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Wild Flowers Of The North American Mountains | by Julia W. Henshaw



"When the book of life falls open at the page of spring," the snow-crowned mountains rule over an enchanting land of foliage, ferns and fungi, and the alpine meadows are ablaze with bright-hued flowers that grow luxuriantly beneath the broad blue tent of the sky...

TitleWild Flowers Of The North American Mountains
AuthorJulia W. Henshaw
PublisherRobert M. Mcbride & Company
Year1917
Copyright1915, Julia W. Henshaw
AmazonWild Flowers of the North American Mountains

Julia W. Henshaw, Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. Honorary Secretary of the Alpine Club of Canada.

Wild Flowers Of The North American Mountains

To Their Royal Highnesses The Duke And Duchess Of Connaught this book is, by special permission, gratefully dedicated in remembrance of days spent by Their Royal Highnesses in the Rocky Mountains

-Preface
When the book of life falls open at the page of spring, the snow-crowned mountains rule over an enchanting land of foliage, ferns and fungi, and the alpine meadows are ablaze with bright-hued flower...
-General Key To The Families. Division I. Pteridophyta
(Ferns and Fern Allies) Fern-like, rush-like, moss-like or aquatic plants, without true flowers. Reproduction by spores. ...
-Order I. Filicales
I. Polypodiaceae. Fern Family Leafy plants with creeping rhizomes. Spores borne in sporangia collected in dots, lines or clusters on the backs or margins of the fronds or their divisions. I. Phegopt...
-Order II. Equisetales
III. Equisetaceae. Horsetail Family Rush-like green plants with jointed usually hollow stems from running rootstocks; the branches verticillate, with toothed sheaths at the nodes, and when fertile be...
-Order III. Lycopodiales
IV. Lycopodiaceae. Club Moss Family Low-growing moss-like plants with branching, trailing or erect stems; leaves small, lanceolate, persistent, entire; sporangia solitary in the axils of the leaves, ...
-Division II. Spermatophyta
(Seed-plants, Phanerogmia, or Flowering Plants) Flowers with stamens, or pistils, or both. Normal reproduction by seeds containing an embryo or minute plant. Subdivision I. Gymnospermae ...
-Order IV. Coniferales
VI. Taxaceae. Yew Family Trees or shrubs; sparingly resinous; leaves evergreen or deciduous, linear, spreading in two ranks; flowers dioecious, or rarely monoecious, axillary, solitary; fruit a bony-...
-Subdivision II. Angiospermae Class I. Monocotyledoneae. Order V. Pandanales
VIII. Typhaceae. Cat-Tail Family Aquatic or marsh herbs with creeping rootstocks; leaves nerved, linear, sessile; flowers monoecious, numerous on a spadix destitute of proper floral envelope; fruit n...
-Order VI. Najadales
X. Najadaceae. Pondweed Family Marsh or immersed aquatic herbs with slender, jointed, leafy stems; leaves flat or filiform, sheathing at the base; flowers perfect or unisexual with a perianth of four...
-Order VII. Graminales
XII. Gramineae. Grass Family Herbs with culms closed at the nodes; leaves paralleled-veined, consisting of a sheath and a blade; flowers perfect, very small, arranged in spikelets; fruit a caryopsis ...
-Order VIII. Arales
XIV. Araceae. Arum Family Perennial herbs with pungent juice and tuberous rootstocks; leaves large, veiny, simple or compound, abundant; flowers crowded on a spadix which is usually surrounded by a s...
-Order IX. Liliales
XV. Juncaceae. Rush Family Rush-like or grass-like herbs; leaves alternate, sheathing, channelled or terete; flowers small, liliaceous in structure, but sedge like in aspect and texture, regular, hyp...
-Order X. Orchidales
XVIII. Orchidaceae. Orchis Family Perennial herbs, often with corms or tuberoid roots, sometimes rootless saprophytes; leaves paralleled-nerved, solitary or several, alternate; flowers solitary, in r...
-Class II. Dicotyledoneae. Subclass I. Archichlamydece. Order XI. Salicales
XIX. Salicaceae. Willow Family Trees or shrubs, the wood soft and light, bark bitter; leaves alternate undivided; flowers of both kinds in catkins, one to each bract, without perianth; fruit a pod be...
-Order XII. Fagales
XX. Betulaceae. Birch Family Trees or shrubs; leaves alternate, simple, straight-veined; flowers small, appearing with or before the leaves, the sterile in catkins, the fertile clustered, spiked, or ...
-Order XIII. Urticales
XXI. Urticaceae. Nettle Family Herbs rarely shrubs, with watery juice, belonging to a large family; leaves alternate or opposite, frequently stipulate, simple; flowers a small, dioecious, moncecius o...
-Order XIV. Santalales
XXII. Santalaceae. Sandalwood Family Herbs, shrubs or trees; leaves entire, without stipules; flowers solitary or clustered, axillary or terminal, calyx valvate in the bud, its tube adnate to the bas...
-Order XV. Polygonales
XXIV. Polygonaceae. Buckwheat Family Herbs, shrubs or trees with stipules in the form of sheaths above the swollen joints of the stem; leaves simple, entire; flowers mostly perfect, with a more or le...
-Order XVI. Chenopodiales
XXV. Chenopodiaceae. Goosefoot Family Herbs or shrubs of homely aspect; leaves more or less succulent, alternate, without stipules; flowers minute, with the free calyx imbricated in the bud, usually ...
-Order XVII. Caryophyllales
XXVI. Caryophyllaceae. Pink Family Herbs with bland and inert juice, the stems usually swollen at the nodes; leaves opposite, entire, often united at the base; flowers symmetrical, with or without pe...
-Order XVIII. Ranunculales
XXVIII. Nymphaeaceae. Water Lily Family Aquatic perennial herbs with horizontal rootstocks; leaves peltate or deeply cordate, involute from both margins in the bud, floating or immersed; flowers perf...
-Order XIX. Papaverales
XXXI. Papaveraceae. Poppy Family Herbs with milky or coloured juice, narcotic or acid; leaves alternate without stipules; flowers regular with the parts in twos or fours, fugacious sepals, polyandrou...
-Order XX. Sarraceniales XXXIV. Droseraceae. Sundew Family
Bog-herbs, mostly viscid-glandular; leaves in bud rolled up from the apex to the base as in ferns, alternate or crowded, entire; flowers hypogynous, penstamerous, calyx imbricated, petals convolute; f...
-Order XXI. Rosales
XXXV. Crassulaceae. Orpine Family Succulent smooth herbs; leaves simple, alternate, mostly sessile; flowers usually cymes, small, perfectly symmetrical; fruit a dry indehiscent pod opening down the v...
-Order XXII. Geraniales XXXIX. Linaceae. Flax Family
Herbs or more rarely low shrubs; leaves simple, entire, sessile, alternate, opposite or subverticillate below; flowers cymose, hermaphrodite, regular, symmetrical, hypogynous, the calyx strongly imbri...
-Order XXIII. Sapindales XLII. Empetraceae. Crowberry Family
Low evergreen shrubs with the foliage aspect and compound pollen of Heaths and drupaceous fruit. Probably just an apetalous and degenerate form of Ericaceae and comprising three genera, only one of wh...
-Order XXIV. Violales XLVI. Violaceae. Violet Family
Herbs perennial or annual; leaves basal or alternate, simple, with stipules; flowers axillary, nodding, corolla irregular, one-spurred or gibbous of five petals imbricated in the bud; fruit a capsule,...
-Order XXV. Myrtales XLVII. Elaeagnaceae. Oleaster Family
Shrubs or small trees; leaves silvery-scurfy or stellate-pubescent, entire, opposite or alternate; flowers perfect-polygamous or dioecious, clustered in the axils or at the nodes of twigs of the previ...
-Order XXVI. Umbellales L. Araliaceae. Ginseng Family
Herbs, shrubs or trees; leaves alternate, verticilliate, simple or compound, without stipules, the petioles thickened and dilated at the base; flowers umbellate, paniculate or racemose, the calyx-tube...
-Order XXVII. Ericales LIII. Ericaceae. Heath Family
A large family of shrubs and herbs; leaves simple, oblong or linear, deciduous or evergreen; flowers racemose, corymbose or solitary, regular, mostly perfect, without stipules, sometimes from scaly bu...
-Order XXVIII. Primulales LIV. Primulaceae. Primrose Family
Herbs; leaves simple, opposite or alternate, basal or whorled on the stem; flowers racemose or verticillate, sometimes axillary, regular, perfect, calyx free from the ovary, the stamens as many as the...
-Order XXIX. Gentianales
LV. Gentianaceae. Gentian Family Smooth herbs with a bitter colourless juice; leaves opposite, sessile, entire, simple, without stipules; flowers regular, perfect, in clusters, axillary or solitary a...
-Order XXX. Polemoniales
LVII. Polemoniaceae. Polemonium Family Herbs; leaves alternate or opposite, regular; flowers with persistent calyx, corolla lobes convolute in the bud, a three-celled ovary, three-lobed style; fruit ...
-Order XXXI. Plantaginales LXIV. Plantaginaceae. Plantain Family
Chiefly stemless aquatic or terrestrial herbs; leaves radical, spreading, ovate or linear, entire; flowers small, regular in bracted spikes or heads, rarely solitary on scapes or scape-like peduncles;...
-Order XXXII. Rubiales LXV. Rubiaceze. Madder Family
Herbs, shrubs or trees; leaves opposite, entire connected by interposed stipules or in whorls without apparent stipules; flowers perfect, regular, but often dimorphous; fruit dry or fleshy, separating...
-Order XXXIII. Campanulales
LXVIII. Campanulaceae. Bluebell Family Herbs usually with milky juice; leaves alternate, simple, without stipules; flowers scattered, perfect, the regular five-lobed corolla bell-shaped, valvate or i...
-Series I. Tubuliflorae
Tribe Astereae I. Chrysopsis. Nutt. 1. C. villosa. Nutt. Golden Aster. 2. C. hispida. (Hook.) Hairy Golden Aster. II. Solidago. L 1. S. canadensis. L. Canada Golden-rod. 2. S. decumbens. Greene....
-Series II. Liguliflora
Tribe Cichorieae XVIII. Cichorium. (Tourn.) L. 1. C. Intybus. L. Chicory. XIX. Taraxacum. (Haller.) Ludwig. 1. T. officinale. Weber. Common Dandelion. 2. T. rupestre. Alpine Dandelion. XX. Sonchus...
-Section I. Ferns And Fern Allies. Long Beech Fern. Phegopteris polypodioides. Fern Family
Rootstock: slender, creeping. Leaves: triangular, thin, mostly longer than wide, acuminate at the apex, pubescent; pinnae lanceolate, sessile, pinnately parted very nearly to the rachis into oblong, e...
-Maidenhair. Adiantum pedatum. Fern Family
Rootstock: slender, creeping, chaffy. Stems: brown, polished, forked at the summit. Leaves: obliquely-orbicular in outline; the pinnules oblong, the terminal one fan-shaped; the lower margin entire; t...
-Common Bracken. Pteris aquilina, var. lanuginosa. Fern Family
Rootstock: stout, woody, horizontal. Leaves: usually glabrous, ternate; the upper pinnules undivided; the lower ones more or less pinnatifid. The most common of all ferns, this Bracken is rather a co...
-Slender Lipfern. Chelianthes Feci. Fern Family
Rootstock: covered with brown scales lined with black. Stems: densely tufted. Leaves: ovate-lanceolate in outline, two-pinnate, with the pinnules pinnatifid, the upper surface tomentose, the lower den...
-Purple Cliff Brake. Pellcea atropurpurca. Fern Family
Rootstock: short, densely clothed with rusty hair-like scales. Stems: tufted, dark purple, veins obscure, commonly twice-forked. Leaves: coreacious, lanceolate in outline, simply pinnate, or two-pinna...
