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Sub-Alpine Plants Or Flowers Of The Swiss Woods And Meadows | by H. Stuart Thompson



It is quite natural that most of the books on Alpine plants have dealt chiefly with the higher zone of vegetation, and that consequently the flowers of the sub-alpine woods and meadows have been somewhat neglected. Therefore it is believed there is room for a book descriptive of the plants of the lower mountains...

TitleSub-Alpine Plants Or Flowers Of The Swiss Woods And Meadows
AuthorH. Stuart Thompson
PublisherGeorge Routledge & Sons, Limited
Year1912
Copyright1912, George Routledge & Sons, Limited
AmazonSub-Alpine Plants: Or, Flowers of the Swiss Woods and Meadows
Sub Alpine Plants Or Flowers Of The Swiss Woods An 1

By H. Stuart Thompson, F.L.S, Author Of Alpine Plants Of Europe

With 33 Coloured Plates (168 Figures) By George Flemwell, Author Of "Alpine Flowers And Gardens," Etc.

Sub Alpine Plants Or Flowers Of The Swiss Woods An 3

"Most welcome, while the meagre East Rebuffs the Spring, is thy brave face, Dear nursling of the Alps, and least Of all the windflower race.

"Ere crocus-blades defend their gold, Or woods are with thy kinsfolk white, Thou beckonest thy comrades bold, Snowdrop and Aconite.

"Not Winter's tyranny can blanch.

Thy cheek, or bruise thy buds of silk; Hast thou not heard the avalanche And quaffed the glacier-milk?

"So to his face thou dost profess.

Thy faith in Spring, and dost outrun Thy very leaves in eagerness To hail the insurgent sun".

Alfred Hayes in The Cup of Quietness.

-Preface
It is quite natural that most of the books on Alpine plants have dealt chiefly with the higher zone of vegetation, and that consequently the flowers of the sub-alpine woods and meadows have been somew...
-Scale Of Measurement, Etc
Some Useful Figures 1 Metre = 3.281 English feet. 10 Centimetres = 4 inches (almost) 30 =1 foot. 2.5 cm. = 25 mm. = 1 inch. 100 feet = 30 1/2 metres (about). 1,000 ...
-Part I. Chapter I. Sub-Alpine Plants - And Where They Grow: A Comparison With The Flora Of Britain
In the author's Alpine Plants of Europe, which dealt chiefly with the plants of the higher Alpine region, it was pointed out that it is impossible to define zones of altitude at all rigidly, even in r...
-Sub-Alpine Plants - And Where They Grow: A Comparison With The Flora Of Britain. Part 2
Owing to the moisture of our climate and the mildness of our winters, we have various Lusitanian species, characteristic of Portugal and the south-west of Europe, which extend their range much further...
-Sub-Alpine Plants - And Where They Grow. Part 3
Most summer visitors to the Alps have noticed the snow melting from the highest pastures and exposing a sodden, brown sward. They have seen the Crocuses and Soldanellas flowering at the very edge of t...
-Chapter II. Alpine Fruits And Berries
Many of those who visit the Alps in late summer or in autumn miss the great wealth of flowers which form such a feature in the landscape earlier in the season. Many visitors arrive too late to see eve...
-Alpine Fruits And Berries. Part 2
The Bilberry Or Whortleberry (Vactinium Myrtilus) The Bilberry Or Whortleberry (Vactinium Myrtilus), which often grows finer in the Alps, and particularly in the Chamonix valley, than at home, was ...
-The Crowberry (Empetrum Nigrum)
The Crowberry (Empetrum Nigrum) is a low, wiry shrub, with heath-like leaves and small blue-black fruit, smaller than those of the Bilberry, which often ascends to a high altitude and sometimes covers...
-Lonicera Alpigena
Lonicera Alpigena is a bush of about three feet which has much larger leaves and a shining berry resembling a small, double cherry. It frequents woods and rocky places in the mountains. The Black Hone...
-Wild Gooseberries (Ribes Grossularia)
Wild Gooseberries (Ribes Grossularia) are frequent in many parts of Switzerland, particularly by roadsides and stony, bushy places in sub-alpine valleys. The berries are usually small and yellowish wh...
-Chapter III. The Cultivation Of Alpine Plants
The culture of Alpine and rock plants as a hobby is increasing by leaps and bounds. We remarked a year ago that nothing was more indicative of this increasing fashion than the number of books issued i...
-The Cultivation Of Alpine Plants. Part 2
We have found the simplest way to remove the green moss or Marchantia is with the flat, sharpened end of a thin piece of wood, such as an ordinary plant label. By holding the pot in one hand, and the ...
-The Cultivation Of Alpine Plants. Part 3
Grit is beneficial to most of the Saxifrages because it checks the evaporation of moisture in summer, and prevents damp from stagnating round the collar of plants in winter. The reason why roots are o...
-Chapter IV. Some Alpine Gardens
Botanic gardens are increasing in numbers in the Alps, just as rock gardens are becoming more and more numerous in the British Isles. The most recent of the Swiss Alpine gardens is that at Rigi Scheid...
-Some Alpine Gardens. Continued
Before reaching the summit of the garden we pass rockeries devoted to Saxifrages, Sempervivums, Pinks, and Primulas, and others which are devoted to the plants of special countries or mountainous regi...
-Chapter V. On Collecting And Preserving Plants
Some hints on how to collect plants and dry and mount them for an herbarium may be useful to some readers, particularly as the subject is discussed either very briefly or not at all in most botanical ...
-On Collecting And Preserving Plants. Part 2
Common blotting-paper should never be used for drying plants in; it is too tender, it does not last, costs too much, and the plants often stick to it. Any coarse, stout, and unsized paper will do, and...
-On Collecting And Preserving Plants. Part 3
In hot countries it is desirable to poison collections of dried plants by painting them over with a solution of mercuric chloride or corrosive sublimate, to protect them against insects. This is done ...
-Chapter VI. A Glossary Of Botanical Terms
Achene, a dry, indehiscent 1-seeded fruit, such as the single ' seed' of a Ranunculus. Acicular, applied to linear leaves which are stiff and needle-like, such as those of Pine. Acuminat...
-A Glossary Of Botanical Terms. Part 2
Corm, a bulb-shaped, modified and swollen underground stem, in which reserve material is stored; e.g. a Crocus corm. Corolla, the petals of a flower considered as a whole. Corona, a circ...
-A Glossary Of Botanical Terms. Part 3
Hermaphrodite, or bisexual flowers, have both stamens and pistils present. Hispid, bristly, thickly covered with stiff hairs. Honey, the nectar secreted by many flowers to attract insect...
-A Glossary Of Botanical Terms. Part 4
Petiolate, having a leaf-stalk. Petiole, a leaf-stalk. Phanerogam, a flowering plant. Pilose, sparsely covered with rather long hairs. Pinnate, when several segments succee...
-Part II. Class I. Dicotyledons. Ranunculaceae
Herbs with alternate or radical leaves, or in Clematis, climbers with opposite leaves. Leaves often cut and flowers solitary or in terminal racemes. Sepals distinct, usually 5. Petals distinct, usuall...
