Pl. 894. 1753. Maruta Co ula DC. Prodr. 6: 13. 1837. Annual, glabrous, or sometimes pubescent abov...
-91. Chrysanthemum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 888. 1753
Perennial or annual, mostly erect and branching herbs, with alternate, dentate, incised or dissected leaves, and large, usually long-peduncled heads of both tubular and radiate flowers, or rays rarely...
-91. Chrysanthemum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 888. 1753. Continued
3. Chrysanthemum Segetum L. Yellow Ox-Eye. Corn Marigold Fig. 4562 Chrysanthemum segetum L. Sp. Pl. 889. 1753. Annual, glabrous, 1 1/2 high or less. Leaves oblong to oblanceolate, the upper au...
-92. Matricaria L. Sp. Pl. 890. 1753
Annual or perennial, mostly erect herbs, similar to some species of the preceding genus, with alternate leaves, dissected into filiform or narrowly linear segments and lobes, and peduncled heads of bo...
-93. Tanacetum [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 843. 1753
Erect, strongly aromatic herbs, our species perennials, with alternate, 1-3-pinnately dissected or divided leaves, and numerous small corymbose heads of tubular flowers, or with rays sometimes present...
-94. Artemisia [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 845. 1753
Odorous herbs or shrubs, often canescent or tomentose, with alternate leaves, and small pendulous or erect, discoid racemose spicate glomerate or paniculate heads of greenish or yellowish flowers. Inv...
-94. Artemisia [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 845. 1753. Part 2
1. Artemisia Caudata Michx. Tall Or Wild Wormwood Fig. 4571. Artemisia Caudata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 129. 1803 Root biennial (sometimes perennial?); stems slender, glabrous, tufted, strict, very le...
-94. Artemisia [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 845. 1753. Part 3
4. Artemisia Dracunculoides Pursh. Linear-Leaved Wormwood Fig. 4574 A. dracunculoides Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 742. 1814. Perennial, glabrous; stem somewhat woody, usually much branched, 2-4 ...
-94. Artemisia [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 845. 1753. Part 4
8. Artemisia Absinthium L. Common Wormwood. Absinth Fig. 4578 Artemisia Absinthium L. Sp. Pl. 848. 1753. Shrubby, finely canescent; stem much branched, 2-4 high. Leaves 2'-5' long, 1-3-pi...
-94. Artemisia [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 845. 1753. Part 5
11. Artemisia Biennis Willd. Biennial Wormwood Fig. 4581 Artemisia biennis Willd. Phytogr. 11. 1794. Annual or biennial, glabrous throughout; stem very leafy, usually branched, 1-4 high, ...
-94. Artemisia [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 845. 1753. Part 6
14. Artemisia Pontica L. Roman Or Hungarian Wormwood Fig. 4584 Artemisia pontica L. Sp. Pl. 847. 1753. Perennial; stem branched, glabrous or canescent, 1-3 high. Leaves 1 1/2'-2.1/2' long...
-94. Artemisia [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 845. 1753. Part 7
18. Artemisia Ludoviciana Nutt. Dark-Leaved Mugwort Fig. 4588 Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. Gen. 2: 143. 1818. Perennial, 2-4 high; stem woolly, branched above. Leaves linear to obovate, 3'...
-94. Artemisia [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 845. 1753. Part 8
22. Artemisia Tridentata Nutt. Common Sage-Bush. Sage-Brush. Sage-Wood. Mountain Sage Fig. 4592 Artemisia tridentata Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (II) 7: 398. 1841. Shrubby, silvery-canescent; stem ...
-95. Tussilago [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 865. 1753
An acaulescent herb, more or less white-tomentose, with slender perennial rootstocks, broad basal cordate, dentate or lobed, long-petioled leaves, and large solitary, monoecious heads of both tubular ...
-96. Petasites [Tourn.] Mill. Gard. Dict. Abr. Ed. 4. 1754
Herbs with perennial thick horizontal rootstocks, broad, basal, petioled leaves, and scaly scapes bearing racemose or corymbose heads of tubular or both tubular and radiate, white or purplish, often d...
-97. Arnica L. Sp. Pl. 884. 1753
Erect, simple or little branched herbs, with opposite leaves, or the upper rarely alternate, and large, long-peduncled heads of both tubular and radiate, yellow flowers, or rays wanting in some specie...