-Nootka Rock Brake. Cryptogramma acrostichoides. Fern Family
Rootstock: stout, chaffy, short. Stems: densely tufted, slender. Leaves: ovate in outline, thin, glabrous, the sterile shorter than the fertile, the margins involute to the midrib at first, expanded a...
-Green Spleenwort. Asplenium viride. Fern Family
Rootstock: stout, creeping, chaffy. Stems: numerous, densely tufted, brownish below, greenish above. Leaves: linear-lanceolate, herbaceous; pinnae ovate, deeply crenate, unequal sided. Sori: oblong, n...
-Holly Fern. Polystichum Lonchitis. Fern Family
Rootstock: short, stout, densely chaffy, bearing large brown scales. Leaves: rigid, leathery, linear-lanceolate in outline, once pinnate, pinnae broadly lanceolate, scythe-shaped, acute, strongly auri...
-Male Shield Fern. Aspidium Filix-mas. Fern Family
Rootstock: stout, ascending, chaffy. Leaves: firm, broadly-oblong, lanceolate, acute at the apex. Sori: large, borne near the midvein. This fern grows in the woods to a height of three feet. It is a ...
-Brittle Fern. Cystopteris fragilis. Fern Family
Rootstock: short. Leaves: thin, oblong-lanceolate, slightly tapering below; pinnae irregularly pinnatifid, with a broad central space and toothed segments decurrent along the margined or winged rachis...
-Large Moonwort. Botrychium Lunaria. Adder's Tongue Family
Very fleshy. Leaves: the sterile portion borne at, or above the middle of the stem, pinnate, with two to eight pairs of lunate lobes, crenate or entire, fertile portion dense; bud for the following ye...
-Field Horsetail. Equeistum arvense. Horsetail Family
Stems: annual, hollow, jointed, provided with scattered stomata, the fertile appearing in early spring before the sterile. Leaves: reduced to sheaths at the joints. This is a rush-like plant of a ver...
-Stiff Club Moss. Lycopodium annotinum. Club Moss Family
Stems: much branched, slender, prostrate and creeping, rather stiff, the branches ascending, sparingly forked. Leaves: uniform, spreading, five-ranked, rigid, linear-lanceolate, minutely serrulate, ne...
-Small Selaginella. Selaginella selaginoides. Selaginella Family
A moss-like plant. Leaves: scale-like, many-ranked, uniform, lanceolate, acute, lax, spreading. Spikes: solitary at the ends of the fertile branches. This plant has creeping, sterile branches, and er...
-Section II. Trees. Yew. Taxus brevifolia. Yew Family
A tree twenty to fifty feet high, with slender, spreading or drooping branches. Leaves: flat, mucronate, acuminate, cuspidate, the margins revolute, abruptly narrowed at the base into a short petiole....
-White-Bark Pine. Pinus albicaulis. Pine Family
An evergreen tree with rather smooth, light-coloured bark. Leaves: slender, rigid, with a few rows of dorsal stomata on the inside, entire, or nearly so. Flowers: scarlet. Fruit: cones maturing the se...
-Mountain Pine. Pinus monticola. Pine Family
A slender tree fifty to a hundred feet high, and one to six feet in diameter. Leaves: in fives, blue-green, glaucous. Flowers: the staminate ones oval, yellow; the pistillate ones oblong, pale purple....
-Bull Pine. Pinus ponderosa. Pine Family
A tree with massive stem.. Leaves: tufted at the ends of naked branches, rigid, in two or three-leaved clusters. Flowers: staminate yellow, pistillate clustered, dark red. Fruit: oval, nearly sessile,...
-Lodge Pole Pine. Finns contorta var. Murrayana. Pine Family
A small, slender tree, with very thin bark. Leaves: delicately serrulate. Fruit: cones oblong-cylindrical, slightly oblique at the base, tapering towards the apex. The Lodge Pole Pine, often called B...
-Lyall's Larch. Larix Lyallii. Pine Family
A small tree; branches horizontal and ascending, the branchlets and bud-scales densely pubescent with whitish hairs. Leaves: narrowly linear, without sheaths, in fascicles on short, lateral, scaly bud...
-White Spruce. Picea canadensis. Pine Family
A tall tree. Leaves: incurved, acute, terminating in rigid callous tips. Flowers: staminate pale red, soon appearing yellow from the thick covering of pollen. Fruit: cones nearly sessile, pendulous, o...
-Engelmann's Spruce
Plate IV Engelmann's Spruce (Picea Engelmanni) Picea Engelmanni. Pine Family An evergreen tree, fifty to one hundred and fifty feet high, two to five feet in diameter, with spreading branches in...
-Balsam Fir. Abies lasiocarpa. Pine Family
An evergreen tree fifty to seventy-five feet high. Leaves: those of the main branches linear, rounded or notched at the apex, those of the branchlets flattened, and with long rigid points. Flowers: th...
-Western Hemlock. Tsuga heterophylla. Pine Family
A tall, evergreen tree, Leaves: flat or somewhat angled, linear, abruptly petioled, entire or spinulose-serrate towards the rounded apex. Flowers: the staminate ones yellow, a subglobose cluster of st...
-Mountain Hemlock. Tsuga Mertensiana. Pine Family
A large, evergreen tree, with slender pubescent branchlets, and dark green foliage. Leaves: angular, acutish, attenuate at the base, often curved, stomatose and keeled on both sides, unequal, appearin...
-Douglas Fir. Pseudotsuga taxifolia. Pine Family
A very large tree, from one hundred to three hundred feet high, two to fifteen feet in diameter. Leaves: linear, obtuse, with two lateral resin-ducts close to the epidermis of the lower side. Flowers:...
-Red Cedar. Thuya plicata. Pine Family
A tall tree, with thin, fibrous bark, and scattered branches. Leaves: opposite, ovate, acuminate, subpungent, adnate, imbricated in four rows. Flowers: terminal, the staminate ones numerous, very smal...
-Rocky Mountain Juniper. Juniperus scopulorum. Pine Family
A tree ten to fifty feet high. Leaves: opposite in pairs, spiney-topped, closely appressed, imbricated, four-ranked, acute. Fruit: berry-like cones, glaucous, borne on straight peduncle-like branchlet...
-Hoary Willow. Salix Candida. Willow Family
An erect shrub. Leaves: persistently white-tomentose beneath, green and loosely tomentose above, oblong-lanceolate, thick, sparingly dentate or entire, acute at both ends. Flowers: aments expanding be...
-Aspen Poplar. Populus tremuloides. Poplar Family
A slender tree with thin, yellowish-brown or pale bark. Leaves: ovate, short-acuminate at the apex, finely crenulate, rounded or sub-cordate at the base. Flowers: Aments drooping, dense. Fruit: capsul...
-Black Birch. Betula fontinalis. Birch Family
A tree with smooth bronze bark. Leaves: broadly ovate, acute, sharply serrate except at the rounded subcordate and often unequal base. Flowers: staminate aments clustered with light brown scales, pist...
-Mountain Alder. Alnus sinuata. Birch Family
A small tree or shrub. Leaves: ovate, acuminate, obtuse or crenate at the base. Flowers: aments of both kinds on long, slender peduncles. The Mountain Alder has rather dark bark, and bright green lea...
-Western Mountain Ash. Pyrus sambucifolia. Rose Family
Leaves: alternate, pinnate; leaflets seven to fifteen, lanceolate, short-pointed at the apex, sharply serrate, glabrous and dark green above, pale and more or less pubescent beneath. Flowers: white, i...
-Western Choke Cherry. Prunus demissa. Rose Family
A small tree or shrub, attaining a height of thirty feet, but usually smaller. Leaves: obovate, thick, acute at the apex, short-serrate. Flowers: racemes densely-flowered, terminating leafly branches....
-Dwarf Maple. Acer glabrum. Maple Family
A small tree or shrub, with a maximum height of thirty-five feet. Leaves: opposite, simple, palmately lobed, the lobes acute, sharply serrate. Flowers: in numerous small, lateral and terminal sessile,...
-Section III. Reeds, Grasses, Sedges And Rushes. Broad-Leaved Cat-Tail. Typha latifolia. Cat-tail Family
Stems: stout. Leaves: nearly equalling or exceeding the stems, linear, flat, ensiform, with sheathing base. Flowers: very numerous in dense, terminal spikes. Fruit: nut-like, small, usually splitting...
-Simple-Stemmed Bur-Reed. Sparganium simplex. Bur-Reed Family
Stems: erect or floating. Leaves: more or less triquetrous, linear, alternate. Flowers: densely crowded in blobose heads at the upper part of the stem. Fruit: nut-like, one-celled. In bogs, and at th...
-Marsh Arrow Grass. Triglochin palustris. Arrow-grass Family
A marsh herb. Rootstock: short, oblique, with slender, fugacious stolons. Leaves: linear, shorter than the scapes. Flowers; in racemes, perianth herbaceous, of three concave sepals and three petals. F...
-Alpine Timothy. Phleum alpinum. Grass Family
Clum: glabrous, erect, simple, sheaths often much shorter than the internodes, sometimes longer. Leaves: smooth beneath, scabrous above. Spike: short, ovoid to oblong, cylindric. A perennial grass, w...
-Hare's Tail. Eriophorum callitrix. Sedge Family
Perennial by rootstock. Culm: obtusely triangular, stiff, smooth, slender. Leaves: filiform, channeled; spikelet terminal, solitary, erect; involucre none; scales spirally imbricated, ovate-lanceolate...
-Arctic Kobresia. Kobresia bipartita. Sedge Family
Culms: solitary or tufted, smooth. Leaves: unfolded, shorter than the culm. Spike: composed of several linear, appressed or ascending spikelets. Fruit: achenes sessile. This slender mountain Sedge ha...
-Tussock Sedge. Carex festiva. Sedge Family
Stems: triangular. Leaves: the upper longest, commonly shorter than the stem. Heads: dark, ferruginous, spikes ovoid, contiguous in an oblong or crowded spherical cluster. These grass-like Sedges are...
-Alpine Bog Rush. Juncus Mertensianus. Rush Family
Stems: weak from matted rootstock. Leaves: ligule, conspicuous. Flowers: a solitary, many-flowered head, perianth segments dark brown, ovate-lanceolate, the outer ones aristate-acuminate. Fruit: many-...
-Small-Flowered Wood Rush. Lunula parvfflora. Rush Family
Stems: single or few in a tuft, stoloniferous, erect. Leaves: glabrous. Flowers: borne singly or sometimes two or three together on the branches of the inflorescence on slender pedicels. Fruit: seeds ...
-Section IV. White To Green And Brown Flowers. Richardson's Pondweed. Potamogeton Richardsonii. Pondweed Family
A marsh herb. Stems: slender, much branched. Leaves: obtuse to acute, curved inward at the apex, broadly cordate and clasping at the base. Flowers: small, spicate, green or rarely reddish. Fruit: drup...
-Glutinous Asphodel. Totieldia glutinosa. Lily Family
Stems: viscid-pubescent with black glands, bearing two to four leaves near the base. Leaves: basal ones tufted. Flowers: terminal racemes oblong, the upper flowers opening first, becoming longer in fr...
-Bronze Bells. Stenanthium occidentale. Lily Family
Bulb: oblong-ovoid, coated. Stems: slender, erect, glabrous. Leaves: few, linear, lanceolate, acuminate. Flowers: raceme simple, flowers campanulate, nodding, segments of the perianth brownish-green; ...
-Green Lily. Zygadenus elegans. Lily Family
Bulb: ovoid, membranous, coated. Stems: slender. Leaves: very glaucous, narrow; bracts long-keeled, lanceolate, rather large. Flowers. in a single raceme, or a large panicle, its branches slender, asc...
-Indian Hellebore. Veratrum viride. Lily Family
Stems: stout, tall, very leafy. Leaves: acute, strongly veined, short-petioled, sheathing, the upper ones successively narrower, those of the inflorescence small. Flowers: panicles long, pubescent, de...