-Dicotyledons. Ranunculaceae. Part 2
Thalictrum L Herbs with a short perennial rootstock and much-divided leafstalks, bearing distinct segments or leaflets. Sepals 4 or 5, small, coloured and petal-like, but no real petals. Stamens nu...
-Dicotyledons. Ranunculaceae. Part 3
Thalictrum Foetidum L Rhizome short. Stem 4-12 inches high, flexuous, feebly striated, glandular pubescent, and foetid like the whole plant. Leaves as broad as long, somewhat triangular; leaflets s...
-Dicotyledons. Ranunculaceae. Part 4
Anemone Narcissi Flora L Rootstock oblique, premorse, with branching fibres. Stem erect, 4-12 inches high, simple, with several leaves at the base, villous like the leaves, and bearing a terminal 3...
-Dicotyledons. Ranunculaceae. Part 5
Anemone Ranunculoides L Rhizome horizontal. Stem and whole plant about the size of the Wood Anemone, which it much resembles in habit as well as in habitat. Leaves spring far from the stem, with 3-...
-Dicotyledons. Ranunculaceae. Part 6
Anemone Sulphurea L. (Plate V) Probably only a variety of A. alpina, but usually growing on the older siliceous and granite rocks. The flowers are a pale, clear yellow colour and often larger than ...
-Dicotyledons. Ranunculaceae. Part 7
Anemone Pulsatilla L. Pasque-Flower. (Plate V) A smaller plant than the last. Leaves deeply cut into linear segments, and the whole plant very hairy. Flowers large, solitary, erect or finally droop...
-Dicotyledons. Ranunculaceae. Part 8
Ranunculus L. Buttercup Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes entirely aquatic. Leaves entire or more or less divided. Flowers usually yellow or white. Sepals 5, very rarely 3. Petals 5 or more, eac...
-Dicotyledons. Ranunculaceae. Part 9
Ranunculus Traunfellneri Hoppe Stem 1-3 inches high; leaves not shining, where it differs chiefly from A. alpestris, which it resembles, and of which it is sometimes considered a variety. Leaves ve...
-Dicotyledons. Ranunculaceae. Part 10
Caltha L Flowers regular. Sepals usually 5, large and yellow, petaloid, no real petals. Stamens numerous. Carpels 5-10 compressed, each with several seeds. A very small genus, inhabiting the tem...
-Dicotyledons. Ranunculaceae. Part 1
Helleborus Viridis L. Green Hellebore Plant 10-20 inches high. Radical leaves large, on long stalks, divided into 7-11 oblong, acute, toothed segments, 3-4 inches long, the central ones free, the l...
-Dicotyledons. Ranunculaceae. Part 12
Aquilegia Einseleana F. Schulz (A. Pyrenaica Koch, Not Dc) Stem 6-12 inches high, tender, more or less covered with viscid, glandular hairs, especially above. Leaves glabrous, once or twice ternate...
-Dicotyledons. Ranunculaceae. Part 13
Delphinium L. Larkspur Mostly annual herbs having much divided leaves with narrow segments. Sepals 5, coloured and spurred. Petals lengthened into a spur. Carpels 1-5 each with several seeds. A ...
-Dicotyledons. Ranunculaceae. Part 14
Aconitum Lycoctonum L Stem attaining a yard in height, pubescent, branched. Leaves deeply palmately cut, with 5-7 broad segments, incised-dentate. Flowers pale yellow, in oval, elongated spikes. Se...
-Dicotyledons. Ranunculaceae. Part 15
Actaea L Flowers nearly regular, small. Leaves chiefly radical, with distinct segments. Sepals 4, small, petal-like. Petals 4, small, clawed. Stamens numerous, with small anthers. Carpel solitary, ...
-Berberidaceae
Shrubs or herbs. Stamens opposite the petals, and the same number as them. Ovary of I carpel, with seeds attached to the bottom or to one side of the cavity. A small family spread over the temperate r...
-Nympileaceae
Flowers regular. Stamens numerous. Stigma sessile on the many-celled ovary. A small family of aquatic plants, with large handsome flowers and floating leaves. About 35 species growing in the waters of...
-Papaveraceae
Herbs with alternate leaves and milky juice. Flowers regular, usually of 4 petals. Sepals usually 2. Stamens indefinite. Ovules parietal. A family represented in the Alps and sub-Alps by very few spec...
-Fumariaceae
Flowers irregular. Sepals 2, deciduous. Petals 4, one or two of them gibbous or spurred. Stamens 6, in two bundles of .3 each. Ovary 1-celled. A small family, chiefly of western distribution. Coryd...
-Cruciferae
Herbs or rarely under-shrubs with alternate leaves, and no stipules. The flowers in terminal racemes, which are usually very short, but lengthen out as flowering advances. Sepals 4. Petals 4, equal, o...
-Cruciferae. Part 2
Arabis Stricta Huds. (A. Scabra All.) Bristol Rock-Cress Stem 3-10 inches, erect, simple, covered with hispid hairs like the leaves. Leaves leathery, shining, dark green and occasionally purplish, ...
-Cruciferae. Part 3
Arabis Serpyllifolia VILL Stem flexuose, and, like the leaves, whitish grey from branched hairs. Leaves narrowly ovate, entire, or slightly dentate; radical leaves prolonged into a leaf-stalk; stem...
-Cruciferae. Part 4
Cardamine Latifolia Vahl Similar in habit and culture to the last species, from which it differs in having lyrate leaves with 3-7 large leaflets which are shortly stalked; the terminal leaflet is l...
-Cruciferae. Part 5
Matthiola Br. Stock Annual or perennial shrubby plants covered with hoary tomen-tum. Leaves entire or sinuate. Flowers usually purple or lilac, never yellow, rather large. Petals spreading, on long...
-Cruciferae. Part 6
Vesicaria Poir About 30 species indigenous to Southern Europe and America. (Silicule globular, many-seeded). Vesicaria Utriculata Lamk Stem 12-18 inches high, rather woody at the base. Leaves...
-Cruciferae. Part 7
Clypeola L A genus of about 8 species inhabiting southern Europe, Western Asia, and N. Africa. Flowers very small, yellow, turning whiter. Silicule orbicular, edged, compressed, 1-celled, and 1-see...
-Cruciferae. Part 8
Draba Nemorosa L Annual. Stem erect, simple, hairy and leafy below, glabrous and naked above. Leaves oval, entire or toothed; stem-leaves sessile, close together, not auricled. Flowers yellowish, s...
-Cruciferae. Part 9
Sisymbrium L Annual, or rarely perennial, erect herbs, glabrous or with spreading hairs. Flowers small, yellow or white. Pods linear, nearly cylindrical, the lateral nerves of the valves more or le...
-Cruciferae. Part 10
Erysimum Longifolium Dc. (E. Australe Gay) A greyish green plant, with rootstock sending up erect branches. Stem about a foot high or higher, erect, angular. Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, ent...
