This section is from the book "Sub-Alpine Plants Or Flowers Of The Swiss Woods And Meadows", by H. Stuart Thompson. Also available from Amazon: Sub-Alpine Plants: Or, Flowers of the Swiss Woods and Meadows.
Achene, a dry, indehiscent 1-seeded fruit, such as the single ' seed' of a Ranunculus.
Acicular, applied to linear leaves which are stiff and needle-like, such as those of Pine.
Acuminate, suddenly narrowed at the top and then prolonged into a point.
Acute, tapering to a point.
Adhesion, the union of dissimilar parts of a flower, such as the petals and sepals; of. Cohesion.
Adventitious Roots, those which appear as outgrowths from the stem or leaves.
Aestivation, the arrangement of the petals in the unexpanded bud.
Alternate, applied to leaves which are not arranged opposite to one another on the stem.
Amplexicaul, when a leaf, bract, or stipule more or less embraces the stem.
Androecium, the male organs or stamens, considered as a whole.
Angiosperm, a Flowering Plant whose ovules are enclosed in ovaries; of. Gymnosperm.
Annual, applied to plants which pass through their life-history in one year and then die.
Anther, the upper portion of a stamen containing pollen.
Apetalous, without petals, or with very small rudimentary ones.
Aquatic, growing actually in water.
Arillus, a fleshy covering of some seeds.
Aristate, when the point of a leaf is fine like a hair.
Articulate, jointed, applied to organs which can be separated (without tearing) into several similar parts, e.g. an articulated capsule.
Ascending, applied to stems which are first prostrate and then rise more or less vertically.
Asexual, applied to the reproduction by organs other than the stamens and carpels.
Association, a colony or community of plants living together.
Awn, a thread-like extension of a seed or other organ, such as in Barley or in Anemone alpina.
Axil, the angle formed, for example, at the attachment of a leaf to a stem.
Axillary, growing in an axil.
Axis, usually applied to the stem.
Beak, sometimes applied to the curved and pointed extremity of a fruit; or the hooded portion of a corolla, such as Pedicularis.
Biennial, requiring two years to complete its life-history, after which the plant dies.
Bipinnate, twice-pinnate; e.g. the leaflets of Osmunda.
Bipinnatifid, applied to pinnate leaves whose segments are doubly cut or lobed; e.g. Matricaria.
Bract, a small leaf at the base of a flower-stalk; or the divisions of an involucre.
Bud, the unopened leaf or flower.
Bulb, a modified stem, usually subterranean, consisting of a series of succulent leaves, containing reserve material, such as an onion.
Bulbil, a bud which falls from certain flowers or leaves and is capable of reproducing the plant, as in some Alliums and Lilies.
Caespitose, tufted, when stems are very short, close, and many together.
Calcicole, applied to plants which thrive best on calcareous, or limestone, soils.
Calcifuge, applied to plants which avoid calcareous soils.
Calyx, the sepals considered as a whole.
Campanulate, in the form of a bell.
Capillary, hair-like; very fine, but hollow.
Capitulum Or Head, an inflorescence in which the flowers are stem-less, and arranged on a terminal expansion of the axis; e.g. many Compositae.
Capsule, a dry seed-vessel containing many seeds and composed of two or more carpels.
Carpel, the divisions of the ovary or capsule.
Carpophore, a small support to the capsules of certain plants, as in many Silenes.
Cartilaginous, of the consistence and colour of cartilage; e.g. the border of many Saxifrage leaves.
Catkin, a dense spike of unisexual apetalous flowers, which are shed as a whole.
Cells, the units of which plant or animal tissue is built up.
Cellular, composed of cells.
Chlorophyll, the green colouring-matter of plants.
Ciliated, fringed with longish hairs or cilia.
Circinate, curled up.
Claw, the narrowed part at the base of a petal.
Cleistogamous Flowers, are those which never open and are self-fertilised; very rare among Alpine plants.
Club-Shaped, cylindrical, but becoming larger towards the apex.
Cohesion, the union of similar parts of a flower; cf. Adhesion.
Cone, the scaly fruit of the Coniferce or Pine family.
Coniferous, applied to the Pine and Fir family, which bear cones.
Convolute, rolled together.
Coriaceous, firm and tough like leather.