-Mountain Adder's Tongue. Erythronium montanum. Lily Family
Stems: scale slender, six to eighteen inches high. Leaves: broadly lanceolate to ovate. Flowers: perianth broadly funnel form, of six distinct broadly lanceolate segments, slenderly acuminate, the inn...
-Green-Banded Mariposa. Calochortus macrocarpus. Lily Family
Stems: stout, erect, rigid. Leaves: radical, solitary, deeply channeled, cauline narrow, convolute. Flowers: sepals lanceolate, acuminate, petals cuneate-obovate. Fruit: capsule lanceolate, attenuate,...
-Queen-Cup. Clintonia uniflora. Lily Family
Stems: villous-pubescent. Leaves: few, lanceolate, acute, attenuate below to a sheathing petiole. Flowers: solitary, peduncle scape-like, shorter than the leaves; perianth campanulate, of six segments...
-False Solomon's Seal. Smilacina amplexicaulis. Lily Family
Plate XII False Solomon's Seal (Smilacina amplexicaulis) Stems: stout, ascending, leafy. Leaves: oval, clasping, acuminate, their margins minutely ciliate. Flowers: panicle densely flowered; peri...
-Fairy Bells. Disporum trachycarpum. Lily Family
Leaves: alternate, ovate or oval, acute at the apex, rounded at the base, five-to-eleven nerved, sessile. Flowers: terminal, one to three on long pedicels, greenish-white or greenish-yellow; perianth ...
-White Twisted-Stalk. Streptopus amplexifolius. Lily Family
Rootstock short, stout, horizontal, covered with thick fibrous roots. Stems: glabrous, branching below the middle. Leaves: acuminate at the apex, cordate-clasping at the base, glaucous beneath. Flower...
-White Moccasin Flower. Cypripcdium passcrinum. Orchid Family
Stems: stout, leafy. Leaves: Ovate, acuminate. Flowers: solitary or two; petals and sepals pale green; lip dull white, veined, and with bright red spots; anther ovate-triangulate, yellow with red spot...
-White Rein Orchis. Habenaria dilatata. Orchid Family
Stems: thick,.fleshy, one to two feet high. Leaves: lanceolate, obtuse. Flowers: spike long, white, very fragrant, bracted; sepals ovate, obtuse; lip entire, dilated; anther-sacs parallel; glands clos...
-Habenaria Obtusata, Northern Rein Orchis
Habenaria obtusata, or Northern Rein Orchis, is a delicate green and white Orchis that may always be known by its single basal leaf. It is very like a white and green Lily-of-the-Valley, and its flowe...
-Hooded Ladies' Tresses. Spiranthes Romanzofhana. Orchid Family
Root tuberous. Stems: glabrous, leafy below, bracted above. Leaves: oblong-lanceolate. Flowers: spike dense, in three rows, conspicuously bracted; perianth white, the petals and sepals all connivant, ...
-Stout Rattlesnake Plantain. Epipactis dccipiens. Orchid Family
Stems: scape glandular pubescent. Leaves: blotched with white, ovate. Flowers: galea concave, ovate, with a short, spreading, recurved tip; anther ovate, pointed on the base of the stigma into a gland...
-Heart-Leaved Twayblade. Listera cordata. Orchid Family
Root: fleshy-fibrous. Stems: very slender. Leaves: sessile, cordate, ovate, mucronate. Flowers: in racemes, minute pedicels bracted; sepals and petals oblong-linear, lip narrow, the segments setaceous...
-Early Coral Root. Corallorhiza trifida. Orchid Family
Root: coralloid, branching. Stems: glabrous, clothed with closely sheathing scales. Flowers: in long racemes on short minutely bracted pedicels; sepals and petals narrow, lip short; spur a sac adnate ...
-Common Nettle. Urtica Lyallii. Nettle Family
A herb with stinging hairs. Leaves: ovate, acute, coarsely serrate. Flowers: in loose, spreading, slender panicles. Fruit: an achene. The Common Nettle is too well known to require any description wi...
-White Comandra. Comandra pallida. Sandalwood Family
Stems: glaucous, slender, simple, very leafy. Leaves: linear, acute, sessile. Flowers: cymes several-flowered, corymbose, clustered at the summit, peduncles short. The Comandra is parasitic on the ro...
-Witch's Broom. Arceuthobium americanum. Mistletoe Family
Stems: slender, much branched. Flowers: the staminate and pistillate on separate plants, borne on terminal peduncle-like joints. Fruit: a fleshy, flattened berry borne on a short recurved peduncle. T...
-Tall Eriogonum. Eriogonum umbellatum var. majus. Buckwheat Family
Stems: depressed and shrubby below, much branched. Leaves: oblong, white tomentose below, green and glabrous above; peduncles six to fifteen inches high, naked, bearing a simple umbel of three to ten ...
-Mountain Sorrel. Oxyria digyna. Buckwheat Family
A low fleshy herb. Stems: slender, erect, simple. Leaves: reniform, undulate, the basal long-petioled. Flowers: in terminal panicled racemes. Fruit: an achene, pointed, smooth, surrounded by a broad m...
-Willow-Leaved Dock. Rumex salicifolius. Buckwheat Family
Stems: erect, ascending or spreading, simple or branched, grooved. Leaves: lanceolate, acute at both ends. Flowers: in dense clusters. Fruit: the faces of the achenes concave, smooth, shining, winged....
-Alpine Bistort. Polygonum viziparum. Buckwheat Family
Stems: slender, simple. Leaves: ovate, subcordate, attenuate at base; cauline leaves lanceolate. Flowers: raceme narrowly cylindric, densely flowered, bearing a number of ovoid-conic bulblets at base....
-Lamb's Quarters. Chenopodium album. Goosefoot Family
Stems: slender, erect, commonly much branched. Leaves: rhombic-ovate, the upper ones lanceolate, obtuse or acute. Flowers: bractless, densely clustered in a compound panicled spike; calyx segments str...
-Blunt-Leaved Sandwort. Arenaria lateriflora. Pink Family
Stems: erect, slender, simple or branched. Leaves: thin, oblong, obtuse, punctate, hairy on the margin and midrib. Flowers: petals oblong, obtuse, twice longer than the sepals. Fruit: a capsule. The ...
-Long-Stalked Stitchwort. Stellaria longipes. Pink Family
Stems: smooth. Leaves: ascending, linear-lanceolate. Flowers: few, on long slender pedicels; petals two-cleft; sepals ovate. Fruit: capsule ovoid. Seeds smooth. A pretty little plant, with whitish-gr...
-Field Mouse-Ear Chickweed. Cerostium arvense. Pink Family
Stems: erect, pubescent with reflexed hairs, cespitose, four to eight inches high. Leaves: linear-oblong, acute, clasping; bracts small. Flowers: cymose, few-flowered; petals five, obcordate. This is...
-Nodding Pink. Lychnis apetala. Pink Family
Stems: one-flowered. Leaves: linear, sessile. Flowers: nodding, petals narrow, two-cleft, included in the calyx, calyx inflated, its teeth triangular-ovate, acute. Fruit: a capsule. This Pink is an a...
-White Campion. Silene Macounii. Pink Family
Stems: slender, from a branching rootstock, minutely pubescent. Leaves; linear-oblanceolate. Flowers: few, on pedicels; calyx inflated, with short obtuse teeth; petals little exserted, with a broadly-...
-Lance-Leaved Spring Beauty. Claytonia lanceolata. Purslane Family
Stems: weak, from a tuber. Leaves: few, opposite, oblong. Flowers: in a loose raceme on slender pedicels, nodding, white or pale pink; veins rose; calyx of two ovate sepals; petals five; style three-c...
-Western Meadow Rue. Thalictrum occidentale. Crowfoot Family
Stems: slender, one to three feet high. Leaves: ternate, the lower ones petioled. Flowers: nodding on very slender pedicels in an ample open panicle; filaments purplish-green; anther linear, cuspidate...
-Chalice Cup. Anemone oeeidentalis. Crowfoot Family
Stems: erect, six to eighteen inches high. Leaves: large, long-petioled, biternate and pinnate. Flowers: large, solitary; petals none; sepals five to seven. Fruit: carpels with long filiform styles th...
-Anemone Multifield, Wind Flower
Anemone multifield, or Wind Flower, as this delicate little Anemone is called, appears on the dry meadows in the springtime in a vast variety of hues, with many blossoms and much fruit. Its colours ra...
-White Clematis. Clematis ligusticifolia. Crowfoot Family
Stems: somewhat pubescent. Leaves: quinate to quinate-ternate, leaflets oblong, acute, incisely lobed and trifid. Flowers: in paniculate corymbs. Fruit: achenes pubescent. The White Clematis has open...
-Alpine Marsh-Marigold. Caltha leptoscpala. Crowfoot Family
Stems: erect. Leaves: oblong-cordate, irregularly crenate-toothed. Flowers: sepals petaloid, lanceolate, acute. This plant is found chiefly in moist localities, and often grows abundantly in the wet ...
-White Globe Flower. Trollius laxus var. albiflorus. Crowfoot Family
Stems: weak, ascending. Leaves: palmately divided, the segments many-cleft. Flowers: solitary; sepals five to six, white, with a greenish tinge outside; petals fifteen to twenty-five, bright yellow, m...
-Red Baneberry. Actaea rubra. Crowfoot Family
Stems: one to six feet high from a fascicle of short branching roots. Leaves: ternate, the divisions pinnate, with the lower ultimate leaflets sometimes again compound, ovate, sometimes obscurely thre...
-White Whitlow Grass. Draba incana. Mustard Family
Stems: hoary, pubescent. Leaves: oblong-lanceolate, nearly entire. Flowers: petals notched; style minute. Fruit: pods acute, twisted when ripe, on short erect pedicels. A plant partaking of the appea...
-Penny Cress. Thlaspi arvense. Mustard Family
Stems: erect, glabrous. Leaves: petioled, oblanceolate, dentate; stem-leaves oblong. Flowers: white, pedicels spreading or curved upward. Fruit: pods nearly orbicular when ripe, broad, very flat, notc...
-Pepper Grass. Lepidium apetalum. Mustard Family
Stems: glabrous, wiry. Leaves: the basal ones pinnatifid, the upper ones smaller, dentate. Flowers: in long racemes. Fruit: seeds solitary in each cell, pendulous. This plant is nearly scentless, and...
-Shepherd's Purse. Capsella Bursa-past oris. Mustard Family
Stems: branching. Leaves: mostly runcinate-pinnatifid, cauline, lanceolate, auricled at base. Flowers: small, white, in long loose racemes; petals four; sepals four. Fruit: pods cuneate-triangular, tr...
-Northern Rock Cress. Braya humilis. Mustard Family
Stems: erect, branching below. Leaves: spatulate, the lower obtuse, sharply dentate, the upper smaller and narrower, acute. Flowers: on ascending pedicels. Fruit: pods terete, glabrous, linear. This ...
-Water Cress. Radicula Nasturtium-aquaticum. Mustard Family
Aquatic, glabrous; root fibrous. Stems: stout, hollow, rooting at the decumbent base. Leaves: pinnate, leaflets rounded or elongated, the terminal ones largest. Flowers: petals white; sepals four, ear...
-White Bitter Cress. Cardamine Pennsylvanica. Mustard Family
Stems: glabrous, erect, rather stout. Leaves: pinnately divided, the terminal segment oval and narrowed at the base, all toothed. Flowers: in corymbose racemes. Fruit: pods narrowly linear, erect when...
-Stony Rock Cress. Arabis Holbcellii. Mustard Family
Stems: erect, simple. Leaves: spatulate, petioled, entire or sparingly toothed; stem-leaves erect, clasping. Flowers: white or pinkish. Fruit: pods linear, drooping. Growing out of a cluster of long-...