-Cruciferae. Part 1
Thlaspi Atyestre L Usually glabrous, 4-15 inches high, biennial or perennial, forming a branched or tufted stock, with obovate-oval or oblong, stalked, radical leaves. Stems simple, erect or ascend...
-Cruciferae. Part 12
Iberis Saxatilis L Stems 3-8 inches high, woody and twisted at the base. Leaves entire, linear, alternate, rather fleshy, the upper ones pointed or mucronate, the lower ones obtuse, glabrous or cil...
-Cistaceae
Flowers fugacious, usually large. Sepals and petals usually 5. Stamens numerous. Ovary usually 1-celled, with 3 parietal placentae. Style 1. Stigmas 3. Herbs or shrubs, often fragrant and resinous. ...
-Cistaceae. Continued
Helianthemum Grandiflorum Dc. (H. Virescens Gren. And Godr) This is possibly only a large-flowered variety of the last, which assumes so many forms in the Alps. Flowers up to 26 mm. in diameter, so...
-Violaceae
A family represented in Europe by a single genus. Viola L Leaves radical or alternate, stipulate. Flowers axillary, solitary, or in cymes, with 2 small bracts. Sepals 5, usually unequal, and pro...
-Violaceae. Continued
Viola Lutea Hudson Stem usually simple, ascending, leafy. Leaves crenate, the lower ones ovate-cordate or ovate-lanceolate, upper ones lanceolate. Stipules palmate-multifid, with linear or linear-o...
-Polygalaceae
A family represented in Europe only by Polygala itself. The other genera being chiefly tropical and differ from Polygala in the form of the fruit, or, in minor details, in the structure of their flowe...
-Caryophyllaceae
Annual or perennial herbs, with opposite, entire leaves, and no stipules, except in a few genera which have small, scarious stipules; the branches usually knotted at each pair of leaves. Flowers frequ...
-Caryophyllaceae. Part 2
Dianthus Superbus L. (Plate V) Stem 18 inches high, rounded, branched above. Leaves linear-lanceolate, soft, but rough at edges, the inferior sub-obtuse, the superior acute. Scales oval, mucronate,...
-Caryophyllaceae. Part 3
Dianthus Sylvestris Wulf. (Plate VIII) Considered by some a sub-species of D. Caryophyllus L., which is not Alpine, but grows on rocks and walls in Southern Europe, and in Algeria and Morocco. D. s...
-Caryophyllaceae. Part 4
Saponaria Calyx tubular, 5-toothed, without scales at the base. Petals with a corona. Disc small. Styles 2. Ovary 2-celled at the base. Capsule 4-valved. This genus, artificially distinguished b...
-Caryophyllaceae. Part 5
Lychnis Flos Jovis Desr Plant covered with whitish, silky tomentum. Stems 10-18 inches high, erect, simple. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, the upper ones narrower. Flowers deep pink, crowded....
-Caryophyllaceae. Part 6
Silene Inflata Smith (S. Cucubalus Wibel.). Bladder Campion. (Plate VIII) Loosely branched at the base, with ascending or erect stems a foot or more long, of a glaucous green, and usually glabrous....
-Caryophyllaceae. Part 7
Silene Quadrifida L. (Heliosperma Quadrifidum Reichb) Root with fusiform branches, and tufts of procumbent, slender, brittle stems. Stems 2-6 inches high, viscid above, glabrous, or with a few scat...
-Caryophyllaceae. Part 8
Silene Vallesia L A robust but dwarf pubescent-glandular species. Stems 4-6 inches high, 1-3 flowered, leafy. Leaves lanceolate acute; stem-leaves sessile; root-leaves narrowed into a petiole. Caly...
-Caryophyllaceae. Part 9
Alsine Wahl Petals 5, or rarely 4, entire or slightly notched. Stamens 5, 8, or 10, all attached to the disc. Styles usually 3. Capsule 3-valved. Leaves mostly linear or linear-lanceolate. A con...
-Caryophyllaceae. Part 10
Alsine Villarsii Mert. And Koch Stem 5-10 inches, 3-7 flowered, slender. Leaves 3-nerved, with intermediate finer nerves, linear, flat. Flowers on very long pedicels. Petals long and narrow, obtuse...
-Caryophyllaceae. Part 1
Arenaria Ciliata L Stem prostrate, creeping, branches ascending, densely covered with small, nearly round leaves, lower part of stem covered with short hairs. Leaves obovate, shortly acuminate, nea...
-Moehringia L
Petals 5, rarely 4, expanded. Stamens 10, rarely 8. Capsule 3-6 valved. Styles usually 3. Leaves nerveless, or 1-3 nerved. Seed with a mantle-like appendage at the base. A small genus of about 15 s...
-Scleranthus L
Scleranthus Perennis L. Perennial Knawel This much resembles S. annuus so well known in sandy places in England and in Switzerland, etc., but the root is larger and stems more tufted. The flowering...
-Hypericaceae
Herbs or shrubs with opposite or whorled leaves, often marked with pellucid dots (glands). Flowers usually in terminal cymes, regular. Sepals 5, rarely 4. Petals 5, rarely 4, usually twisted in the bu...
-Linaceae
Herbs or under-shrubs with entire, alternate leaves, no stipules, and regular flowers. Sepals 5, rarely fewer, distinct or united at the base. Petals 4 or 5, twisted in the bud. Stamens usually 10, us...
-Tamaricaceae
A very small European, North African, and Central Asiatic family, with one Mexican genus. Mostly shrubs, with alternate leaves, and ovules and seeds inserted on 3 distinct placentas, arising from the ...
-Geraniaceae
Annual or perennial herbs, or rarely low shrubs, with opposite or rarely alternate leaves, usually stipulate, divided, and compound. Flowers regular in the chief European genera. Sepals 5. Petals usua...
-Rhamnaceae
A large family, widely spread throughout the globe, but with very few European genera. Rhamnus L. Buckthorn Shrubs with alternate, entire leaves, and small green flowers on short pedicels, usual...
-Leguminosae
Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with alternate and generally compound leaves, usually furnished with stipules. Flowers very irregular, consisting of 5 petals, the upper one, called the standard, usually the ...
-Leguminosae. Part 2
Cytisus Radiatus Koch A small under-shrub about a foot high and much branched. Branches opposite or radiate, slender, truncate. Leaves shortly petioled, trifoliate; leaflets linear, spreading. Infl...
-Leguminosae. Part 3
Trifolium L. Clover Herbs with stipules adhering to the leaf-stalks. Leaves trifoliate; leaflets often toothed. Flowers in dense capitate heads. Calyx 5-toothed. Petals narrow, usually remaining ro...
-Leguminosae. Part 4
Anthyllis L Rather dwarf herbs, with pinnate leaves and yellow, red, or purple flowers, in crowded heads, with a deeply divided bract close underneath. Stipules small or o. Calyx inflated, with 5 s...
-Leguminosae. Part 5
Astragalus Alpinus L. (Phaca Astragalina Dc) Stem procumbent, then ascending, 3-8 inches high, slender, covered like the leaves with an adpressed down. Leaves pinnate, with 8-12 pairs of lanceolate...
