The Rose is propagated in various ways.
All the summer-blooming Roses may be propagated in this way. It can be performed in midsummer, and for several weeks afterwards. Young shoots, at least one foot long and.well matured, should be selected for this purpose. The mode of operation is the same as in all shrubby plants. The soil should be well dug about the plant, and increased by a little fresh loam, well enriched with rotten manure, raised about it, so as to form a little bed. Proceed, then, with the usual process of layering, "by making a slit with a sharp knife just below a bud, making a slanting cut, upwards and lengthwise, about half through the branch, forming a tongue from one to two inches long, on the back part of the shoot, right opposite the bud. A chip, or some of the soil, can be placed in the slit to prevent it from closing, and the shoot can then be carefully laid and pegged down at a point some two or three inches below the cut, keeping, at the same time, the top of the shoot some three or four inches out of the ground, and making it fast to a small stake to keep it upright." The prepared shoot should be buried about three or four inches deep. Great care will be necessary to prevent the branch from injury. The ground over the layer should be covered with moss, or coarse manure, or some substance to screen it from the sun. In some varieties, the layers will be sufficiently rooted in autumn; but in many kinds, particularly the hardy perpet-uals, they will not be sufficiently established to separate from the parent plant till the autumn following the year in which they were laid.
Many varieties of Roses are inclined to throw up suckers. With these sorts there is no difficulty in increasing the stock. These should be taken off with as much root as possible, every autumn, and planted out in nursery rows, or where they are to remain, if strong plants. The parent plant is also very much benefited by this operation.
All the varieties of the Rose can be propagated by budding, and, to increase new and rare varieties, this mode is always resorted to. There are some sorts, naturally weak, which flower much more perfectly when budded on some strong-growing species; but we hate a budded Rose-bush, and will not have one in our own grounds, if we can get them on their own roots. It requires much care and attention to keep them in order, as the stock is continually throwing up suckers, which draw all the nourishment from the budded variety. "Where there are but few varieties, and a skillful gardener to look after the plants, there is no doubt but that it is desirable to have some upon strong-growing stocks. "We were not a little amused, a few years since, upon a visit at the house of a horticultural friend, who, by the way, was better acquainted with the management of his fruit trees than he was with the flower-garden. His garden was well laid out and kept very neat. He was taking me around to show the various plants, and getting what information he could out of one he supposed knew more than he did about them. Presently he came to a wilderness of the French Dog Roses. "There," says he, "is a lot of the choicest Roses that could be obtained in France." "Indeed," says I, "they certainly look very vigorous." "They do, to be sure," he replied; "but somehow or other, they look very much alike, and the few that flowered this year were very single." "That is very probable," I replied, "for Dog Roses have great resemblance to each other, and are always single." Great was his surprise, when I convinced him that the Roses he had imported and cultivated with so much care, were only suckers from the stocks on which his imported Roses were budded. He had planted them out, supposing they were on their own roots, and had not perceived the necessity of keeping down the suckers.
The Tree Rose is a beautiful object when in bloom. It is formed by budding the desired variety upon a standard, some four or five feet in height, generally the Dog Rose, as it is called in France, or the Eglantine. Many have been imported from France, and succeed well the first or second year; but from some cause they soon die. Either the severity of our winters, or our powerful summer's sun, causes their death.
New varieties are produced from seed raised from flowers, which have been crossed with' others of opposite characters; but none but amateurs will attempt this, so this mode of propagation will not be dwelt upon.
Of the diseases of the Rose, and of the insects that infest it, we shall have something to say in another place.