-Round-Leaved Sundew. Drosera rotundifolia. Sundew Family
Stems: slender, glabrous. Leaves: orbicular, spreading on the ground. Flowers: in a one-sided raceme, four to twelve flowered. Fruit: seeds fusiform, pointed at both ends. This bog-herb has a quantit...
-Leptarrhena. Leptarrhena amplexifolia. Saxifrage Family
Stems: six to fifteen inches high, rigid, with one or two small leaves with sheathing petioles. Leaves: obovate coarsely serrate above the middle, attenuate below to a short-winged petiole, which is d...
-Western Boykinia. Boykinia occidentalis. Saxifrage Family
Stems: slender, erect or declined from a creeping somewhat woody caudex. Leaves: round-cordate, incisely lobed, on slender petioles with dilated base. Flowers: in elongated paniculate cymes. Fruit: a ...
-Common Saxifrage. Saxifraga bronchialis. Saxifrage Family
Stems: one to six inches high, ascending, slender, producing short branchlets. Leaves: coriaceous, lanceolate, mucronate, sessile, with a broad base finely ciliate. Flowers: few, in an open corymb on ...
-Saxifraga Nivalis, Alpine Saxifrage
Plate XXXIV Alpine Saxifrage (Saxifraga nivalis) Saxifraga nivalis, or Alpine Saxifrage, is a plant which grows at extremely high altitudes, as well as on the lower mountain slopes. It, too, has ...
-Nancy-Over-The-Ground. Tiarella unifoliata. Saxifrage Family
Stems: slender, spreading from running rootstocks. Leaves: simple, cordate, acute, obscurely five-to-seven lobed on long fine petioles. Flowers: numerous, in a narrow panicle; calyx cleft to near the ...
-Oval-Leaved Alum Root. Heuchera ovalifolia. Saxifrage Family
Stems: six to eighteen inches high, leafless. Leaves: ovate, cordate, crenate. Flowers: a greenish-cream, small, in terminal panicles, spikelike, cylindrical, two to four inches long; calyx campanulat...
-Tellima. Tellima grandiflora. Saxifrage Family
Stems: hispid-pubescent, from short tufted rootstocks. Leaves: round-cordate, three-to-nine lobed, coarsely toothed, on long petioles. Flowers: cream-colour, with rose-pink margins, on very short refl...
-Mitrewort. Mitella Brewcri. Saxifrage Family
Stems: pubescent with brownish hairs. Leaves: round-cordate, three-to-five lobed, toothed. Flowers: small, green, in simple spicate racemes; calyx short, campanulate; petals pectinately pinnate, with ...
-Marsh Grass Of Parnassus. Parnassia montanensis. Saxifrage Family
Stems: bearing one clasping ovate leaf. Leaves: ovate, petioled, obtuse at the apex, cordate at the base. Flowers: elliptic, few-veined; petals five; stamens numerous, in clusters at the base of each ...
-Bristly Gooseberry. Ribes setosum. Saxifrage Family
Stems: with infra-axillary spines, slender, spreading, sometimes none; bristles usually numerous, scattered. Leaves: slender-petioled, broadly ovate in outline, five-lobed, the lobes incised-dentate. ...
-Birch-Leaved Spiraea. Spircea lucida. Rose Family
Stems: erect, reddish, woody, one to two feet high. Leaves: lower ones small, obovate; upper ones oval, acutish, unequally serrate on short petioles. Flowers: cream-colour in compound corymbs; petals ...
-Goat's Beard. Aruncus sylvester. Rose Family
Stems: erect, bracted. Leaves: long-petioled, pinnate, three-to-seven foliolate; leaflets ovate, lanceolate, thin, acute at the apex, rounded at the base, sharply doubly serrate. Flowers: in long, sle...
-Alpine Spiraea. Lutkca pectinata. Rose Family
Stems: cespitose, creeping, very leafy; flowering stems erect. Leaves: trifoliolate, persistent: leaflets deeply lobed. Flowers: in short terminal racemes: calyx-lobes ovate, acute, equalling the tube...
-Common Serviceberry. Amclanchier florida. Rose Family
A shrub three to six feet high, more or less tomentose-pubescent when young, at length glabrate throughout and somewhat glaucous. Leaves: thick, broadly elliptic or orbicular, very obtuse, and often t...
-Wild Strawberry. Fragaria glauca. Rose Family
Stems: running, and forming new plants. Leaves: tufted from the root, villous-pubescent with spreading hairs, long-petioled, palmately-trifoliate; leaflets oval, obtuse, dentate, the terminal one cune...
-Tall Cinquefoil. Potentilla arguta. Rose Family
Stems: erect, stout, simple below. Leaves: seven-to-eleven foliolate; leaflets ovate, obtuse at the apex, - the terminal one cuneate, the others rounded at the base. Flowers: cyme strict, close; calyx...
-Capberry. Rubus parviflorus. Rose Family
Erect, branched, very slightly bristly. Leaves: petioled, simple, cordate at the base, three-to-five lobed, the lobes acute, the middle one slightly longer than the others, all coarsely and unequally ...
-Wood Nymph. Dryas octopetala. Rose Family
Stems: prostrate, woody at the base, branched. Leaves: oblong-ovate, coarsely crenate-toothed, obtuse at each end, green and glabrous above, densely white-canescent beneath, the veins prominent. Flowe...
-White Clover. Trifolium repens. Pea Family
Perennial, branching at the base, rooting at the nodes. Leaves: long-petioled; stipules narrow, lanceolate; leaflets obcordate, denticulate. Flowers: white or pinkish, in loose, globose long-peduncled...
-Indian Milk Vetch. Astragalus aboriginorum. Pea Family
Stems: finely glabrate, erect, branched. Leaves: leaflets linear, obtuse; stipules ovate, acute, foliaceous. Flowers: white, tinged with mauve in loose racemes; peduncles longer than the leaves; calyx...
-Lentil Vetch. Phaca americana. Pea Family
Stems: erect, nearly simple, tall, leafy, subglabrous. Leaves: leaflets seven-to-nine paired, ovate, and elliptic-oblong; peduncles equalling the leaves. Flowers: white, in a loose raceme. Fruit: pods...
-White Hedysarum. Hedysarum sulphur escens. Pea Family
This is a white species of H. boreale, a full description of which will be found in the Blue to Purple Section. Plate XXXIII Lentil Vetch (Phaca americana) ...
-White Vetchling. Lathyrus ochroleucus. Pea Family
Stems: slender, trailing. Leaves: leaflets in three to four pairs, ovate, distinctly petioled; stipules semi-cordate, entire. Flowers: seven-to-ten flowered, ochroleucus; tendrils branched. Fruit: pod...
-White Geranium. Geranium Richardsonii. Geranium Family
Stems: erect with slender branches, one to three feet high. Leaves: deeply five-to-seven-cleft, lobes sharply incised. Flowers: petals entire, hirsute at base; sepals glandular, pilose. This Geranium...
-Water Fennel. Callitriche palustris. Water Starwort Family
An aquatic herb. Stems: submerged ones linear, bifid at the apex; floating ones obovate, obtuse, dotted with stellate scales. Fruit: compressed, lobed, winged only towards the apex, separated by a dee...
-Mountain Lover. Pachistima Myrsinites. Staff Tree Family
Stems: densely branched. Leaves: opposite, ovate or lanceolate, cuneate at the base, the upper half serrate. Flowers: in axillary cymes. A low evergreen shrub with numerous branches and very pretty f...
-Canada Violet. Viola canadensis. Violet Family
Stems: glabrous, six inches to two feet high. Leaves: cordate, pointed, serrate; stipules entire. Flowers: petals white, tinged and veined with purple, sometimes nearly mauve-pink; spur very short; st...
-Alpine Willow-Herb. Epilobium alpinum. Evening Primose Family
Stems: erect with elongated internodes. Leaves: ellipical, petioled, slightly repand-denticulate, obtuse. Flowers: terminal in the upper axils. Fruit: a slender many-seeded capsule. This small Willow...
-Pacific Enchanter's Nightshade. Circaea pacifica. Evening Primrose Family
Stems: glabrous, simple. Leaves: ovate, rounded or cordate at the base, acute, repandly-denticulate. Flowers: calyx with a very short tube. Fruit: capsule obovate, two-valved, with a simple erect seed...
-Spiked Water Milfoil. Myriophyllum spicatum. Water Milfoil Family
Submerged leaves: in whorls of fours and fives, dissected into capillary divisions. Floral leaves: ovate, entire or serrate, usually shorter than the flowers, or sometimes none. Flowers: white, in spi...
-Bottle Brush. Hippuris vulgaris. Water Milfoil Family
Stems: slender, glabrous. Leaves: linear or lanceolate, acute, sessile, in crowded verticles of six to twelve, more or less sphacelate at the apex. Flowers: small, axillary; calyx-limb minute, entire;...
-Wild Sarsaparilla. Aralia nudicaulis. Ginseng Family
Stems: scarcely rising out of the ground, smooth. Leaves: compound, leaflets oblong-ovate, pointed, serrate. Flowers: in umbels. The somewhat woody stems of this plant are extremely short and have a ...
-Devil's Club. Fatsia horrida. Ginseng Family
Stems: stout, two to twelve feet high, decumbent at the base, leafy at the summit, very prickly throughout. Leaves: palmately lobed. Flowers: the greenish-white capitate umbels in a long dense raceme;...
-Crisp-Leaved Sweet Cicely. Osmorhiza obtusa. Parsley Family
Stems: glabrous. Leaves: ternately compound, leaflets ovate, acuminate, the teeth mucronate. Flowers: in few-rayed umbels. Fruit: with prominent caudate attenuation at base, ribs equal. This plant ha...
-Fern-Leaved Lovage. Ligusticum apiifolium. Parsley Family
Roots large, aromatic. Stems: thick. Leaves: radical, ternate, or biternate, then once or twice pinnate, the segments ovate, laciniately pinnatifid. Flowers: in umbels of numerous rays, with involucre...
-Large-Seeded Parsley. Lomatium macrocarpum. Parsley Family
Stems: nearly stemless. Leaves: compound, leaflets pinnately incised, on rather short petioles. Flowers: in a somewhat unequally three-to-ten-rayed umbel. Fruit: flattened dorsally, oblong, laterally ...
-Cow Parsnip. Heracleum lanatum. Parsley Family
Stems: very stout, tomentose-pubescent, rigid. Leaves: petioled, ter-nately divided, the segments broadly ovate, cordate, stalked, lobed and sharply serrate; petioles much inflated. Flowers: umbels ma...
-Bunchberry. Cornus canadensis. Dogwood Family
Stems: erect. Leaves: verticillate at the summit of the stem, sessile, oval, pinnately veined, acute at each end, entire; bracts in-volucral, white. Flowers: greenish, capitate. Fruit: red, globose. ...
-One-Flowered Wintergreen. Monescs uniflora. Heath Family
Stems: bearing three whorls of leaves at the base, continued above into a bracted scape. Leaves: orbicular, petioled, serrulate. Flowers: solitary, drooping; petals five, widely spreading, sessile; st...
-Green-Flowered Wintergreen. Pyrola chlorantha. Heath Family
Stems: three-to-ten flowered. Leaves: small, orbicular, coriaceous, not shining. Flowers: nodding; calyx-lobes short, ovate, acute; petals very obtuse; stamens declined; anthers distinctly contracted ...
-Striped Allotropa. Allotropa virgata. Heath Family
Stems: several from a deep-seated perennial rootstock. Leaves: none, bracts scaly. Flowers: corolla none, calyx of five rounded sepals, erosely dentate. Fruit: capsule globose, seeds minute, scobilifo...
-Indian Pipe
Monotropa uniiiora. Heath Family Stems: smooth, fleshy, scaly. Leaves: none. Flowers: oblong, bell-shaped, nodding, two to four sepals, four to five scale-like petals. Fruit: capsule erect, many seede...