-Leguminosae. Part 6
Astragalus Monspessulanus L Almost glabrous, green. Stems 0, the flower and leaf-stalks springing from the roots; 10-20 pairs of elliptic leaflets, stipules linear-lanceolate. Flowers purple, in ov...
-Leguminosae. Part 7
Oxytropis Ftilosa Dc Stem erect or ascending, 4-12 inches high, softly woolly, like the whole plant. Leaves pinnate, with 7-13 pairs of lanceolate or linear, entire, mucronate leaflets. Stipules la...
-Leguminosae. Part 8
Coronilla Minima L Stem woody and spreading. Leaflets in 3-5 pairs, oblong, the lowest pair close to the stem, and occupying the base of the petiole. Flowers yellow, in elegant heads of 5-8 florets...
-Leguminosae. Part 9
Vicia L. Vetch Mostly annuals, and either climbing or procumbent. Leaves with many entire or emarginate leaflets, usually ending in a tendril. Stipules half sagittate. Flowers in axillary raceme...
-Leguminosae. Part 10
Vicia Onobrychioides L. (Plate IX) A very handsome Vetch, 1 1/2-3 feet long, almost glabrous and climbing. Leaves with 5-8 pairs of linear leaflets. Flowers a beautiful rich violet with paler keel,...
-Rosaceae
Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with mostly alternate leaves, usually toothed or divided, the stipules seldom wanting and often leaflike. Flowers in cymes, or solitary at the end of the year's shoots, or mor...
-Rosaceae. Part 2
Alchemilla Vulgaris L. Common Lady's Mantle Rootstock nearly black, stout. Stem 6-18 inches, ascending. Root-leaves reniform, 6-9 lobed, serrate, 2-6 inches across, green on both sides; stem-leaves...
-Rosaceae. Part 3
Potentilla Fruticosa L This handsome shrub, with silky, sub-digitately pinnate leaves and bright yellow flowers, grows in the Pyrenees and many districts in N. and mid-Europe, but not in Switzerlan...
-Rosaceae. Part 4
Potentilla Grandiflora L. (Plate XVI) All the leaves trifoliate. Stem erect, 4-12 inches high, branched, 2-5 flowered, covered with long patent hairs. Leaves trifoliate; leaflets obovate, coarsely ...
-Rosaceae. Part 5
Fragaria Vesca L. Common Strawberry Calyx spreading or reflexed in fruit. Usually with slender stolons. Leaves mostly radical, covered with silky hairs like the stems. Fruit easily detached from...
-Rosaceae. Part 6
Rubus L Except for the Wild Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), and the Stone Bramble (R. saxatilis) very few of this large genus are ever seen in the sub-alpine region of Switzerland. Rubus Saxatilis L. ...
-Rosaceae. Part 7
Sorbus Mougeotii Soyer Et Godron (S. Scandica Fries) The leaves of the plant figured (4) on Plate XVIII resemble those of this species in being deeply lobed towards the middle; but the large berrie...
-Onagraceae
Herbs with opposite or alternate leaves, and often showy flowers, which are usually regular, 4-merous or 2-merous. Calyx-lobes 2 or 4, valvate in bud. Petals 2 or 4. Stamens 2-8. Ovary 2-6 celled, whe...
-Crassulaceae
Herbs or shrubs with succulent leaves, mostly alternate; no stipules, and flowers in terminal racemes or cymes. Sepals 3 or more, usually 5. Petals as many, sometimes united in a single corolla. ...
-Crassulaceae. Continued
Sedum Annuum L Annual. Quite glabrous and very small. Leaves slender, linear or sometimes cylindrical, green. Flowers in elongated cymes, yellow. Sepals obtuse. Dry, stony places and rocks of pr...
-Saxifragaceae
Herbs (in Europe) with alternate or opposite leaves, and no stipules. Calyx free, or more or less adherent to the ovary, with 4 or 5 lobes or segments. Petals as many, perigynous, or none. Stamens as ...
-Saxifragaceae. Part 2
Saxifraga Tridactylites L A small annual, 2-5 inches high, usually branched and more or less covered with glandular down. Leaves very small, entire or 3-lobed. Flowers small, white, single, on long...
-Saxifragaceae. Part 3
Saxifraga Mutata L Stem erect, springing from a rosette of large leaves. Stem ends in a racemose cyme, covered with viscous hairs, like the bracts, flower - stalks, and calyx; ultimate branches 1-m...
-Saxifragaceae. Part 4
Saxifraga Lantoscana Boiss. Et Reut Stem usually shorter than in 5. lingulata, of which it is sometimes considered a variety. Rosette-leaves linear-spathulate, broader towards the apex, with white ...
-Saxifragaceae. Part 5
Saxifraga Aizoides L S. autumnalis L. is the earlier name, Linnaeus having given two names to the same plant. (Plate XIV). Stem erect or ascending, leafy, bearing a numerous-flowered, racemose c...
-Saxifragaceae. Part 6
Saxifraga Geranioides L A hairy-glandular, robust plant, 6-12 inches high. Flowers large, white, tubular, with very narrow petals. Sepals lanceolate-acute. Rosette-leaves on a winged petiole with 1...
-Saxifragaceae. Part 7
Chrysosplenium L. Golden Saxifrage Small, fleshy, but delicate herbs, creeping at the base, with golden yellow flowering stems, orbicular leaves and small yellow flowers in short, leafy terminal cy...
-Umbelliferae
Herbs with alternate leaves, often much cut and divided. Flowers small, regular, in terminal or lateral umbels (simple or compound). At the base of the umbel are often a few bracts constituting the in...
-Umbelliferae. Part 2
Eryngium L. Eryngium Alpinum L The Alpine Sea-holly or Reine des Alpes. A thistle-like plant, with erect, striated stem 1-2 1/2 feet high, bluish, like the upper involucral bracts. Leaves ciliate...
-Umbelliferae. Part 3
Lonicera Coerulea L A shrub barely a yard high, with oval obtuse leaves very shortly petioled. Flower-stalk much shorter than the yellowish white petals. Berries blue-black, globular. Bushy plac...
-Rubiaceae
Slender herbs (in Europe) with angular stems and entire leaves, in whorls of 4, 6, or 8, the buds and branches always opposite. Flowers small, in terminal or rarely axillary heads or panicles. Calyx m...
-Rubiaceae. Continued
Galium Boreale L Rootstock creeping. Stems firm and erect, 6-18 inches high, not much branched. Leaves 4, in a whorl, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, with 3 prominent ribs, slightly rough at the e...
-Valerianaceae
Herbs with annual or perennial stock, opposite leaves, and no stipules. Flowers in terminal corymbs or panicles, usually small and numerous. Calyx adherent to the ovary, sometimes toothed, but unrolli...
-Dipsaceae
Leaves opposite or whorled. Flowers small, collected into a capitulum surrounded by an involucre of bracts. Calyx-limb cup-shaped, entire or lobed, surrounded by an involucel. Corolla funnel-shaped, 4...
