[Name from the Greek words for cup and flower, from the colored cup which contains the stamens and pistils.]
Calycanthus floridus. - Carolina Allspice, Sweet-scented Shrub. - This well-known shrub grows from three to five feet high, and bears from June to August a profusion of dark brownish-purple flowers, which have the odor of ripe melons. The wood is also very fragrant. There are several other species of the same general appearance, hut differing in the character of their leaves. G. Iaevigatus, has smooth leaves, and C. glaucus has the leaves white underneath. All are easily propagated by suckers or by layers.
[An ancient Greek name of obscure application.]
Ceanothus Americanus. - New Jersey Tea. - A low bushy shrub, found growing on the margins of woods in dry sandy soil. The minute, delicate, white flowers are very pretty, and are produced in crowded clusters in June and July. The leaves have been used as a substitute for tea, and the root to dye a nankeen or cinnamon color.
[An ancient Greek name for some evergreen, but our species is deciduous.]
Celastrus scandens. - Wax-work, Climbing Bittersweet. - A strong woody vine, growing around trees and over rocks, in moist situations. It is very useful for covering arbors, walls, or trellis work, or it may be trained to a pillar in the shrubbery. The foliage is of a deep green, and handsome. The flowers, which are small, greenish and in racemes, make but very little show, but the fruit is very ornamental. The fruit is a round three-valved capsule, which, when ripe, opens and discloses the seeds, which are of a deep scarlet, and contrast finely with the orange color of the valves of the capsule. A vigorous climber, which will grow fifteen or twenty feet high.
[The ancient name applied to the Eastern species.]
Cercis Canadensis. - Judas Tree, Red Bud. - A shrub or low tree, indigenous to the Southern and Western States. It is curious from being covered with bunches of rose-colored flowers before the leaves begin to appear. They give a brilliant appearance to the whole tree, except the extremities of the branches. It is also a handsome tree when in full foliage in summer.
[From the Greek words for snow and flower, in allusion to the snow-like whiteness of the racemes of delicate flowers.]
Chionanthus Virginica. - Fringe Tree. - A fine deciduous shrub or small tree, sometimes growing twenty feet high.but flowering when but six or eight feet high. Its leaves are six or eight inches long, and two to three inches wide. The flowers are white, numerous, and in long bunches, which have a fringe-like appearance. It is a native of Pennsylvania and southward, and is quite hardy. A light loam is the best soil for it. It is rather difficult to propagate, and it succeeds best grafted on the Ash.
[The Greek name for the Alder, to which this plant has some resemblance in its foliage.]
Clethra alnifolia. - Alder-leaved Clethra, Sweet Pepper-bush. - A shrub from two to eight feet high, with long spikes of fragrant flowers which appear towards the end of summer. It is found in wet places and by the sides of streams, but succeeds well when removed to the garden, and blooms even more freely there than it does in the wild state. G. acuminata, and other species, are found in the Southern States.
[Name from the Greek, signifying to make a sound; probably in allusion to the noise produced by the bursting of the bladder-like fruit.]
Colutea aborescens, grows about ten feet high, with yellow or orange pea-shaped flowers, which are succeeded by seed-vessels like bladders; in June and July. G. cru-enta, four feet high, has reddish flowers. All are free growers, and well adapted to introduce into extensive shrubberies.
[Named from corona, a crown. Its pretty flowers are disposed in little tufts like coronets.]
Coronilla emerus, or Scorpion Senna, is a native of most parts of Europe. It has yellow, pea-shaped flowers in little heads, in June. It is a delicate shrub, with handsome foliage; somewhat tender when exposed to the full rays of the sun, but when grown among other bushes succeeds very well. Its height rarely exceeds three feet.
[Name from the Latin, cornu, a horn, the wood being very hard and durable.]
The larger species of this genus are hardy ornamental shrubs, mostly North American, and are prized not only for their flowers and different colored berries, but for their red, purple or striped bark, which has a fine effect in winter, especially among evergreens.
"A beautiful shrub, six or eight feet high; sometimes a graceful small tree, of fifteen, twenty, or even twenty-five feet high, throwing off, at one or more points, several branches, which, slightly ascending, diverge, and form nearly horizontal umbrageous stages, or flats of leaves, so closely arranged as to give almost a perfect shade. Recent shoots, of a shining light yellowish-green, with oblong scattered dots. The older branches, of a rich polished green, striped with gray. Flowers in an irregularly branched head, yellowish-white; fruit, blue-black. A beautiful plant, with a variety of character. It grows naturally in most woods, or on the sides of hills; but, when cultivated, flourishes in almost any kind of soil, and even in dry situations. It flowers in May and June, and the fruit ripens in October."
This species is more of a tree than any of those described, and one of the most desirable of all the genus. It is a conspicuous object, in some of our woods, the last of May. The tree is then loaded with a profusion of its large, showy, white flowers, which are produced at the ends of the branches. What is generally taken for the flower is not in reality such. The flowers are small, and without much interest, except to the botanist. Twelve or more of them are clustered together in a head, and surrounded by a whorl of four large white floral leaves, which constitutes the principal beauty of the flower. These floral leaves are nerved, somewhat heart-shaped, shaded with flesh color, or purple; the fruit is of a bright scarlet.
"The leaves early begin to change to purple, and turn to a rich scarlet, or crimson, above, with a light-russet beneath; or to crimson and buff, or orange ground, above, with a glaucous-purple beneath. These, surrounding the scarlet bunches of berries, make the tree as beautiful an object, at the close of autumn, as it was in the opening summer."
A spreading shrub from four to six feet high, with roundish leaves. The young shoots are green, blotched with purple; flowers white; fruit blue, turning whitish, and ripe in October.
The main stem is usually prostrate and sends up slender erect branches, five to eight feet high; flowers white, and fruit lead-colored. This plant is conspicuous towards the end of winter for the rich red color of its stems and shoots.
About six feet high, with rather irregular branches. Flowers produced in great profusion in May and June, and are succeeded by white berries, which ripen in August and September, at which time the fruit-stalks become a delicate pale scarlet.