-Pine Drops. Pterospora Andromedca. Heath Family
Stems: scape bracted, grooved, densely covered with viscid hairs. Leaves: none, bracts lanceolate or linear, very numerous, crowded at the base. Flowers: numerous, racemose. Fruit: capsule globose-ovo...
-Newberrya. Newberrya congesta. Heath Family
Stems: scapes four to eight inches high. Leaves: none, scales crowded or loosely imbricated, obtuse. Flowers: greenish, brownish, reddish, in a terminal cluster. Fruit: ovary ovate, contracted at the ...
-Woolly Labrador Tea. Ledum groenlandicum. Heath Family
Stems: erect or ascending, the bractlets rusty-tomentose. Leaves: oblong, obtuse, green and slightly rugose above, densely tomentose beneath, the wool soon ferruginous, and the margins strongly revolu...
-Mountain Rhododendron. Rhododendron albiflorum. Heath Family
Leaves: membranaceous, oblong, obscurely undulate. Flowers: from separate one-to-three flowered, lateral, scaly, cone-like buds below the leaves; calyx five-parted, the divisions more or less foliaceo...
-White Mountain Heather. Bryanthus glanduliflorus. Heath Family
Stems: rigid, fastigiately branched. Leaves: numerous, crowded, but somewhat spreading, linear-oblong, obtuse, narrowed at the base to a short petiole. Flowers: corolla short-lobed, glabrous. The flo...
-White Heath. Cassiope Mertensiana. Heath Family
Stems: rather stout, rigid, ascending with fastigiate branches, low-growing. Leaves: glabrous, carinate, and not furrowed on the back, imbricated in four ranks; corolla five-lobed. The beautiful whit...
-Red-Berried Gaultheria. Gaultheria ovatifolia. Heath Family
Stems: depressed, trailing, with ascending branches. Leaves: broadly ovate, serrulate. Flowers: on short solitary pedicels in the axils of the leaves. Fruit: a berry. Plate XL White Heath (Casslo...
-Sweet Androsace. Androsace Chamaejasme. Primrose Family
Stems: slender. Leaves: in more or less open rosnlate tufts, one-nerved, ovate. Flowers: in capitate umbels. The sweet smell of these delicate little clustered blossoms, that grow from one to three i...
-Star-Flower. Trientalis arctica. Primrose Family
Rootstock creeping, sending up many stem-like branches, which are naked below, the leaves all in a verticil of five to ten at the summit. Leaves: membranous, lanceolate, acuminate at both ends, sessil...
-Marsh Buckbean. Menyanthes trifoliata. Gentian Family
Rootstock: thick, scaly, marked by the scars of bases of former petioles. Leaves: trifoliate, leaflets oblong, entire, obtuse at the apex, narrowed to the sessile base. Flowers: in a raceme borne on a...
-Mist Maidens. Romanzofha sitchensis. Water-leaf Family
Stems: slender, scape-like, ascending or spreading. Leaves: round-reniform, three-to-seven lobed on slender petioles. Flowers: in a loose terminal raceme; corolla funnel-form, the broad lobes rounded....
-White Lousewort. Pedicularis racemosa. Figwort Family
Stems: glabrous, leafy to the top. Leaves: all cauline, lanceolate, undivided, finely serrulate. Flowers: few, in short leafy racemes; calyx oblique, deeper cleft before than behind, the lobes abruptl...
-Common Plantain. Plantago major. Plantain Family
Rootstock short, thick, erect. Leaves: spreading, ovate, entire; spike dense, obtuse at apex. Flowers: perfect, proterogynous; sepals broadly ovate, scarious on the margins. Fruit: pyxis seeded, circu...
-Northern Bedstraw. Galium boreale. Madder Family
Stems: smooth, branched, leafy. Leaves: in fours, linear, acute. Flowers: in terminal panicles, dense, many-flowered in small compact cymes. Fruit: hispid. The Northern Bedstraw may be distinguished ...
-Snowberry. Symphoricarpus racemosus var. pauciftorus. Honeysuckle Family
Leaves: opposite, broadly oval, entire, softly pubescent. Flowers: solitary in the upper axils, and two or three in the terminal spike; corolla campanulate, five-lobed, bearded within; stamens and sty...
-Arrow-Wood. Viburnum pauciflorum. Honeysuckle Family
Leaves: broadly oval, obovate, with three rather shallow lobes above the middle, coarsely and unequally dentate, glabrous above, more or less pubescent beneath. Flowers: white, in compound cymes, all ...
-Red-Eerried Elder. Sambucus racemosa. Honeysuckle Family
Stems: woody. Leaves: pinnately compound; leaflets lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, sharply serrate. Flowers: in thyrsoid cymes, white to yellowish. Fruit: small, scarlet. This shrub, which grows f...
-Northern Heliotrope. Valeriana septentrionalis. Valerian Family
Stems: erect from creeping rootstocks. Leaves: basal, oblong, entire; stem-leaves petioled, three-to-seven foliolate, the divisions entire. Flowers: cymose, paniculate, more or less dimorphous; coroll...
-White Aster. Aster eommutatus. Composite Family
Stems: bushy, branched. Leaves: rigid, linear, entire, obtuse, sessile, uppermost passing into involucral bracts. Flowers: in densely crowded heads. Wild Heliotrope (Valeriana sitchensis) These c...
-Fern-Leaved Fleabane. Erigeron compositus. Composite Family
Stems: short, densely leafy. Leaves: fan-shaped in outline, parted into linear spatulate lobes on long petioles; herbage hirsute and rather viscidulous. Flowers: rays forty to sixty, white; disk-flowe...
-White Everlasting. Antennaria racemosa. Composite Family
Freely surculose by long, slender, sparsely-leafy stolons, lightly woolly. Stems: bearing numerous racemosely-disposed heads. Leaves: broadly oval, acute at each end, densely tomentose beneath, green ...
-Pearly Everlasting. Amaphalis margaritacea. Composite Family
Stems: floccose, woolly, corymbosely branched at the summit, leafy. Leaves: linear, lanceolate, green pubescent above, woolly below. Flowers: in numerous heads; involucre campanulate, its bracts ovate...
-Yarrow. Achillea lanulosa. Composite Family
Stems: simple, or corymbosely branched above. Leaves: narrowly oblong, bipinnately dissected into numerous small linear divisions. Flowers: in numerous heads crowded in a fas-tigiate cyme. A plant, o...
-Ox-Eye Daisy. Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum. Composite Family
Stems: glabrous, simple, the branches nearly erect. Leaves: obovate, oblong, coarsely dentate; stem-leaves sessile, partly clasping, linear, pin-nately incised, the uppermost very small, nearly entire...
-Pasture Wormwood. Artemisia frigida. Composite Family
Stems: simple or branching, silky-canescent and silvery all over, herbaceous from a suffrutescent base. Leaves: twice ternately or quinately divided into linear crowded lobes. Flowers: numerous racemo...
-Palm-Leaved Coltsfoot. Petasites palmatus. Composite Family
Stems: scaly, stout. Leaves: orbicular in outline, deeply seven-to-eleven cleft, green and glabrous above, densely white tomentose beneath. Flowers: in a fastigiate panicle. The chief distinction bet...
-White Thistle
Carduus Kelseyi. Composite Family. Stems: tall, striate. Leaves: alternate, linear, sinuately toothed. Flowers: heads in a leafy spike subtended by linear, cut, bristly-fringed, cobweb-hairy leaves. ...
-Section V. Pink To Red Flowers. Pink Garlic. Allium cernuum. Lily Family
Bulbs clustered on a short rootstock, narrowly ovoid, with a long neck. Stems: scape slender. Leaves: linear, channeled, or nearly flat. Flowers: umbel many-flowered, nodding, subtended by two short d...
-Pink Twisted-Stalk. Streptopus roseus. Lily Family
Stems: from a short stout rootstock covered with fibrous roots, simple or sparingly branched. Leaves: lanceolate to ovate, abruptly acuminate, sessile by a broad, rounded, clasping base, the margins f...
-Short-Stemmed Twisted-Stalk. Kruhsea streptopoides. Lily Family
Stems: smooth, simple, from an extensively creeping rhizome with a few fibrous roots at each node. Leaves: ovate-lanceolate, acute, the upper sessile, the lower clasping at the base. Flowers: stellate...
-Fly-Spotted Orchis. Orchis rotundifolia. Orchid Family
Stems: slender. Leaves: leaf solitary, orbicular to oval, with one or two sheathing scales below it. Flowers: spike two-to-ten flowered, subtended by small bracts; sepals lateral ones spreading; petal...
-Calypso. Calypso bulbosa. Orchid Family
Stems: with two or three membranaceous sheaths, and a linear bract at the summit Leaves: leaf solitary, broadly ovate, petioled. Flowers: drooping, pedicelled; sepals and petals lanceolate, acuminate,...
-Swamp Persicaria
Polygonum Muhlenbergii. Buckwheat Family. An aquatic herb, perennial by long creeping or horizontal rootstocks. Stems: erect, commonly simple, channelled, enlarged at the nodes. Leaves: oblong-lanceo...
-Moss Campion. Silene acaulis. Pink Family
Closely caespitose, one to two inches high. Leaves: linear, crowded. Flowers: small, solitary, subsessile or slightly raised on naked curved peduncles; calyx narrowly campanulate; petals pink, purple ...
-Bitter-Root. Lewisia rediviva. Purslane Family
Stems: scape short, jointed, bracteolate near the middle. Leaves: linear-oblong, subterete, smooth, glaucous. Flowers: sepals six to eight, distinct, broadly ovate, unequal, partly scarious, petals ei...
-Striped Oreobroma. Oreobroma cotyledon. Purslane Family
Stems: scapose, stout, from a fleshy root. Leaves: flat, spatulate to oblanceolate. Flowers: in a short cymose panicle, sepals two, persistent, petals five to ten, oblanceolate. Fruit: capsule obscure...
-Western Columbine. Aquilegia formosa. Crowfoot Family
Stems: branching from a simple, fleshy, fusiform root. Leaves: lower ones triternate on long petioles, upper ones sessile or reduced to simple bracts; leaflets broadly cuneate, three-cleft. Flowers: r...
-Wild Bleeding-Heart. Dicentra formosa. Fumitory Family
Stems: from the apex of thick, almost naked, creeping rootstocks. Leaves: twice or thrice ternately compound, the ultimate divisions narrow and incisely pinnatifid. Flowers: pale magenta, in compound ...
-Lyall's Rock Cress. Arabis Lyallii. Mustard Family
Stems: simple, more or less stellate-pubescent, from a branched perennial caudex. Leaves: the lower spatulate, the stem leaves lanceolate. Flowers: in rose-mauve racemes. Fruit: seeds orbicular, narro...
-Rosewort. Sedum roseum. Orpine Family
Stems: erect,simple, glabrous. Leaves: oval, obtuse at the apex, dentate. Flowers: cyme terminal dense; petals longer than the oblong narrow sepals; staminate flowers with eight stamens, the pistillat...
-Woodland Star. Lithophragma tenella. Saxifrage Family
Stems: slightly glandular-pubescent. Leaves: trifoliolate, leaflets two to three parted, two to three lobed segments cuneiform. Flowers: few in a capitate bulblet-bearing raceme. Fruit: seeds short-ob...
-Skunk Currant. Ribes laxiiiorum. Saxifrage Family
Stems: caespitose, erect or ascending. Leaves: triangular, truncate or cordate at the base, deeply five-lobed, doubly serrate. Flowers: five to fifteen flowered, raceme finely pubescent, calyx rotate,...
-Pink Spiraea. Spiraea dcnsiftora. Rose Family
Stems: reddish-brown. Leaves: ovate to elliptic, serrulate at the apex, entire below, narrowed to a very short petiole. Flowers: small in dense leafy-bracted corymbs terminating the branches. Fruit: f...