-Compositae
Herbs or shrubs with alternate or opposite leaves, without stipules. Flowers or florets collected together into a head, surrounded by an involucre, the whole appearing like a single flower. The recept...
-Compositae. Part 2
Homogyne Sylvestris Cass Scape 10-12 inches high, with 1-3 capitula, downy, leafy below, scaly above. Root-leaves 2 inches broad, on long stalks, cordate-reniform, incised, 7-9 lobed, outer lobes p...
-Compositae. Part 3
Erigeron Canadensis L This ubiquitous annual weed is frequently seen in sub-alpine districts and even on the lower glacier moraines. A native of N. America it has now established itself in almost a...
-Compositae. Part 4
Gnaphalium L Flowers often unisexual and sometimes dioecious. Capitula small, usually in fascicled corymbs or cymes. Involucral leaves soft, adpressed, as long as the flowers. Receptacle flat, nake...
-Compositae. Part 5
Achillea L Leaves alternate, much divided or rarely simple Flower-heads small, in a terminal corymb with white or pink rays and a yellow disk. Involucres ovoid or hemispherical, the bracts imbricat...
-Compositae. Part 6
Achillea Macrophylla L. (Plate VI) Stem 2-3 feet high, erect, terete, leafy. Leaves pinnatifid, large, deeply and much divided; the lower leaves ovate-triangular in outline, pinnatipartite, with 3-...
-Compositae. Part 7
Doronicum Cordifolium Sternb. (D. Cor Datum Schultz) Stem 1 1/2-2 1/2 feet high, erect, more or less covered with soft hairs or nearly glabrous. Stem-leaves wavy at the margins or toothed, sessile,...
-Compositae. Part 8
Senecio Sylvaticus L. Wood Groundsel. (Plate XI) An annual, much resembling the common Groundsel, but a taller plant, often 2 feet high, slightly downy, or nearly glabrous, and not so viscid nor so...
-Compositae. Part 9
Senecio Alpinus Scop. (5. Cordifolius Clairv.). S. Cordatus Koch Stems 1-2 feet high. Leaves undivided, cordate-ovate, serrate, longer than broad, unequally dentate, lowermost webbed; leafstalk aur...
-Compositae. Part 10
S. Campestris Dc, S. Integrifolius Clairv. (Cineraria Campestris Retz) Stem erect, simple, 6 inches to 2 feet high. Root-leaves stalked, oblong or ovate; stem-leaves longer and narrower, all entire...
-Compositae. Part 1
Cirsium Acaule Scop. Dwarf Thistle Stemless, or with very short stem (var. caulescens Gremli). A thick, woody stock bearing a tuft of spreading, prickly, pin-natifid, glabrous leaves, from the c...
-Compositae. Part 12
Carduus Defloratus L Perhaps the commonest Thistle in Alpine districts. Stem 12-18 inches high, pubescent and naked for a long distance above, and bearing a single terminal capitulum. Leaves glabro...
-Compositae. Part 13
Centaurea Axillaris Willd. (C. Variegata Lam) Very similar to the last, but with pinnatifid lower leaves and oval involucral bracts, which have a brown margin with cartilaginous, silver-white teeth...
-Compositae. Part 14
Sub-Family: Liguliflorae. Aposeris Necker Aposeris Foetida Less Stem erect, leafless, glabrous like the leaves, bearing a single capitulum, pendent before flowering. Leaves wedge-shaped in outline,...
-Compositae. Part 15
Prenanthes L. Prenanthes Purpurea L. (Plate XIX) A tall purple-flowered woodland plant. Stems much-branched, glabrous like the whole plant. Capitula small, numerous, few-flowered. Involucral bracts...
-Compositae. Part 16
Crepis L Capitula small, usually numerous, panicled or corymbose, rarely solitary. Involucral bracts numerous, in several rows, with a few outer scales. Receptacle flat, naked. Flowers yellow, oran...
-Compositae. Part 17
Sub-Genus Pilosella Fries. Hieracium Aurantiacum L. (Plate XIX) Rootstock with creeping underground stolons and putting up barren tufts of leaves as well as flower-stems. Stem erect, scapelike, ver...
-Compositae. Part 18
Hieracium Villosum Jacq Densely villous with shaggy hairs. Stem erect, with several leaves, simple or branching above, each bearing a large, handsome capitulum, like the involucre covered with stel...
-Campanulaceae
Leaves alternate, entire or toothed, without stipules. Flowers usually blue or white, either distinct or collected into heads with a general involucre. Calyx with a free border of 5 teeth or lobes, so...
-Campanulaceae. Part 2
Phyteuma Betoniccefolium VILL. (Plate IV.) Very similar to the last in habit and shape of leaves, but the spikes are at first ovoid and then cylindrical. Stigmas 3. Stamens glabrous. Stem leafy in ...
-Campanulaceae. Part 3
Campanula Barbata L. (Plate XXIV) Root very long and tapering. Stem erect, obtusely angled, rough-haired like the whole plant. Leaves entire or slightly crenate, wavy, lowermost linear-lanceolate, ...
-Campanulaceae. Part 4
Campanula Pusilla Haenke. (Plate XXIV) Caespitose, with numerous tufts of leaves and slender flowering stems. Stems 2-4 inches high, leafy at base, bearing a slender raceme of 1-5 flowers, but more...
-Campanulaceae. Part 5
Campanula Pulla L Stem erect or ascending, obtusely angled, glabrous or with a few scattered hairs like the leaves, leafy below, 1-flowered. Leaves crenate; root-leaves and lower stem-leaves ovate ...
-Vacciniaceae
Calyx 4-5 fid; teeth often minute. Corolla regular, 4-5 cleft. Stamens 8-10; anthers opening by terminal pores or slits. Ovary 4-5 celled. Fruit a berry. Seeds albuminous. Small woody shrubs, often...
-Ericaceae
Herbs or woody shrubs, often evergreen. Flowers regular, campanulate, 4-5 lobed. Calyx 4-5 fid. Stamens 4-10. Ovary 4-5 celled. Style terminal. Fruit a berry or capsule. A family of over 1000 speci...
-Ericaceae. Part 2
Andromeda L. Andromeda Polifolia L. Marsh Andromeda A low, branching, wiry shrub 6-12 inches high, glabrous. Leaves alternate, oblong, lanceolate, evergreen, revolute at the edges, and very glaucou...
-Ericaceae. Part 3
Erica L. Heath About 400 species inhabiting Europe, the Mediterranean region, and S. Africa, but with only one truly native species in Switzerland, viz. Erica carnea; for though E. vagans (the Corn...
-Ericaceae. Part 4
Pyrola Media Swartz Differs from the next chiefly in the style, which is considerably longer, and from the last in never being so curved. The flowers are variable in size. Woods and moist, shady...
-Monotropa L
Erect, succulent herbs of a pale brown or yellowish colour, leafless except for small scales the colour of the stem. Are like Broomrape, and parasitical upon the roots of trees. Allied to Pyrola, but ...
