This section is from the book "Sub-Alpine Plants Or Flowers Of The Swiss Woods And Meadows", by H. Stuart Thompson. Also available from Amazon: Sub-Alpine Plants: Or, Flowers of the Swiss Woods and Meadows.
This ubiquitous annual weed is frequently seen in sub-alpine districts and even on the lower glacier moraines. A native of N. America it has now established itself in almost all temperate and hot countries. It is usually taller than the last and glabrous except for a few spreading hairs. The leaves are narrow, entire, or slightly toothed. Flower-heads extremely small, whitish green, very numerous, and forming a long, leafy panicle. Florets minute, the outer ones filiform and slightly tinged with red.
A robust Alpine species, 10-12 inches high, with erect, branched stem, glandular-pubescent above. Leaves lanceolate, entire, clasping the stem, the root-leaves oblong-lanceolate, all hairy. Involucre glandular-hispid, the bracts often reddish. Flower-heads large and handsome, solitary. Ray-florets rose or bright purple; central florets yellow and tubular.
Moraines, grassy mountain sides, etc.; local. July to September.
Eastern, Central, and Western Alps, Transylvania, Quite local in Switzerland and more frequent in the French and Italian Alps.
This is a smaller plant than the last and less brightly coloured. It is very polymorphic. Though usually a very high Alpine, occasionally it descends to the sub-Alps.
Alps, Jura, Pyrenees, Carpathians, Arctic Europe, Siberia. British.
Tall leafy perennials, with numerous small yellow flowers. Receptacle without scales. Outer florets few, ligulate; inner ones tubular. Achenes cylindrical, with a pappus of many simple hairs.
A large N. American genus with a very few European species.
Stems erect, leafy, 6 inches to 2 feet high, nearly glabrous. Root-leaves obovate and stalked; stem - leaves lanceolate, toothed. Flowers in a crowded terminal panicle, bright yellow; each flower-head with a spreading ray of about 10 florets. Alpine forms are sometimes very short.
Woods and rocky places, especially in the mountains. July to September.
Europe, including British Isles, Central and Northern Asia; N. America to the Arctic regions.
Stem 1 1/2-2 feet high, branched at the top, and bearing several large yellow capitula about 2 inches across, with narrow, spreading ray flowers. Leaves lanceolate, undivided; upper leaves narrowed at the apex, acute, denticulate. Ray-florets ligulate. Receptacle paleaceous. Pappus-hairs short, rough.
Dry, bushy places in the plains and sub-alpine situations, as, e.g. the banks of the Lake of Lucerne, but ascending to about 6000 feet. Prefers a limestone soil, and is very suitable for cultivation and for gathering. July, August.
Central Europe. In France it extends from the Mediterranean to Savoy.