-Long-Plumed Avens. Geum triflorum. Rose Family
Stems: scape simple, three-flowered at the summit. Leaves: basal ones tufted, petioled, interruptedly pinnate, with many small leaflets interspersed among the numerous obovate larger ones; leaves of t...
-Arctic Raspberry. Rubus arcticus. Rose Family
Stems: erect, branched at base. Leaves: trifoliolate; leaflets sessile, rhombic-ovate, unequally serrate. Flowers: solitary; sepals acute, equalling the obovate entire petals. Fruit: light red, of sev...
-Prickly Rose. Rosa acicularis. Rose Family
Stems: densely prickly. Leaves: pinnate; leaflets large, five to seven, oval-lanceolate, coarsely toothed. Flowers: solitary; petals pink, broadly obovate; sepals entire, acuminate, persistent and ere...
-Red Clover. Trifolium pratense. Pea Family
Stems: ascending, somewhat hairy; pistules broadly lanceolate, membranaceous, nerved, setaceously acuminate. Leaves: leaflets obcordate, nearly entire. Flowers: heads ovate, dense, nearly sessile, bra...
-Mackenzie's Hedysarum. Hedysarum Mackenzie. Pea Family
Stems: suberect, simple or branched, minutely pubescent. Leaves: five to eight pairs, oblong. Flowers: seven to thirty, loosely flowered; bracts subulate; teeth of the calyx as long as the tube. A br...
-Carolina Crane's Bill. Geranium carolinianum. Geranium Family
Stems: erect, much branched from the base. Leaves: petioled, reni-form-orbicular in outline, deeply cleft into five to nine oblong, cuneate, lobed segments. Flowers: in compact clusters; petals pink, ...
-Great Willow-Herb. Epilobium angustifolium. Evening Primrose Family
Stems: erect, simple or branched, glabrous. Leaves: alternate, lanceolate, entire, pale beneath, acute at the apex, narrowed at the base, thin. Flowers: magenta, in terminal spike-like racemes; petals...
-Pipsissewa. Chimpalphila umbellata. Heath Family
Stems: extensively training, horizontally subterranean. Leaves: spatulate, sharply serrate. Flowers: several, umbellate or subcorym-bose. Fruit: an erect globose capsule. The trailing stems of the Pi...
-Bog Wintergreen. Pyrola asarifolia. Heath Family
Stems: scape six-to-twelve flowered. Leaves: coriaceous, shining above, reniform, wider than long, crenulate. Flowers: racemose, nodding; petals five, obtuse; calyx five-parted, persistent, the lobes ...
-Smooth Menziesia. Menziesia glabella. Heath Family
Leaves: alternate, obovate, obtuse and glandnlar-mucronate at the apex, pale glaucous and glabrous beneath, sparingly pubescent above, the margins entire, crenulate, ciliolate. Flowers: one to five in...
-Trailing Alpine Azalea. Loiseleuria procumbens. Heath Family
Stems: tufted, much branched, diffuse. Leaves: mostly opposite, linear-oblong, crowded, entire, the margins strongly revolute. Flowers: one to five from terminal coriaceous buds. Fruit: a capsule, sub...
-Swamp Laurel. Kalmia polifolia. Heath Family
Branches glabrous, ascending. Leaves: opposite, nearly sessile, linear-oblong, margins strongly revolute. Flowers: in simple terminal umbels; bracts large; sepals ovate, much imbricated, persistent. ...
-Red Mountain Heather. Bryanthus empctriformis. Heath Family
Densely much branched from the base. Leaves: strongly revolute, thickened and rough margins. Flowers: umbellate, subtended by folia-ceous and rigid bracts; corolla deep rose colour, campanulate, five-...
-Red Bearberry. Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi. Heath Family
Diffusely much branched, and rooting at the nodes. Leaves: oblong-spatulate, obtuse, tapering into a short petiole. Flowers: few, in short racemes; corolla ovoid, constricted at the throat. Fruit: glo...
-Oval-Leaved Blueberry. Vactinium ovalifolium. Huckleberry Family
Leaves: alternate, oval, short-petioled, glabrous on both sides, rounded at both ends or somewhat narrowed at the base, thin, entire. Flowers: white and pink, commonly solitary in the axils on rather ...
-Bird's Eye Primrose. Primula farinosa. Primrose Family
Leaves: oblong, obtuse at the apex, narrowed at the base, tapering into petioles, the margins crenulate. Flowers: umbellate; bracts of the involucre acute; calyx-lobes acute, often mealy; corolla salv...
-Shooting Star. Dodecatheon panciflorum. Primrose Family
Stems: scape glabrous. Leaves: lanceolate, entire. Flowers: segments of the corolla rich purple-pink, the undivided part yellow, with a scalloped ring of deep purple midway between the base of the seg...
-Spreading Dogbane. Apocynum androsccmifolium. Dogbane Family
Stems: one to three feet high, branches broadly spreading, smooth. Leaves: ovate or oval, opposite, entire, smooth above, usually hairy beneath. Flowers: open-campanulate, five-parted, lobes revolute....
-Alpine Phlox. Phlox Douglasii. Polemonium Family
Stems: rather slender, ascending or erect. Leaves: acerose to linear-subulate, pubescent to nearly glabrous, often ciliate near the base, loosely imbricated. Flowers: sessile or short-peduncled. Fruit...
-Scarlet Gilia. Gilia aggregata. Polemonium Family
Stems: erect, leafy, simple or sometimes loosely branched. Leaves: pinnately parted into narrowly linear segments, mucronulate. Flowers: calyx glandular, tube campanulate, as long as the subulate teet...
-Wild Bergamot. Monarda fistulosa. Mint Family
Stems: branched, rough-hairy. Leaves: ovate-lanceolate, serrate, pubescent, especially beneath. Flowers: calyx slightly curved, very hairy in the throat, corolla elongated, two lipped, lips linear, so...
-Red Monkey Flower
Mimuhts Lewisii. Figwort Family Stems: numerous, pubescent, viscid. Leaves: oblong-ovate to lanceolate, denticulate, acute. Flowers: peduncles longer than the leaves; calyx long, campanulate, its tria...
-Red Indian Paint Brush. Castilleja miniata. Figwort Family
Stems: numerous and tufted on a short rootstock, mostly simple and strict. Leaves: lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acute, entire. Flowers: spikes short and dense; corolla long; galea exserted, longer ...
-Western Wood Betony. Pcdicularis bracteosa. Figwort Family
Stems: stout, high, erect, simple. Leaves: linear in outline, the radical ones petioled, pinnate, the oblong leaflets pinnately parted, the segments incisely dentate, cauline broader in outline; bract...
-Smooth-Leaved Honeysuckle. Lonicera glaucescens. Honeysuckle Family
Twining, the branches glabrous. Leaves: chartaceous-margined, not ciliate, only the upper pair connate-perfoliate. Flowers: verticillate in a short, terminal, interrupted spike; corolla yellow changin...
-Northern Twin Flower. Linnaea borealis var. americana. Honeysuckle Family
Branches slender, trailing. Leaves: obscurely crenate, thick, sometimes wider than long. Flowers: two-flowered, nodding; peduncles slender, erect, two-bracted at the summit; calyx-tube five-lobed; cor...
-Canada Heliotrope. Valeriana Scouleri. Valerian Family
Stems: stout. Leaves: the basal on long petioles, oblong, three-lobed, tapering to both ends, the lateral lanceolate; stem leaves two to four pairs, pinnately parted in five to seven segments, lanceol...
-Rough Fleabane. Erigeron glabellas. Composite Family
Perennial by a woody root. Stems: simple or branched above, sometimes hirsute. Leaves: pubescent, entire, the basal ones spatulate; stem-leaves oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or acute. Flowers: heads sever...
-Pink Everlasting. Antennaria rosea. Composite Family
Floccose-woolly, surculose, forming broad patches. Leaves: basal ones spatulate or obovate, white-canescent on both sides; stem-leaves linear, sessile. Flowers: heads in a terminal capitate or corymbo...
-Section VI. Blue To Purple Flowers. Purple Garlic. Allium Schoenoprasum var. sibiricum. Lily Family
Bulbs narrowly ovoid, clustered. Stems: scape rather stout, bearing below the middle one or two elongated, linear, terete, hollow leaves; other leaves basal; bracts of the umbel two, broadly ovate. Fl...
-Stiff Blue-Eyed Grass. Sisyrinchium angustifolium. Iris Family
Stems: two-edged, slender, erect, rigid. Leaves: commonly all basal, linear, rigid, almost setaceous, bracts two, very unequal, erect, the lower one twice as long as the upper one. Flowers: six segmen...
-Pasque Flower. Anemone patens var. Wolfgangiana. Crowfoot Family
Stems: erect, villous with long silky hairs. Leaves: ternately divided, the lateral divisions two-parted, the middle one stalked and three-parted, the segments deeply cleft into linear acute lobes. Fl...
-Purple Clematis. Clematis columbiana. Crowfoot Family
A trailing and partly climbing vine. Leaves: trifoliolate; leaflets thin, ovate, acute, more or less cordate, slightly toothed or entire; petioles slender. Flowers: solitary; sepals thin and transluce...
-Blue Columbine. Aquilcgia brevistyla. Crowfoot Family
Stems: slender, erect, branching. Leaves: basal ones biternate, lobed and crenate; stem-leaves few, nearly sessile. Flowers: small, nodding, blue and white; spurs short. The smallest of the mountain ...
-Mountain Larkspur. Delphinium Brownii. Crowfoot Family
Stems: tall from a fascicle of thick roots. Leaves: numerous, mostly orbicular in outline, five-to-seven parted, the lower into cuneate and the upper into narrower-cleft and laciniate divisions, petio...
-Mountain Saxifrage. Saxifraga oppositifolia. Saxifrage Family
Stems: prostrate, densely leafy. Leaves: sessile, ovate, nearly orbicular, persistent, keeled, fleshy, opposite or imbricated in four rows, the margins ciliate. Flowers: solitary, nearly sessile; caly...
-Purple Cinquefoil. Potentilla palustris. Rose Family
Stems: stout, ascending from a decumbent rooting perennial base. Leaves: pinnate, oblong, serrate. Flowers: few in an open cyme. Fruit: achenes glabrous, hairy receptacle becoming large and spongy. T...
-Alpine Lupin. Lupinus subalpinus. Pulse Family
Stems: simple, leafy. Leaves: palmately divided, leaflets spatulate-oblanceolate, obtuse, villous beneath, glabrous above. Flowers: in a terminal raceme, keel glabrous. Fruit: pod linear-oblong, obliq...
-Ascending Milk Vetch. Astragalus adsurgens. Pea Family
Stems: rather stout, ascending or decumbent. Leaves: odd-pinnate; leaflets oval to linear-oblong, obtuse, fifteen to twenty-five, peduncles exceeding the leaves. Flowers: erect, in short dense spikes;...
-Alpine Oxytrope. Oxytropis viscida. Pea Family
Stems: viscid-pubescent. Leaves: odd-pinnate; leaflets in numerous pairs, oblong-lanceolate, somewhat acute. Flowers: peduncles longer than the leaves; spikes subcylindrical; teeth of the calyx subula...
-Purple Hedysarum. Hedysarum boreale. Pea Family
Stems: erect, glabrous, generally simple. Leaves: odd-pinnate, short-petioled; leaflets oblong, obtuse, and often mucronate at the apex. Flowers: in long loose racemes, deflexed. Purple Heydsarum...
-Cow Vetch. Vicia Cracca. Pea Family
Stems: tufted, slender, weak, climbing or trailing. Leaves: pinnate, tendril-bearing, nearly sessile; leaflets eighteen to twenty-four, linear, obtuse, mucronate; peduncles axillary. Flowers: in spike...
-Marsh Vetchling. Lathyrus palustris. Pea Family
Stems: angled, winged, slender. Leaves: leaflets two to four pairs, lanceolate, oblong, pointed at the apex, rounded at the base. Flowers: style dilated and flattened above, hairy along the inner side...
