This section is from the book "Sub-Alpine Plants Or Flowers Of The Swiss Woods And Meadows", by H. Stuart Thompson. Also available from Amazon: Sub-Alpine Plants: Or, Flowers of the Swiss Woods and Meadows.
Much like V. alpina, but larger in all its parts, though intermediate forms appear to occur. Stem 4-6 inches high, simple, ascending, rough-haired like the entire plant, glandular above. Leaves light green, hairy, obovate-lanceolate, obtuse, entire or crenate; the lowermost much larger, narrowed into a leaf-stalk, and crowded almost into rosettes, persistent; upper leaves sessile, distant. Flowers in a roundish, crowded spike, elongated and looser when in fruit. Flowers dull blue. Capsule oval or ovoid, slightly emarginate. Seeds flat.
Alpine and sub-alpine pastures and stony places. June to August.
Carpathians; Eastern, Central, and Western Alps; Pyrenees; Moravia, Transylvania, N.E. Balkans.
Small, erect herbs, partly parasitic on roots. Flowers small, in dense leafy spikes. Calyx 4-toothed. Corolla tubular, 2-lipped; upper lip concave. Stamens 4. Anthers hairy. Capsule oblong. Leaves opposite, lobed or incised. Many grow in the Alps and sub-Alps, and only a very brief account of so critical a genus can be given here.
A small, branched annual, varying much in size, shape of leaves, size and colour of flowers, etc. Leaves small, sessile, opposite, ovate, deeply toothed. Flowers in loose, terminal, leafy clusters or spikes. The calyx with 4-pointed teeth. Corolla white or pinkish, streaked with purple and with a yellow spot in the throat. Capsule oblong. Sometimes in alpine regions the plants are only 1 or 2 inches high. Pastures from the plains to the high Alps. July to October.
Europe, Northern and Central Asia to the Arctic Circle. British.
A stiff, erect annual, often simple, though more frequently branched, with prominent sharp teeth to the glabrous leaves, the teeth being very large towards the base of the leaf. Flowers small (6-8 mm.), usually white, with bluish upper lip or entirely blue, mauve, or violet. Leaves often purplish.
Pastures in the Alps and sub-Alps. July to October.
-Alps, Central and Southern Europe extending to Scandinavia and Corsica. Ireland. Particulars, with plate and map, of its distribution in Ireland are given in Mr. Praeger's very cheap and excellent little book on the Flora of the West of Ireland.1
A very small annual, yellow-flowered species, simple or branched below. Leaves always obtuse, the lower ones with only 1 tooth each side, the upper with 2-4 teeth. Bracts oval or oval-oblong, spreading, with 3-4 teeth on each side. Corolla 5-6 mm. long, very variable in colour and outline; though usually yellow it is sometimes whitish or mauve or partly yellow and mauve.
Pastures in the Alps and sub-Alps. July to September.
Alps, Jura, Auvergne, Pyrenees, mountains of Central Europe and Asia Minor. Two or three years ago a form of this plant was discovered on Exmoor, new to the British Isles. A rather unlikely spot for the plant. The Exmoor specimens recently seen by the author at the British Museum are not very typical of the Continental plant, though they may be a form of it.