Campanula Pulla L

Stem erect or ascending, obtusely angled, glabrous or with a few scattered hairs like the leaves, leafy below, 1-flowered. Leaves crenate; root-leaves and lower stem-leaves ovate or elliptical, shortly stalked, longer than the leaf-stalk; median stem-leaves narrower, acute, sessile; uppermost lanceolate, small. Corolla terminal, bell-shaped, large, dark violet-blue. Calyx-teeth linear, one-third length of corolla.

Pastures, woods, bushy and stony places in the calcareous Alps; 4000-6500 feet.

Distribution

Eastern Alps.

Easily grown in an open, sunny spot, but is apt to die off in winter.

Campanula Excisa Schleicher

Segments of corolla incised at the base, and separated by a rounded sinus. Calyx-teeth reflexed. Rootstock slender, rampant; stem ascending; leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, occasionally toothed or with cilia. Flowers blue, 1-3.

Granitic Alps; local and rare; 6500-9000 feet.

Distribution

Switzerland (S. Tessin and Valais, above the Valley of Minister, at Berisal, and between Saas and Binn), Aosta Valley in Piedmont.

Grows rapidly in gritty loam, but hates lime. Sometimes a little peat will improve the growth.

Campanula Bononiensis L

A tall spiky species with usually simple stem, which is very leafy and almost tomentose. Leaves green, downy beneath; lower leaves shortly petioled, cordate; upper ones sessile and becoming narrower and narrower. Flowers small, blue-violet, very shortly stalked, in clusters at the junction of the bracts and stem and forming a long spike. Sepals linear-lanceolate, spreading. Capsule pendent.

Mountain woods in the sub-Alps; very local. June, July. A frequent plant in the Chestnut zone of the Italian Maritime Alps.

Distribution

Southern Switzerland; Western, Central (?), and Eastern Alps, Caucasus, Siberia.

Campanula Rhomboidalis L. (Plate XXIV)

Stem erect, slender, leafy above, 1-1 1/2 feet high. Raceme more or less unilateral, 3-5 flowered. Leaves all sessile, ovate-lanceolate, dentate, glabrous or slightly hairy. Flowers blue, pendent. Calyx-teeth linear or subulate, two-thirds length of corolla.

Meadows, borders of woods in the Alps and sub-Alps; abundant and often in great masses. June to August.

Distribution

Carpathians, Eastern, Central, and Western Alps, Jura, Pyrenees, Spain.

Campanula Rapunculoides L

Erect stems, 1-3 feet high. Lower leaves heart-shaped, on long stalks; upper ones small, ovate-lanceolate. Flowers drooping, blue, varying in size, single in the axils of the leaves, and forming long, terminal, simple and more or less unilateral racemes. Capsules nearly globular. Calyx-lobes narrow-lanceolate.

Open woods, borders of roads, etc., from the plains to at least 5000 feet. June, July.

Distribution

Most of Europe, except the Mediterranean region, Caucasus, Asia Minor. British.

Campanula Trachelium L. Nettle-Leaved Bell-Flower

Very variable, sometimes approaching smaller specimens of C. latifolia, and sometimes with the upper flowers clustered to resemble C. glomerata. Lower leaves broadly heart-shaped, on long stalks, coarsely toothed; upper ones small, ovate-lanceolate. Flowers large, 2 or 3 together in short, leafy racemes, or sometimes solitary. Calyx-teeth broadly lanceolate, hairy.

Woods, ravines, and roadsides from the plains to the lower Alps. June to September.

Distribution

Europe, Western Asia, and right across Siberia, N. Africa. But most common in Western Europe. British.

Campanula Latifolia L

The tallest and most handsome species, often in England 3-4 feet high, usually shorter in Switzerland. The stems are rarely branched, though leafy. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, narrow at the base and lower ones stalked, pubescent, coarsely biserrate. Calyx-teeth lanceolate. Flowers large, blue, deeply cleft into 5 lanceolate, acute lobes.

Woods, ravines, by streams in the plains and sub-alpine region; rare in Switzerland. July, August.

Distribution

Alps, Pyrenees, Vosges, Jura; woods of Northern Europe, Northern and Central Asia to the Arctic regions, but becoming a mountain plant in Southern Europe. Occasional in England and Scotland.