-Wild Flax. Linum Lewisii. Flax Family
Stems: slender, erect. Leaves: crowded, sessile, oval-linear, acute. Flowers: on long pedicels; sepals oval, obtuse; petals five, large, blue, fugacious. A slender dainty plant, which bends and bows ...
-Crowberry. Empetrum nigrum. Crowberry Family
Much branched, the branches spreading, densely leafy. Leaves: linear-oblong, crowded, thick, obtuse, the strongly revolute margins roughish. Flowers: very small, purplish, solitary in the upper axils;...
-Early Violet. Viola nephrophylla. Violet Family
Acaulescent. Rootstocks short and thick. Leaves: long-petioled, cordate, with a broad sinus, the early ones reniform, the latter ones acute or acuminate, crenately toothed. Flowers: large; petals vill...
-Cut-Leaved Angelica. Leptotaenia multifield. Parsley Family
Stems: from a large fusiform rootstock. Leaves: pinnately decompound. Flowers: in large umbels. Fruit: oblong-elliptical, carpel with dorsal and intermediate ribs. The stems of this handsome Angelica...
-Macoun's Gentian. Gentiana Macounii. Gentian Family
Stems: slender, simple. Leaves: linear. Flowers: solitary at the ends of elongated erect peduncles; calyx-lobes lanceolate, acuminate, their mid-ribs decurrent on the tube; corolla narrowly-campanulat...
-Gentiana Propinqua, or Four-parted Gentian
Gentiana propinqua, or Four-parted Gentian, is somewhat like the preceding species, but has larger, brighter blue flowers, which are not nearly so closely clustered together; and it is a much more gra...
-Spurred Gentian. Halenia deftexa. Gentian Family
Stems: single or branched, slender, erect. Leaves: the basal ones obovate or spatulate, obtuse, narrowed into petioles, the stem ones ovate, acute sessile, the uppermost smaller. Flowers: terminal and...
-Blue Greek Valerian. Polemonium confertum. Polemonium Family
Stems: from a tufted rootstock. Leaves: alternate, leaflets mostly two to three divided, the divisions from round-oval to oblong-linear. Flowers: dense, corolla with rounded lobes. Fruit: ovules three...
-Mountain Phacelia. Phacelia sericea. Water-leaf Family
Stems: simple, virgate, canescent, leafy to the top. Leaves: pinnately parted into numerous linear and again pinnatifid divisions, silky-canes-cent. Flowers: in short spikes, crowded in a naked spike-...
-False Forget-Me-Not. Lappula Horibunda. Borage Family
Stems: soft-hirsute, rather strict. Leaves: oblong to linear entire, sessile. Flowers: in numerous racemes, nearly erect, densely flowered; corolla funnel-form, five-lobed. Fruit: nutlets keeled, papi...
-Mountain Forget-Me-Not. Myosotis alpestris. Borage Family
Stems: erect, tufted. Leaves: oblong, linear. Flowers: in dense racemes; calyx five-parted, hirsute; corolla salver-form, the throat with small blunt crests at the base of the rounded lobes. This is ...
-Tall Lungwort. Mertensia paniculata. Borage Family
Rough-pubescent. Stems: erect, branched above, the branches slender. Leaves: thin, pinnately veined, those of the stem ovate-lanceolate, acuminate; basal leaves ovate, rounded. Flowers: several-flower...
-Dragon Head. Dracocephalum parviflorum. Mint Family
Stems: erect, leafy. Leaves: ovate-lanceolate, sharply cut-toothed. Flowers: in whorls, crowded in a terminal spike. The leafy erect stems of this plant are crowned with dense whorled spikes of small...
-Heart Of The Earth. Prunella vulgaris. Mint Family
Stems: numerous, slender, erect or procumbent, usually simple. Leaves: thin, ovate or oblong, obtuse, entire or crenate. Flowers: in dense, bracted, terminal and axillary spikes; calyx cylindraceous, ...
-Woundwort. Stachys palustris. Mint Family
Stems: erect, strict, simple, retrorse-hispid on the angles. Leaves: firm, lanceolate, oblong, almost sessile, acute at the apex, subcordate at the base, dentate. Flowers: in clusters, forming an elon...
-Canada Mint. Mentha canadensis. Mint Family
Stems: erect, simple or branched. Leaves: oblong, acute, sharply serrate. Flowers: all in short and dense, sessile, axillary glomerules; calyx oblong-campanulate, pubescent, five-toothed; corolla irre...
-Blue-Eyed Mary. Collinsia tenella. Figwort Family
Stems: very slender and weak. Leaves: oblong or lanceolate, mostly obtuse at the apex and narrowed at the base, entire or sparingly toothed, the lower ones opposite, the upper ones in whorls. Flowers:...
-Large Purple Beard-Tongue. Penstemon fruticosus. Figwort Family
Stems: decumbent, defusely spreading, woody at the base. Leaves: ovate or lanceolate, serrulate or entire. Flowers: in glandular hairy terminal racemes, calyx five-parted, corolla tubular, moderately ...
-Alpine Speedwell. Veronica alpina var. unalaschensis. Figwort Family
Stems: erect, slender, usually simple. Leaves: oblong, ovate, sessile, mostly rounded at both ends, nearly entire. Flowers: in a short narrow raceme; corolla rotate, its tube very short, deeply four-l...
-Butterwort. Pinguicula vulgaris. Bladderwort Family
Stems: scape glabrous, tall. Leaves: from three to seven in a rosette at the base of the scape, entire, ovate, obtuse. Flowers: one-flowered; calyx five-parted; corolla bilabiate, the upper lip two-cl...
-One-Flowered Cancer-Root. Orobanche uniflora. Broom-rape Family
Stems: one inch long, subterranean or nearly so. Leaves: none. Flowers: solitary, without bracts, corolla with a long curved tube spreading into two lips, five lobed, yellow bearded within. Fruit: cap...
-Boschniakia. Boschniakia strobilacea. Broom-rape Family
Stems: four to twelve inches high. Leaves: none. Flowers: calyx short with two setaceous bractlets at base, irregular, the teeth subulate from a broad base, corolla ventricon, upper lip erect. Fruit: ...
-Harebell. Campanula rotundifolia. Campanula Family
Stems: slender, erect, simple or branched. Leaves: basal ones orbicular or broadly ovate to cordate; cauline ones sessile, linear. Flowers: buds erect on slender pedicels, flowers drooping or spreadin...
-Brook Lobelia. Lobelia Kalmii. Lobelia Family
Stems: leafy, glabrous, paniculately branched. Leaves: lower ones spatulate, obtuse, almost entire; upper ones sessile, linear, acute. Flowers: in loose racemes; calyx-tube turbinate, hemispheric, lob...
-Large Purple Aster. Aster conspicuus. Composite Family
Stems: stout, rigid. Leaves: ovate, oblong, acute, serrate, veiny. Flowers: in numerous corymbosely cymose heads; involucre broadly campanulate, its bracts in several series; rays in a single series, ...
-Blue Fleabane. Erigeron acris. Composite Family
Stems: hirsute-pubescent, slender, simple or branched. Leaves: pubescent, entire, the lower ones spatulate, the upper ones oblong, sessile; involucre hemispheric, its bracts linear, hirsute. Flowers: ...
-Purple Saussurea. Saussurea densa. Composite Family
Stems: nearly smooth with a decumbent base. Leaves: thin, oblong, lanceolate, acuminate, sinuate-dentate. Flowers: several in a corymb. This plant grows chiefly on stony slopes and in other dry place...
-Wavy-Leaved Thistle. Carduus undulatus. Composite Family
Persistently white-tomentose throughout. Stems: stout, leafy. Leaves: lanceolate in outline, acute, sessile, undulate, lobed, the lobes dentate, triangular, very prickly. Flowers: solitary at the ends...
-Chicory. Cichorium Intybus. Composite Family
Stems: branching. Leaves: stem-leaves oblong or lanceolate, partly clasping, the lower spatulate. Flowers: sessile, axillary or terminal. Fruit: achenes striate, pappus of numerous small chaffy scales...
-Section VII. Yellow To Orange Flowers. Western Skunk Cabbage. Lysichiton kamtschatcense. Arum Family
Rootstock: horizontal, thick. Leaves: oblong, acute. Flowers: perfect, crowded, covering the spadix, spathe with a broad acute blade narrowed to a sheathing petiole. Fruit: fleshy berries immersed in ...
-Mountain Lily. Lilium montanum. Lily Family
Bulb composed of narrow, jointed, fleshy scales. Stems: tall, leafy. Leaves: lanceolate, acute at both ends, all verticillate, the margins finely roughened. Flowers: erect, perianth reddish-orange, of...
-Western Lily. Lilium columbianum. Lily Family
Bulb, with lanceolate, acute, closely appressed scales. Stems: slender. Leaves: in whorls, scattered above and below, narrowly lanceolate, sharply acuminate, thin, glabrous. Flowers: racemose, or in w...
-Yellow Fritillary. Fritillaria pudica. Lily Family
Stems: simple, leafy. Leaves: linear, scattered or verticillate. Flowers: usually solitary, nodding, narrow-campanulate. Fruit: capsule membranaceous, oblong to subglobose, seeds numerous, horizontal,...
-Yellow Adder's Tongue. Erythronium grandiflorum. Lily Family
Stems: scape stout. Leaves: broadly lanceolate, acute, pale green. Flowers: one to several in a terminal raceme; perianth broadly funnelform, of six distinct segments: outer ones lanceolate, obtuse; i...
-Yellow Blue-Eyed Grass. Sisyrinchium californicum. Iris Family
Stems: scapes broadly winged. Leaves: much shorter than the scapes, bracts of the spathe more or less unequal, the longer about equalling the pedicels. Flowers: bright yellow, segments of the perianth...
-Large Yellow Lady's Slipper. Cypripedium pubescens. Orchid Family
Stems: leafy. Leaves: oval or elliptic, acute. Flowers: sepals ovate-lanceolate, longer than the lip, yellowish-green striped with purple; petals very narrow and twisted, lip much inflated, bright yel...
-Yellow Pond Lily. Nymphcea polysepala. Water-Lily Family
Leaves: all floating, eight to fourteen inches in diameter, broad-ovate, thick, deeply cordate, on stout half-cylindrical petioles. Flowers: two to five inches in diameter; sepals eight to twelve, une...
-Marsh-Marigold. Caltha palustris. Crowfoot Family
Stems: erect, one-to-two flowered, the lower flower subtended by a petaloid lanceolate bract. Leaves: roundish to oblong-cordate, longer than wide, irregularly crenate-toothed. Flowers: yellow; sepals...
-Yellow Columbine. Aquilegia flavescens. Crowfoot Family
Stems: smooth. Leaves: ternate; leaflets round-cordate, three-parted, the segments coarsely toothed. Flowers: yellow, pendulous; petals five, with short spreading lips, and produced backwards into lon...
-Rocky Mountain Grape. Berberis repens. Barberry Family
A low glabrous shrub. Leaves: petioled, pinnate, the leaflets three to seven, ovate, obtuse, truncate at the base, sessile, thick, finely retriculated, dentate with spine-bearing teeth. Flowers: in sh...
-Arctic Poppy. Papaver alpinum. Poppy Family
Stems: scape erect, hirsute. Leaves: all basal, pinnately lobed or cleft, the lobes linear, acute. Flowers: solitary. Fruit: capsule obovoid, densely beset with erect bristly hairs. This is quite an ...
-Golden Corydalis. Corydalis aurea. Fumitory Family
Commonly low and spreading. Leaves: finely dissected into oblong-obovate segments. Flowers: in short spicate racemes; corolla tubular, irregular; petals four, one of the outer pair spurred at the base...