-Primulaceae
Leaves undivided except when under water (as in Hottonia). Calyx usually 5-cleft. Corolla regular, 5-lobed. Stamens inserted opposite the centre of the corolla lobes. Ovary 1-celled. Style and stigma ...
-Primulaceae. Part 2
Androsace Maxima L Annual or biennial, 2-4 inches high. Leaves large, in a radical rosette, obovate-wedge-shaped, toothed at the top. Scape low, rather thick, the central erect, the others spreadin...
-Primulaceae. Part 3
Primula Allionii Lois Somewhat like the last in habit, but pubescent, viscous, and greyish green in colour. Plant about 2 inches high, from a creeping root. Scape almost wanting or much shorter tha...
-Primulaceae. Part 4
Primula Elatior Jacq. Oxlip Somewhat like the Cowslip, but with primrose or straw-coloured flowers, more erect than in the Cowslip, and somewhat larger, and longer leaves, less conspicuously veined...
-Primulaceae. Part 5
Cyclamen L Herbaceous plants with tuberous roots. Flowers red, rose, or white, often scented, nodding at the extremity of naked one-flowered scapes, which are coiled spirally after flowering. Corol...
-Asclepiadaceae
Flowers regular. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla 5-lobed. Stamens usually 5 united round the stigma into a column. Ovary 2-celled, the carpels connate above. Seed-vessel of two follicles, with numerous seeds...
-Lentibulariaceae
Marsh or aquatic plants with radical or floating leaves, or rarely none, and irregular flowers on leafless radical or terminal peduncles. Corolla 2-lipped, projecting below into a spur or pouch. Stame...
-Oleaceae
Name taken from Olea the Olive. Flowers regular, generally small. Calyx with 4-5 divisions or sometimes o. Stamens 2. Leaves simple or pinnate, always opposite. Fruit a berry or samara. A family of tr...
-Gentianaceae
Herbs often bitter, usually glabrous. Leaves opposite and entire without stipules. Flowers in terminal, dichotomous cymes or panicles, with a single flower in each fork, or solitary. Calyx 4-8 toothed...
-Gentianaceae. Part 2
Gentiana Pannonica Scop Stem erect, simple, 1-2 feet high, purple above. Lower leaves elliptic, petioled, the upper ones lanceolate, acute, sessile, 3-nerved. Calyx-lobes reflexed, equal. Flowers s...
-Gentianaceae. Part 3
Gentiana Alpina VILL. Prosp.,P. 22 (G. Acaulis L. Part) Stem very short. Root-leaves in small rosettes, small, leathery, 1-nerved, a pair of lanceolate stem-leaves often immediately below the calyx...
-Gentianaceae. Part 4
Gentiana Angustifolia VILL. Hist. Dauph., 2, P. 526 Stem 3-4 inches high, erect. Rosette leaves linear-lanceolate, narrow, obtuse, or shortly acuminate, 3-5 times as long as broad, soft and shiny. ...
-Gentianaceae. Part 5
Gentiana Campestris L. (Plate XXV) Annual or biennial. Corolla 4-lobed, lilac, but frequently darker violet and sometimes white. (Plate XXV.) Calyx-teeth very unequal, the two outer lobes three tim...
-Polemoniaceae
Polemonium L A small genus of about 10 species, inhabiting Europe, Asia, and America. Polemonium Cozruleum L Stem 1-2 feet high, erect, furrowed, hollow, glabrous, like the leaves, or with a ...
-Convolvulaceae
Twining or prostrate herbs, with alternate leaves, or leafless and parasitical (Cuscuta). Calyx of 4 or 5 sepals often very unequal. Corolla usually campanulate, with 4 or 5 lobes or nearly entire. St...
-Boraginaceae
Herbs usually rough with coarse hairs. Leaves alternate, simple, and usually entire. Flowers in 1-sided spikes or racemes, rolled back when young, and usually forked. Calyx of 5 teeth. Corolla regular...
-Boraginaceae. Part 2
Lappula Echinata Gilib. (Echinospermum Lappula Lehm) Stem branched in the upper part, hispid and grey like the whole plant. Fruit-stalks erect. Flowers in small axillary clusters, sky-blue. Nutlets...
-Boraginaceae. Part 3
Pulmonaria Officinalis L. Lungwort Stems 6-18 inches high, with alternate, mostly sessile leaves. Root-leaves ovate-oblong on long footstalks, coarsely hairy and often much spotted. Calyx very hair...
-Boraginaceae. Part 4
Lithospermum Purpureo Cceruleum L. Purple Gromwell Stems decumbent, leafy, 1-2 feet long or more, with shorter ascending or nearly erect flowering stems, ending in a leafy, forked cyme. Leaves lanc...
-Scrophulariaceae
Corolla monopetalous, usually 2-lipped and irregular, with 4 or 5 lobes. Stamens 4 or rarely 2, inserted on the tube of the corolla. Ovary 2-celled. Style simple. Ovules numerous. Fruit a many-seeded ...
-Scrophulariaceae. Part 2
Linaria Petraea Jord. (Plate V) May be only a variety of the above, of looser habit, with blue-violet flowers, usually without any orange, and seeds less broadly winged. It grows in similar plac...
-Scrophulariaceae. Part 3
Digitalis L. Foxglove Flowers in long terminal racemes, large, purple or yellow, rarely white. Corolla campanulate or ventricose, with bearded throat. Stigma 2-lobed. Capsule oval-acuminate, with 2...
-Scrophulariaceae. Part 4
Veronica L. Speedwell Herbs with opposite stem-leaves and small flowers, blue, white, or pink, in spikes or racemes, or in the axils of alternate floral-leaves. Calyx 4 or rarely 5-cleft. Corolla w...
-Scrophulariaceae. Part 5
Veronica Prostrata L Allied to V. Teucrium, but smaller, and with narrow-lanceolate leaves, slightly toothed or entire, and thickly covered with grey pubescence. Flowers pale blue, rather small, in...
-Scrophulariaceae. Part 6
Veronica Bellidioides L Much like V. alpina, but larger in all its parts, though intermediate forms appear to occur. Stem 4-6 inches high, simple, ascending, rough-haired like the entire plant, gla...
-Scrophulariaceae. Part 7
Euphrasia Lutea L. (Plate XXIX) A very distinct annual species, formerly known as Odontites lutea Reichb. Stems slender, branched, the branches being opposite and spreading, finely pubescent. Leave...
-Scrophulariaceae. Part 8
Rhinanthus Sub-Alpinus Schinz And Thellung. (Plate XXVIII) Plant 6-12 inches high. Stem streaked with black, almost glabrous. Leaves broadly lanceolate, crenate-dentate, sub-acute. Bracts triangula...
-Orobanchaceae
Leafless brownish root-parasites. Rootstock often tuberous, naked or scaly. Stem stout, solitary, scaly, not often branched. Flowers in more or less dense spikes or racemes. Sepals 4 or 5. Corolla 2-l...
