Cardamine Latifolia Vahl

Similar in habit and culture to the last species, from which it differs in having lyrate leaves with 3-7 large leaflets which are shortly stalked; the terminal leaflet is larger and suborbicular. The flowers are lilac and the anthers yellow. The pods are erect, more spreading, and on longer stalks than in A. asarifolia.

Springs and rivulets in the lower mountains (at about 3500 feet in the Eastern Pyrenees). May to July.

Distribution

Pyrenees, Corbieres, Spain, N. Italy.

Cardamine pratensis L. (Cuckoo-flower), C. amara L. (flowers white, anthers violet), C. impatiens L., C. flexuosa With (with zigzag stem), are four British species spread throughout the plains of Switzerland, and often seen in damp mountainous woods or meadows up to 5000 feet, both in the Alps and Eastern Pyrenees.

Cardamine Bulbifera Crantz (Dentaria Bulbifera L.). Coralroot

Rootstock scaly, whitish. Stem weak, 1-2 feet high, bearing several leaves, often with a small ovoid bulbil at their axil; lower leaves pinnate with 5 or 7 segments, the upper ones with fewer segments or quite undivided; all segments lanceolate, entire, or toothed, 1 1/2-2 inches long. Flowers few, rather large, bright lilac, rarely white. The pod is seldom formed, as the plant is propagated by the axillary bulbils falling to the ground and growing.

Woods and shady places in the plains and hills. April to June.

Distribution

Spread over Continental Europe from Scandinavia and the north of France to the Caucasus. In England in some of the ' home counties.'

Cardamine Pentaphylla R. Br. [Dentaria Digitata Lamk)

This is a smaller plant with no bulbils. The leaves are digitate and divided into 3-5 leaflets, which are oblong-lanceolate and toothed irregularly. Flowers rose or lilac. Siliqua erect, spreading. Rootstock fleshy, scaly.

Figured in Curtis's Bot. Mag., tab. 2202 (1821).

Mountain woods. May, June.

Distribution

Widely spread in Switzerland, and in France from the Jura and Vosges to the Pyrenees; Central and Southern Europe.

Cardamine Pinnata R.Br. (Dentaria Pinnata Lamk)

Rootstock scaly, obtuse. Stem stout 1 1/2-2 feet. Leaves pinnate, with 5-9 leaflets which are opposite, ovate-lanceolate, and irregularly toothed. No bulbils. Flowers large, lilac, rose, or white. Petals 3 times longer than the calyx. Siliqua and pedicels erect, spreading.

Mountain woods in Switzerland, Central and Southern Europe from Spain to Styria. Coste says, "Not in the west or north of France and rare in the south." 1 April to June.

Cardamine Polyphylla O. E. Schulz (Dentaria Polyphylla Waldst. And Kit)

Rootstock scaly. Stem with 2-4 leaves and 7-14 flowers. Leaves pinnatisect, with lanceolate segments, very acuminate, and with sharp teeth. Petals yellowish white.

Bushy places among mountains, rather rare, up to 5000 feet. April to May.

Distribution

Switzerland, rarely in a few Cantons only.

In Switzerland Dentaria digitata is the commonest of the four species found in the country. In Tyrol and the Eastern Alps several other species occur in the lower mountains, viz. D. cunea-phyllos L. with yellowish white petals and ternate leaves in whorls of three; D. alternifolia Hausm. with yellowish white flowers and ternately-digitate leaves, and D. intermedia Sond. with lilac or white flowers and leaves quinately digitate.

The Dentarias, as they are still commonly called, are useful spring flowers for shrubberies and shady borders. They do well in sand and peat or in sandy leaf-mould, and can easily be increased from the small tuber-like roots, or by planting the bulbils of D. bulbifera.