-Golden Whitlow Grass. Draba aurea. Mustard Family
Stems: branching, pubescent, leafy to the inflorescence. Leaves: basal ones in tufts, spatulate, obtuse, slightly dentate; stem-leaves oblong, acute. Flowers: yellow, petals twice the length of the ca...
-Bladder-Pod. Physaria didymocarpa. Mustard Family
Stems: decumbent or ascending, slender, simple. Leaves: spatulate, the basal ones obtuse, entire, narrowed into margined petioles; stem-leaves nearly sessile, acute, much smaller. Flowers: yellow, in ...
-Neslia. Neslia paniculata. Mustard Family
Stems: slender, branched above. Leaves: lanceolate, acute, entire, sagittate-clasping at the base. Flowers: racemose. Fruit: silicles small, globose, wingless, reticulated, indehiscent. Not indigenous...
-Herb Of St. Barbara. Brassica Sinapistrum. Mustard Family
Stems: erect, hispid, with scattered stiff hairs. Leaves: oval, coarsely dentate, the basal ones pinnatifid. Flowers: showy, yellow, in elongated racemes. Fruit: the siliques elongated, sessile, tippe...
-Hartweg's Tansy Mustard. Sisymbrium Hartwegianum. Mustard Family
Stems: slender. Leaves: pinnate; leaflets lanceolate, obtuse and acutely toothed. Flowers: small, yellow. Fruit: the siliques erect on ascending pedicels, linear, elongated. A coarse uninteresting pl...
-Treacle Mustard. Erysimum parviftorum. Mustard Family
Stems: erect, simple. Leaves: oblanceolate or linear, obtuse, entire or dentate, the upper sessile, the lower slender-petioled. Flowers: pale yellow. Fruit: the siliques elongated, linear, four-angled...
-Stonecrop. Sedum stenopetalum. Orpine Family
Flowering branches erect. Leaves: alternate, crowded, but scarcely imbricated except on the sterile shoots, sessile, linear, entire. Flowers: in a three-to-seven forked cyme, compact; petals ...
-Yellow Saxifrage. Saxifraga aizoides. Saxifrage Family
Stems: leafy. Leaves: alternate, linear, thick, fleshy, mucronate-tipped, narrowed at the base, sessile, the margins sparingly ciliate. Flowers: several, corymbose; petals five, oblong, yellow, usuall...
-Golden Saxifrage. Chrysosplenium tetrandrum. Saxifrage Family
Stems: erect, branched above. Leaves: alternate, reniform-cordate, doubly crenate or somewhat lobed. Flowers: corymbose, axillary Fruit: capsule membranous, short, inversely cordate. A marsh plant, o...
-Creeping Sibbaldia. Sibbaldia procumbens. Saxifrage Family
Stems: woody, decumbent or creeping. Leaves: three-foliolate, leaflets obovate, cuneate at the base, three to five toothed at the apex. Flowers: numerous, petals oblong, very small, calyx-lobes oblong...
-Silver Weed. Potentilla Anserina. Rose Family
Stems: tufted, spreading by slender runners. Leaves: petioled, pinnate, leaflets seven to twenty-five, oblong, oblanceolate, obtuse, the lower generally smaller, sharply serrate, smooth above, silky-p...
-Yellow Avens. Geum strictum. Rose Family
Stems: ascending, pubescent, branched above. Leaves: basal ones lyrate-pinnate; leaflets five to seven, obovate, cuneate, dentate, with a few smaller ones interspersed, the terminal one largest; stem-...
-Drummond's Dryas. Dryas Drummondii. Rose Family
Low, tufted, herbaceous shrubs. Stems: woody at the base. Leaves: oval, crenate-dentate, green and glabrous above, white-canescent beneath. Flowers: yellow, solitary; calyx persistent, its tube concav...
-Yellow Melilot. Melilotus officinalis. Pea Family
Stems: ascending, one to four feet high, branching. Leaves: tri-foliolate, petioled, rather distant; leaflets oblong, serrate, narrowed at the base, rounded at the apex. Flowers: in slender racemes; s...
-Locoweed. Oxytropis Lamberti. Pea Family
Silky-pubescent with appressed hairs, aculescent, tufted. Leaves: odd-pinnate; leaflets linear, oblong, acute; peduncles longer than the leaves. Flowers: in large dense heads, or spikes. Fruit: pods i...
-Scouler's St. John's-Wort. Hypericum Scouleri. St. John's-wort Family
Stems: simple or sparingly branched above, often with small branch-lets growing from running rootstocks. Leaves: opposite, obtuse, clasping, entire. Flowers: in panicled cymes, stamens numerous, in th...
-Yellow Violet. Viola glabella. Violet Family
Stems: glabrous, slender, from a short fleshy horizontal rhizome. Leaves: radical ones on long petioles, the upper short-petioled, reniform-cordate, crenately toothed. Flowers: bright yellow. This is...
-Silverberry. Elceagnus argentea. Oleaster Family
Stoloniferous, silvery-scaly, much branched. Leaves: alternate, oblong, ovate, densely silvery-scurfy on both sides, acute or obtuse. Flowers: one to three in the axils, pedicelled, fragrant; perianth...
-Canada Buffaloberry. Shcpherdia canadensis. Oleaster Family
Leaves: ovate or oval, obtuse at the apex, rounded or narrowed at the base, green and sparingly stellate-scurfy above, densely silvery stellate-scurfy beneath, some of the scurf brown. Flowers: in sho...
-Yellow Willow-Herb. Epilobium luteum. Evening Primrose Family
Stems: slender, nearly simple. Leaves: ovate, acute, sinuate-toothed, sessile. Flowers: from the axils of the upper somewhat crowded leaves; corolla funnel-form, rarely expanding, the lobes deeply not...
-Common Evening Primrose. OEnothera biennis. Evening Primrose Family
Stems: erect, stout, wand-like. Leaves: lanceolate, acute, narrowed and sessile at the base, repand-denticulate. Flowers: spicate, terminal, leafy-bracted; calyx-tube slender, the lobes linear, reflex...
-Heart-Leaved Alexanders. Zizia cordata. Parsley Family
Stems: erect, branched. Leaves: upper stem-leaves compound, short-petioled, ternate, the segments ovate, crenate-dentate; basal leaves long-petioled, sometimes undivided. Flowers: in umbels, eight-to-...
-Narrow-Leaved Parsley. Lomatium triternatum. Parsley Family
Stems: from a deep-seated elongated fusiform root. Leaves: biter-nate or triternate, the leaflets narrow, linear. Flowers: in an unequal umbel of five to eighteen rays with slender bracts. The yellow...
-Narrow-Leaved Puccoon. Lithospermum angustifolium. Borage Family
Stems: branched, erect or ascending. Leaves: linear, sessile, acute. Flowers: of two kinds, in terminal leafy racemes; corolla of the earlier ones salver-form, bright yellow, five-lobed, the lobes ero...
-Yellow Beard-Tongue. Penstemon confertus. Figwort Family
Stems: slender. Leaves: lower ones lanceolate, attenuate below to narrow petioles, mostly entire, the cauline sessile by a broad base. Flowers: thyrsus spiciform, interrupted, dense, many-flowered clu...
-Yellow Monkey-Flower. Mimulus Langsdoriii. Figwort Family
Stems: erect. Leaves: ovate, sessile, denticulate. Flowers: terminal; calyx ventricose-campanulate; corolla-tube cylindric, its limb bilabiate, the upper lip erect, two-lobed, the lower lip spreading,...
-Pelican Flower. Orthocarpus luteus. Figwort Family
Stems: strict, erect, branched above, densely leafy. Leaves: ascending, linear, entire or sometimes three-cleft, sessile, long-acuminate; bracts of the dense spike lanceolate. Flowers: in dense spikes...
-Yellow Rattle. Rhinanthus Crista-galli. Figwort Family
Stems: slender. Leaves: lanceolate, sessile, coarsely serrate-dentate, acute, bracts ovate, incised-dentate, the teeth acuminate. Flowers: in terminal, one-sided, leafy-bracted spikes, and solitary in...
-Greater Bladderwort. Utricularia vulgaris var. americana. Bladderwort Family
Stems: immersed, scape stout, naked, three to four inches high, with a few scales. Leaves: two to three pinnately many-parted, capillary, bearing many bladders. Flowers: three to twenty in a raceme on...
-Involucred Fly Honeysuckle. Lonicera hwolucrata. Honeysuckle Family
Leaves: ovate or oval, acute or acuminate at the apex, narrowed at the base; peduncles axillary; bracts foliaceous, ovate; bractlets also large, at length surrounding the fruit. Flowers: in pairs, yel...
-Golden Aster. Chrysopsis villosa. Composite Family
Stems: villous. Leaves: alternate, oblong, obtuse, the upper ones sessile, the lower ones narrowed into a petiole, pale, canescent with appressed hairs. Flowers: heads few, terminating the short branc...
-Canada Golden-Rod. Solidago canadensis. Composite Family
Stems: stout, little branched, puberulent. Leaves: alternate, lanceolate, triple-nerved, acute at each end, the lower ones sharply serrate and petioled, the upper ones smaller, entire, sessile. Flower...
-Yellow Fleabane. Erigcron aureus. Composite Family
Stems: from a tufted caudex, cinereous-pubescent, the involucre lanu-ginose-tomentose. Leaves: radical ones obovate or spatulate, contracted into a slender petiole; cauline ones few, sparse, small. Fl...
-Black-Eyed Susan. Rudbeckia hirta. Composite Family
Stems: simple or sparingly branched, often tufted. Leaves: thick, serrate with low teeth or entire, lanceolate, the lower and basal ones petioled, the upper ones narrow, sessile, acute. Flowers: heads...
-Giant Sunflower. Helianthus giganteus. Composite Family
Perennial by fleshy roots and creeping rootstocks. Stems: erect, hispid, branched near the summit. Leaves: lanceolate, very rough above, pubescent beneath, serrate, acuminate at the apex, narrowed at ...
-Arnicas
This is the most common species of Arnica in the mountains, and is a handsome plant, standing from one to two feet high. It has pale green hairy leaves, which are markedly heart-shaped at the base, an...
-Golden Ragwort. Senecio Balsamita. Composite Family
Perennial, often tufted. Stems: slender, woolly at the base and in the axils of the lower leaves. Leaves: basal ones slender-petioled, oblong, very obtuse, crenate; stem-leaves pinnatifid, sessile, sm...
-Common Dandelion. Taraxacum officinale. Composite Family
Scapes and leaves from the crown of a thick vertical root. Leaves: lanceolate in outline, and from irregularly dentate to runcinate-pinnatifid. Flowers: in solitary heads at the summit of the hollow s...
-Sow Thistle. Sonchus arvensis. Composite Family
Perennial by deep roots and creeping rootstocks. Stems: leafy below, panicnlately branched and nearly naked above. Leaves: lower and basal runcinate-pinnatifid, spinulose-dentate. Flowers: heads sever...
-Large-Flowered False Dandelion. Agoseris glauca. Composite Family
Stems: scape naked, slender, pubescent. Leaves: all basal, linear, lanceolate, crenulate, acuminate at the apex. Flowers: heads solitary, yellow; rays truncate, five-toothed. A flower very like a rea...
-Many-Flowered Hawksbeard. Crepis elegans. Composite Family
Stems: many from a tap-root, diffusely branched. Leaves: entire, or nearly so, radical ones spattilate, cauline ones lanceolate to linear. Flowers: in small numerous-clustered heads. Fruit: achenes li...
-Hairy Hawkweed. Hieracium Scouleri. Composite Family
Pubescent with long crisp hairs, pale green. Stems: one to two feet high, very leafy. Leaves: lanceolate, sessile. Flowers: in a loose irregular panicle; involucral bracts imbricated in two or three s...
-Flower Glossary
The object of these pages is to give as briefly as possible a simple explanation of those botanical terms most frequently used in describing plants. The Root Rootstock: a creeping stem growing below...









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