-Globulariaceae
A small family of about 14 species, inhabiting Europe and the Mediterranean district. Globularia L Flowers blue, in globular heads. Corolla tubular. Calyx 4-cleft, teeth linear. Stamens nearly e...
-Labiatae
Herbs, or rarely shrubs, with square stems and opposite leaves, often glandular and fragrant. Flowers solitary, or in opposite, axillary, crowded, stalked, or sessile cymes. Corolla tubular and 2-lipp...
-Labiatae. Part 2
Salvia Pratensis L. Meadow Sage. (Plate XXIX) A handsome plant 1-2 feet high with shortly stalked root-leaves, ovate heart-shaped or oblong, 3 to 5 inches long, coarsely toothed and much wrinkled; ...
-Labiatae. Part 3
Horminum L. Horminum Pyrenaicum L About 6 or 10 inches high. Root-leaves stalked, ovate-lanceolate, crenate, wrinkled, glabrous. Flowers violet, usually in false whorls (axillary cymes) of 6. Calyx...
-Labiatae. Part 4
Lamium Longiflorum Ten Flowers very large and handsome (25-30 mm.), rose-purple, rarely white, upper lip bifid. Corolla-tube much dilated at the throat, at least twice as long as the calyx. Calyx-t...
-Labiatae. Part 5
Stachys Alpina L. Alpine Woundwort A tall species 2-3 feet high, with erect and often branched stem, hairy and glandular at the top. Lower leaves broadly oval, obtuse, cordate at the base, softly d...
-Labiatae. Part 6
Ajuga Genevensis L Stem 6-18 inches high, erect, simple, very woolly throughout. Leaves oblong, woolly on both sides, crenate or dentate; stemleaves scarcely smaller than root-leaves. Flowers deep ...
-Labiatae. Part 7
Hyssopus Officinalis L. Common Hyssop Stems i-i 1/2 feet high. Stock woody, with erect branches. Leaves greyish green, linear-lanceolate, entire, smooth, sessile, with glandular dots, ciliated. Spi...
-Plantaginaceae
Flowers small, green, in leafless, crowded spikes. Sepals 4, persistent. Corolla 4-lobed. Stamens 4, with large exserted anthers. Ovary free, 2-4 celled. Stigma feathery. Plantago L Plantain. Le...
-Chenopodiaceae
A large family of inconspicuous greenish herbs, widely distributed many species are Maritime and none truly Alpine. Chenopodium L. Goosefoot Flowers small, bisexual, without bracts. Stem angular...
-Polygonaceae
Herbs with simple leaves and scarious, sheathing stipules (ochreae). Flowers usually bisexual. Sepals 3-6, petaloid or green, often in 2 rows. Stamens 5-8. Ovary usually trigonous. Styles 1-3. Ovule s...
-Thymeleaceae
Herbs or shrubs, with white, pink, or green flowers, which are usually bisexual. Perianth with 4 equal lobes, often petaloid and fragrant. Ovary usually 1-celled. Fruit a drupe or berry. About 400 ...
-Elaeagnaceae
Shrubs or trees, more or less covered with minute, silvery or brown scurfy scales. It differs from the Daphne family in having erect and not pendulous ovules and seeds. A small family of few genera...
-Empetraceae
The family contains 3 genera and only 4 species. Empetrum Nigrum L. Crowberry The only species. This well-known prostrate shrub, with wiry branches and linear leaves, pale red flowers and black ...
-Santalaceae
Thesium L. Bastard Toadflax Flowers minute, hermaphrodite, solitary and axillary or in cymes. Calyx 3-5 lobed, persistent. Stamens 3-5, attached to the calyx. Ovary 1-celled. Fruit a 1-celled, 1-se...
-Euphorbiaceae
One of the largest families, with over 3000 species represented in nearly every part of the world, except the Arctic regions. But we are unaware of a single species which is purely Alpine. Euphorbi...
-Loranthaceae
A family of over 600 species spread over the greater part of the world, but chiefly in the tropics. Viscum L About 30 species in the hot and temperate regions of the ancient world. Viscum Alb...
-Cupuliferae
Trees or shrubs with alternate stipulate leaves. Flowers monoecious. Male flowers in drooping catkins, sepals 4 or less, stamens 2-4; female flowers 2-3, under each scale of a catkin; perianth o. Frui...
-Cupuliferae. Continued
Corylus L Fruit a woody, 1-seeded nut, enclosed in the much enlarged coriaceous involucre. Species 7. Corylus Avellana L. Hazel A glandular, pubescent shrub, rarely a tree of 30 feet. Leaves ...
-Salicaceae
Trees or shrubs with alternate, stipulate leaves. Flowers dioecious. Perianth o. Male flowers (in catkins) of 2 or more stamens. Female flowers of a 1-celled ovary with 2 styles and many ovules. The f...
-Class II. - Monocotyledons. Orchidaceae
Perennial herbs with roots often thickened into tubers, entire and parallel-nerved leaves and irregular flowers, solitary or in spikes, racemes, or panicles, each one in the axil of a bract. Perianth ...
-Monocotyledons. Orchidaceae. Part 2
Orchis Ustulata L. Burnt-Tip Orchis About the same height as the last, but less robust, and noticeable for its dense spike of small flowers, the colour of the unopened ones at the top giving it a b...
-Monocotyledons. Orchidaceae. Part 3
Orchis Sambucina L Smelling like Elder. Tubers long and undivided, or shorter and 2-3 lobed. Stem leafy, 4-10 inches high. Leaves not spotted, dark green, lower ones wedge-shaped, broader towards a...
-Monocotyledons. Orchidaceae. Part 4
Ophrys Muscifera Hudson. Fly Orchis Sepals yellowish green. Lip nearly flat, narrow, reddish brown, with a blue patch. 2 lateral lobes linear, small, middle lobe deeply bifid. Flowers distant. G...
-Monocotyledons. Orchidaceae. Part 5
Cypripedium L. Cypripedium Calceolus L. Lady's Slipper Rootstock cylindrical, knotty, horizontal, tufted, with fleshy fibres. Stem downy and leafy, 1-2 flowered, about a foot high. Leaves elliptica...
-Monocotyledons. Orchidaceae. Part 6
Goodyera R.Br. Goodyera Repens R.Br Rootstock creeping, with a few thick fibres. Stems 6-10 inches high, with a few ovate stalked leaves near the base. Spike unilateral, with small greenish white f...
-Monocotyledons. Orchidaceae. Part 7
Malaxis Solander Flowers small, green or yellowish. Sepals and petals spreading, the latter very small. Lip minute, concave. Pollen masses 4. Leaves very few. About 120 species in the temperate and...
-Monocotyledons. Orchidaceae. Part 8
Cephalanthera Longifolia Fritsch. (C. Rusifolia Rich) Resembling the last in habit and size, but the flowers are pure white, more distant than in the next species, and the sepals narrower and more ...
-Monocotyledons. Orchidaceae. Part 9
Epipactis Microphylla Swartz. Small-Leaved Epipactis A smaller and more slender plant with very small lanceolate leaves. Whole plant often purplish like the last. Flowers reddish green, fragrant. L...
