Monotropa uniiiora. Heath Family Stems: smooth, fleshy, scaly. Leaves: none. Flowers: oblong, bell-shaped, nodding, two to four sepals, four to five scale-like petals. Fruit: capsule erect, many seeded.

This waxy, cold and clammy plant is white throughout - stalks, scales, and flowers - only the eight or ten yellowish stamens giving a faint touch of colour to its ghost-like appearance. Very rarely the Indian Pipe is rose-colour, and always it turns blackish when dying. Of all ghoulish parasites the Monotropas are among the worst, their matted, brittle, fibrous roots preying on the juices of other plants, or on dead and decaying matter. The single, bell-shaped flower hangs its head at the top of each scaly stalk, but when the numerous seeds begin to form it raises its head erect.

Monotropa Hypopitys, or Pinesap, has white, tawny or rose-coloured flowers that are very fragrant, and oblong-bell-shaped, borne in a one-sided, terminal, drooping raceme, and, like the Indian Pipe, becoming erect at maturity. The scaly-bracted scapes rise in clusters from a mass of fleshy, fibrous roots, the bracts very densely imbricated at the base of the peduncles, and, together with the preceding species, the Pinesap is branded as a parasite by the loss of all leaves and chlorophyll.

Plate XXXVIII

Indian Pipe (Monotropa uniflora)

Indian Pipe (Monotropa uniflora)