-97. Arnica L. Sp. Pl. 884. 1753. Continued
3. Arnica Mollis Hook. Hairy Arnica Fig. 4601 Arnica mollis Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 331. 1833. Villous-pubescent; stem simple, or little branched, 1-2 1/2 high, bearing 1-6 heads at the sum...
-98. Haploesthes A. Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. (II) 4: 109. 1849
Perennial caulescent, partly woody and partly fleshy plants, with opposite narrow entire leaves, the lower connate-sheathing, and corymbose heterogamous radiate heads. Involucre of few broad many-nerv...
-99. Erechtites Raf. Fl. Ludov. 65. 1817
Erect, usually branching herbs, with alternate leaves, and (in our species) rather large discoid many-flowered heads of whitish flowers, corymbose-paniculate at the ends of the stem and branches. Invo...
-100. Mesadenia Raf. New Fl. N. A. 4: 78. 1836
perennial mostly glabrous herbs, with alternate petioled leaves and numerous, rather small, corymbose, discoid heads of white, yellowish or pinkish flowers, all tubular and perfect. Sap milky (at leas...
-101. Synosma Raf.; Loud. Gard. Mag. 8: 247. 1832
A perennial leafy herb, glabrous or very nearly so, with triangular or hastate, alternate leaves, the lower petioled, the upper sessile, and several or numerous, corymbose or corymbose-paniculate, dis...
-102. Senecio [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 866. 1753
Annual or perennial herbs (some tropical species shrubby or even arborescent), with alternate or basal leaves, and solitary corymbose or paniculate many-flowered heads, of both tubular and radiate, or...
-102. Senecio [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 866. 1753. Part 2
1. Senecio Vulgaris L. Common Groundsel Fig. 4610 Senecio vulgaris L. Sp. Pl. 867. 1753. Annual, puberulent or glabrate; stem hollow, usually much branched, 6'-15' high. Leaves pinnatifid, 2'-6' lo...
-102. Senecio [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 866. 1753. Part 3
5. Senecio Palustris (L.) Hook. Marsh Fleawort. Pale Ragwort. Marsh Groundsel Fig. 4614 Cineraria palustris L. Sp. Pl. Ed. 2, 243. 1763. Senecio palustris Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 334. 1833. Annual o...
-102. Senecio [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 866. 1753. Part 4
9. Senecio Frigidus Less. Arctic Senecio Fig. 4618 Senecio frigidus Less. Linnaea 6: 239. 1831. Perennial, more or less tomentose, or becoming glabrous when old; stem slender, 6'-12' high, bearing ...
-102. Senecio [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 866. 1753. Part 5
13. Senecio Tomentosus Michx. Woolly Ragweed. Ashwort Fig. 4622 S. tomentosus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 119. 1803. Perennial, more or less densely and persistently tomentose or woolly-canescent; stems...
-102. Senecio [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 866. 1753. Part 6
17. Senecio Discoideus (Hook) Britton. Northern Squaw-Weed Fig. 4626 Senecio aureus var. discoideus Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 333. 1833. Senecio discoideus Britton, in Britt. & Brown, III. Fl. 3: 479....
-102. Senecio [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 866. 1753. Part 7
20. Senecio Pauperculus Michx. Balsam Groundsel Fig. 4629 Senecio pauperculus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 120. 1803. Senecio Balsamitae Muhl.; Willd. Sp. Pl. 1999. 1804. Senecio aureus var. Balsamitae T...
-102. Senecio [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 866. 1753. Part 8
23. Senecio Integerrimus Nutt. Entire-Leaved Groundsel Fig. 4632 Senecio integerrimus Nutt. Gen. 2: 165. 1818. Perennial, more or less pubescent when young, glabrous or nearly so when old; stem sto...
-103. Arctium L. Sp. Pl. 816. 1753
Large coarse branching, rough or canescent, mostly biennial herbs, with broad alternate petioled leaves, and rather large heads of purple or white perfect tubular flowers, racemose, corymbose or panic...