-Iridaceae
Perennial herbs, with bulbous, tuberous, or shortly creeping rootstock, frequently ensiform leaves and regular flowers with 2 bracts. Perianth 6-lobed. Stamens 3. Style simple. Stigmas often dilated. ...
-Amaryllidaceae
Root bulbous (in all European genera). Leaves radical.; Perianth petal-like, with 6 segments. Stamens 6, the anthers turned inwards. Ovary 3-celled, inferior or adherent to the perianth-tube. Fruit a ...
-Liliaceae
Perennial herbs with creeping, bulbous or clustered rootstock, and either radical leaves and peduncles, or annual or biennial, leafy flowering-stems. Flowers usually hermaphrodite. Perianth usually 6-...
-Liliaceae. Part 2
Maianthemum Weber. Maianthemum Bifolium Dc. (Plate XVII.) May Lily Rootstock creeping, slender. Stems 6-8 inches high, naked but for 2 alternate, stalked, ovate, and deeply cordate, glabrous leaves...
-Liliaceae. Part 3
Lilium Pomponium L This brilliant red, handsome Lily, with leafy stem and narrow linear leaves, is found in stony places in the Ligurian Alps as high as 6000 feet, but is never abundant. May to Jul...
-Liliaceae. Part 4
Allium L. Onion Flowers in rounded umbels, surrounded by a membranous spathe. Perianth-segments distinct. Foetid herbs with radical leaves and a usually naked scape. Allium Victorialis L Root...
-Liliaceae. Part 5
Gagea Fistulosa Ker-Gawler (G. Liottardi Schult) Bulbs 1 or 2 in each sheath. Leaves 1-3, usually 2, the one from the larger bulb stouter, glabrous, trigonous, slightly furrowed, tubular towards th...
-Liliaceae. Part 6
Fritillaria L Bulbous herbs, with a more or less leafy stem, and one or more rather large drooping flowers in a terminal raceme. Perianth bell-shaped, with distinct segments as in Tulip, but the 3 ...
-Liliaceae. Part 7
Colchicum L Flowers usually solitary, springing from a fleshy corm. Leaves radical, appearing after the flowers. Flowers with long tube like those of Crocus. Stamens 6. Ovary underground, but withi...
-Juncaceae
Usually stiff herbs with narrow, grass-like leaves and small herbaceous or dry flowers in terminal clusters. Perianth regular, dry and calyx-like, of 6 segments. Stamens 6, or rarely 3. Styles single,...
-Juncaceae. Continued
Juncus Alpinus VILL Stems 1-1 1/2 feet, slender, erect, leafy, jointed, usually cylindrical like the leaves. Leaf-sheaths sharply keeled. Cyme with erect branches. Perianth-segments all about the s...
-Naiadaceae
Plants usually growing in water. Leaves sheathing at the base, often floating on water. Flowers green, bisexual or unisexual. Perianths 3-4 lobed or 0. Stamens hypogynous. Ovary of 1-4 carpels. Style ...
-Juncaginaceae
A small family of about 12 species, inhabiting temperate and cold regions of the Old and New Worlds. The characters resemble those of Naiadaceae, but the leaves are erect and rush-like. Triglochin ...
-Cyperaceae
Herbs, often resembling Grasses, but usually stiffer, with solid stems and the sheaths of the leaves closed all round. Flowers in little green or brown spikelets, which are either solitary and termina...
-Cyperaceae. Part 2
Eriophorum L Characters and habit of Scirpus, except that the bristles finally protrude far beyond the glumes, forming white, silky or cottony tufts, and hence the English name of Cotton-grass. The...
-Cyperaceae. Part 3
Schcenus Ferrugineus L A smaller plant, 6-12 inches high, with fewer and smaller spike-lets of a rusty brown colour, whose bracts are shorter and barely the length of the whole spike. Leaves much s...
-Cyperaceae. Part 4
Carex Pulicaris L. Flea Sedge A small tufted species, 4-8 inches high, with narrow leaves shorter than the stem. Spikelet terminal and solitary, male in the upper half, the lower flowers being fema...
-Cyperaceae. Part 5
Car Ex Stellulata Good. (C. Echinata Murray) A small, tufted species 6-9 inches high, with leaves rather shorter than the stem. Spikelets 3 or 4, the 2 uppermost closer than the rest, oval-oblong a...
-Cyperaceae. Part 6
Carex Claviformis Hoppe Considered by some a sub-species of C. flacca. It is usually greener, larger, and more robust, with thick, knotted stolons. Female spikelets loose near the base, denser and ...
-Cyperaceae. Part 7
Carex Alba Scop A slender species 6-12 inches high, with narrow linear leaves with yellow-brown sheaths. Stem erect, rough at the edge, bearing 1-3 female, long-stalked spikelets, the upper one usu...
-Gramineae. (The Grass Family)
Herbs, with usually hollow stems, except at the nodes, and narrow, parallel-veined, entire, alternate leaves, sheathing at the base; but the sheaths usually split open on the side opposite the blade, ...
-Class III. Gymnospermae. Conifers
Trees or shrubs with resinous juice, and usually rigid, subulate leaves, often in fascicles and entire in the European genera. Flowers monoecious or dioecious. Male flowers in catkins, of 1 or more an...
-Gymnospermae. Conifers. Part 2
Pinus Strobus L. Weymouth Pine A tree attaining 80 feet in height. Leaves in bundles of 5, 2-4 inches long, slender, trigonous, green and glossy on one side, glaucous on the 2 other sides. Cone sho...
-Gymnospermae. Conifers. Part 3
Larix Miller Larch. Leaves fascicled, deciduous. Seeds winged. Larix Europcea Dc. (L. Decidua Miller) A tree sometimes attaining a height of 160 feet. Leaves, or needles, in fascicles of 20-3...
-Gymnospermae. Conifers. Part 4
Juniperus L. Juniper Shrubs with glaucous, subulate, stiff and pointed or scale-like leaves. Cone berry-like, small, composed of fleshy scales, blue when ripe (in the second year). Ovules 1 or 2 un...
-Ephedraceae Or Gnetaceae
Leaves opposite, very small. Flowers unisexual, male flowers with a tubular membranous perianth, otherwise resembling Coniferae. A very small family of chiefly tropical and Mediterranean plants. Ep...
-Class IV. Vascular Cryptogams
In Switzerland alone there are about 45 true ferns (excluding Botrychium, Ophioglossum, etc.), or just about the number to be found in the British Isles. List of the Ferns and Fern Allies of Switze...
-Books
British Birds In Their Haunts By Rev. C. A. Johns, F.L.S. Edited by J. A. Owen. With 64 full-page Coloured Plates (256 Figs.) by William Foster. Flowers Of The Field By Rev. C. A. Johns, F...
-A Few Press Opinions on Sub-Alpine Plants Or Flowers Of The Swiss Woods And Meadows
The author combines botanical knowledge with an intimate acquaintance with the plants in situ; and this combination gives to his work an accuracy and precision which are lacking in many previous work...









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