[Name from the Greek, signifying strength, from the hardness of the wood.]
In relation to this genus Mr. Emerson remarks:- "It is found that a greater variety of beautiful small trees and ornamental shrubs can be formed of the several species of Thorn, than of any kind of tree whatever. Thus they give persons, whose grounds are not extensive, the means of ornamenting their grounds with great facility. If trained as trees, they have an appearance of singular neatness united with a good degree of vigor; and the readiness with which they are pruned and grafted, renders them susceptible of almost any shape which the fancy of the owner would have them assume. Some of the species, native to Massachusetts, often take, even in a state of nature, the shape of handsome low trees Of these, the flowers and foliage have great beauty, and the scarlet haws, which remain on into winter, till, ripened by frost, they are gathered by the birds, give them additional charms. Into these tall species all the others, very various, and many of them very beautiful, may be grafted.
The four principal species, natives of our State, are:- Crataegus coccinea, Scarlet-fruited Thorn; C. tomentosa, the Pear-leaved Thorn; G. crus-galli, the Cockspur Thorn, and G. punctata, the Dotted-fruited Thorn; - all handsome, with white, fragrant flowers, in clusters.
C, Oxyacantha is the common Hawthorn of England, which is also an ornamental shrub, as well as a very important one for the formation of hedges. Of this species there are a number of beautiful varieties, viz.: rosea, with deep red flowers; double white and double red, which are very beautiful, besides some others not so well known.
[So called from being a native of the ancient town of Cydon, in the island of Crete.]
Cydonia Japonica, formerly Pyrus Japonica., is indigenous to Japan, and embraces two varieties, the scarlet and variegated flowering. When in bloom, there is no plant that equals it in splendor. The Cydonia may be seen budding and bursting into bloom in April. The, flowers are in aggregated clusters, along the branches, interspersed with the young leaves. The scarlet color of the flowers is most brilliant. There is a paler variety which has flowers of a fine blush, shaded with red, which, when contrasted with the other, forms an agreeable relief. The perfect hardiness of this shrub, and the brilliancy of its flowers, render it valuable in the shrubbery, lawn or flower-garden. It grows from six to eight feet high, but commences to flower when the plants are quite small. A writer says:- "One of the most pleasing and picturesque objects we recollect ever to have seen, was a large Cy-donia whilst in full bloom, partially imbedded in a late snow; the branches weighed down thereby, and the rich brilliant blossoms, peeping through their chaste covering." A variety with double flowers has recently been introduced. It succeeds in any good garden soil, and is propagated by layering and by suckers.
[An ancient classical name.]
Cytisus Laburnum. - Golden Chain. - A tall and elegant shrub or low tree, which, when in bloom, is laden with long, pendulous clusters of golden, pea-shaped flowers, similar in appearance to those of the Locust. Blooms the last of May or in June, and is most rich and beautiful. The variety C. leucanthum, has cream-colored flowers. There is also a purple-flowering species, G. purpureus, which grows two feet high, but the first mentioned is the most desirable of all the species and varieties.
[A name from ancient mythology.]
Daphne Mezereum. - Mezereum. - This has long been in cultivation, and is much esteemed for its early flowering and fragrance. The flowers come out before the leaves, early in the spring; they grow in clusters, all around the shoots of the former year.
"Though leafless, well attired, and thick beset With blushing wreaths, investing every spray."
The flowers are succeeded by brilliant scarlet berries, which are a powerful poison. Another variety has white flowers and yellow berries. When a large number of bushes are planted together, they will perfume the air to a considerable distance. It thrives well in a loamy soil, and will grow in the shade and even in the drip of trees.
[So named by Thunberg, in compliment to John Deutz, one of the senators of Amsterdam, a patron of botany, and one of the promoters of the voyage of the former to Japan.]
A very elegant shrub, a native of Japan. Is height is about six or eight feet, and during the early part of summer it is covered with a profusion of white blossoms, which are highly fragrant. The specific name of the plant is given on account of the roughness of its leaves.
This is a very graceful and elegant dwarf shrub, two or three feet high, with arching branches, which are loaded with pure white flowers in June; leaves smooth and deep green. This plant is useful for forcing in the green-house, where it flowers in as great profusion as out of doors, and should be taken up and potted as soon as the foliage is destroyed by frost. Both of these varieties are of easy culture, being sufficiently hardy to endure our winters without protection, and readily propagated by cuttings or from suckers.