-104. Cirsium [Tourn.] Mill. Gard. Diet. Abr. Ed. 4. 1754
Erect, branching or simple, prickly herbs, some species acaulescent, with alternate or basal, sinuate-dentate, lobed or pinnatifid, usually very spiny leaves, sometimes decurrent, and large, many-flow...
-Cirsium [Tourn.] Mill. Gard. Diet. Abr. Part 2
1. Cirsium Lanceolatum (L.) Hill. Common Bur Or Spear Thistle Fig. 4636 Carduus lanceolatus L. Sp. Pl. 821. 1753. Cirsium lanceolatum Hill, Herb. Brit. 1: 80. 1769. Cnicus lanceolatus Willd. Prodr. ...
-Cirsium [Tourn.] Mill. Gard. Diet. Abr. Part 3
4. Cirsium Virginianum (L.) Michx. Virginia Thistle Fig. 4639 Carduus virginianus L. Sp. Pl. 824. 1753. Cirsium virginianum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 90. 1803. Cnicus virginianus Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept....
-Cirsium [Tourn.] Mill. Gard. Diet. Abr. Part 4
7. Cirsium Plattense (Rydb.) Britton. Prairie Thistle Fig. 4642 Carduus plattensis Rydberg, Contr. Nat. Herb. 3: 167. pl. 2. 1895. Perennial or biennial, the root thick and deep; stem stout, simple...
-Cirsium [Tourn.] Mill. Gard. Diet. Abr. Part 5
11. Cirsium Odoratum (Muhl.) Britton. Pasture Thistle. Fragrant Thistle Fig. 4646 Cnicus odoratus Muhl. Cat. 70. 1813. Carduus pumilus Nutt. Gen. 2: 130. 1818. Cnicus pumilus Torr. Compend. 282. 182...
-Cirsium [Tourn.] Mill. Gard. Diet. Abr. Part 6
14. Cirsium Muticum Michx. Swamp Thistle Fig. 4649 Cirsium muticum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 89. 1803. Carduus muticus Pers. Syn. 2: 386. 1807. Cnicus muticus Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 506. 1814. Carduus mu...
-105. Carduus [Vaill.] L. Sp. Pl. 820. 1753
Herbs resembling Cirsium in habit, usually annual or biennial, the leaves decurrent on the stem and branches as spiny wings, the heads often nodding. Involucre ovoid to globose, many-flowered, its bra...
-106. Mariana Hill, Veg. Syst. 4: 19. 1762
[Silybum Vaill.; Adans. Fam. Pl. 2: 116. 1763.] Annual or biennial, simple or branched, nearly glabrous herbs, with large alternate clasping, sinuate-lobed or pinnatifid, white-blotched leaves, and l...
-107. Onopordon [Vaill.] L. Sp. Pl. 827. 1753
Coarse, branching or rarely acaulescent, tomentose herbs, with stout stems winged by the decurrent bases of the alternate dentate or pinnatifid, prickly leaves, and large discoid heads of purple viole...
-108. Centaurea L. Sp. Pl. 909. 1753
Perennial or annual herbs, with alternate entire dentate incised or pinnatifid leaves, and large or middle-sized heads, of tubular purple violet white or rarely yellow flowers. Involucre ovoid or glob...
-108. Centaurea L. Sp. Pl. 909. 1753. Part 2
2. Centaurea Jacea L. Brown Or Rayed Knapweed Fig. 4657 Centaurea Jacea L. Sp. Pl. 914. 1753. Perennial, 2 high or less. Leaves entire or denticulate, rarely lobed; heads l'-1 1/2' broad; invo...
-108. Centaurea L. Sp. Pl. 909. 1753. Part 3
6. Centaurea Maculosa Lam. Spotted Knapweed Fig. 4661 C. maculosa Lam. Encycl. 1: 669. 1783. Annual or biennial, loosely floccose-pubescent or glabrate, usually much branched, 2-3 high, t...
-109. Cnicus [Tourn.] L. Sp. Pl. 826. 1753
An annual herb, with alternate pinnatifid or sinuate-dentate leaves, the lobes or teeth spiny, and large sessile heads of yellow tubular flowers, solitary at the ends of the branches, subtended by the...
-Book Summary
Families. Genera. Species Figured. PTERIDOPHYTA........................ 11 31 130 Spermatophyta Gymnospermae............









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