[A diminutive of campana, a bell; on account of the form of the corolla, which resembles a little bell.]
An indigenous species, which is very pretty and worthy of cultivation; It is found on the banks of the Merrimac river, above Lowell, and in many other places. It has nearly round, heart-kidney, crenate radical leaves, from which the specifiv name is given, and linear entire cauline ones, with drooping, solitary, fine blue flowers; those of the English plants being rather the largest. In flower, in July; a perennial one to one and a half foot high. It is known by the name of Hare-bell in England also, and Sir Walter Scott speaks of it by that title';
"What though no rule of courtly grace To measured mood had trained her pace? A foot more light, a step more true, Ne'er from the heath-flower clashed the dew; E'en the slight Hare-bell raised its head Elastic from her airy tread." - Lady of the Lake.
A hardy annual, of considerable beauty, introduced in 1825, from Mount Baldo. It is of easy culture, very hardy, producing seed very abundantly; it grows about nine inches high, flowering freely. Some of the blossoms are of a fine purple-blue color, and others of a pure white. Each flower is two inches and upwards across. When the plant is cultivated in masses, the flowers are very showy and ornamental, and continue in bloom a long time. C. pentagonia, or five-angled, is another annual with blue or purple flowers, is also very pretty; from Turkey, one foot high.
This species, with its varieties, is one of our oldest ornamental plants, it having for a long time been cultivated in our gardens; it is, nevertheless, a showy plant, and will doubtless always be retained as a prominent ornament of the border. The varieties are rose, blue, and white, double and single. The double varieties, however, are much inferior to the single ones, and will be cultivated only for their oddity. Being biennial, it will be necessary to sow the seeds every year. The young plants must be transplanted to the place in which they are to flower, in August or September, for if deferred until spring the bloom will be greatly weakened; the same holds good with all biennials, and most seedling perennials.
This is one of the finest species, containing a number of beautiful varieties, with large, showy flowers, more bowl-shaped than the last. The varieties are single and double blue, single and double white, maxima, or large peach-leaved, etc. All of them are perfectly hardy, with handsome foliage, which makes them valuable as border flowers. Stems angular; leaves stiff; obsoletely crenate-serrate; radical ones, oblong-ovate; cauline ones, lanceolate-linear; three feet high; in flower in June and July.
This is a grand ornament, when cultivated in perfection, forming a pyramid from four to six feet high, producing innumerable flowers for two or three months, if shaded from the sun. It was formerly a great favorite in England, but its popularity has long since passed away to give place to other more fashionable flowers, which have in their turn also been succeeded by other rivals more fair. But the old-fashioned Hollanders are not quite so fickle; flowers with them seem to be esteemed, notwithstanding their antiquity. The Pyramidal Bellflower is said to be in demand there still, as an ornament to halls, stair-cases, and for placing before fire-places in the summer season.
Plants raised from seeds are always stronger, and the stalks rise higher, and produce a greater number of flowers. They are to be sown in pots of light earth, soon after being gathered, protected by a frame during winter, and will come up in the spring. When the leaves decay, in October, they are to be transplanted to beds of light, sandy earth, without any mixture of dung, which is a great enemy to this plant. Here they are to remain two years, being protected by rotten tan; they are then to be removed to their final destination, in September or October; and the year following, being the third year from sowing, they will flower.
Seedling plants, in our climate, will flower the second year generally, some not until the third. A slight protection is necessary during winter. Under our fervid sun, there will be no difficulty in ripening seeds.
This is a handsome, low growing perennial, with creeping roots, with very large drooping bell-shaped flowers; one variety a purplish brown, the other white.
It is a native of Europe. It has purple or white flowers, blooming in June and July. A handsome perennial, three to four feet high. The name of Throatwort was given to these plants, from a notion that they would cure inflammation and swelling of the throat. Increased by dividing the roots, or from seed. It prefers a loamy soil. The Giant Throatwort is a native of England, is mentioned by Sir "Walter Scott in the poem of Rokeby:
- "he laid him down,
Where purple heath profusely strown
And Throatwort with its azure bell,
And moss, and thyme, his cushion swell."
A beautiful perennial alpine plant, with delicate, star-shaped, blue flowers, with distinct white throat; indispensable for basket or rock-work.
Has pale-blue flowers, in a crowded head. G. grandis, G. latifolia speciosa, glomerata, and many others, are fine border-flowers, growing from one to four feet high. There is also a class of dwarf species, growing from three inches to one foot in height, very appropriate for rock-work, as G. hederacea, alpina, Caucasi-ca, Carpatica, pumila, rotundifolia, etc. This genus embraces about one hundred species. Several, which were formerly included in it, have been removed to other genera. See Specularia and Platycodon.