When Roses are to be planted out singly, as many of the climbing sorts are, the soil should be dug out two and a half feet deep; the bottom may be filled, to the depth of six inches, with small stones, or, what is better, with bones, and then filled up with prepared soil.
Situation. - The Rose will flourish in any situation where the soil is well prepared; but it is best to plant the Rose where it can be shaded from the intensity of the mid-day sun. If it can be so located as to receive the morning and evening sun, and shaded during its greatest heat, the bloom- will be more perfect, and continue longer. Some varieties are very delicate, and their blossoms are almost ruined by a full exposure. An eastern or northern exposure is, therefore, the best. Roses should not, however, be wholly shaded.
Planting. - The best season for planting all the hardy Roses, as before stated, is in autumn; or, if necessary to defer till spring, it should be done as early as possible. If planted late in the spring, it will be best to cut the plants down to a few buds. Any time, after the first severe frost, is a proper time to commence planting. The plants should be taken up with great care, disturbing the roots as little as possible, remembering that the breaking of a single fibre diminishes the strength of the growth and future prosperity of the plant. Presuming that the ground is all ready, the holes should be dug somewhat larger than the roots. When the planting is completed, the plant should stand but a very little lower than it stood before in the ground. The operation of placing the roots and fibres should be done with the nicest care. In my fall planting, I place the plant in an oblique direction, so that the plants may be easily bent down and covered. Fall-planted roses are liable to be more or less winter-killed, which is prevented, if covered with coarse litter, or manure.
We have seen Pillar Roses, in the grounds of Mr. Charles Hoffman, of Salem, - which, without protection, are liable to be killed down to within two or three feet of the ground, - grown in great magnificence, forming beautiful pyramids of Roses from twelve to fifteen feet high. We had never seen the Pillar Rose in such perfection. They were the same varieties which in our own ground did not exceed more than five or six feet, as the greater part of the new wood is every winter-killed down. We were informed that the supports to which these Roses were trained, consisting of nothing more than three or four strong rose. 277 spruce poles, were taken away in autumn, and the plants laid down and covered with earth, or coarse manure.
The only time to plant tender Roses, as far north as Boston, is in the spring. The China, Bengal, and Tea Roses may be grown in the open ground, in New England, if they are taken up in autumn. They may be kept in a dry, cool cellar, with the roots packed in loam or sand; or they may be laid in by the heels, on a dry knoll, and covered with earth, where they will remain secure till spring. In planting them out, they should be cut down to a few buds, and they will bloom' after the summer Roses have passed away, provided the roots were taken up well. In replanting Roses, the roots should be carefully examined, and all broken or bruised parts should be cut off with a sharp knife.
A young, healthy plant is much better than one that is old and overgrown, to plant out; indeed, old plants should be rejected.
Plantations of Roses should be made to succeed each other. In the second and third years after planting, the Rose will be in its greatest perfection. After the plants become old, they do not do so well; and I have found, in my own experience, that five years was long enough to continue the plantation. It is best then to prepare a new place, or, in fact, it should be pre- . pared, and the new plantation made, a year before the old one is given up, as a general and perfect bloom cannot be expected the first year.
It is becoming fashionable, at the present time, to plant out Roses in masses, which have a fine effect, where the white, the crimson, or other distinct colors, are planted by themselves. Many of the strong-growing sorts are suitable for planting with other shrubs in the shrubbery.
Pruning. - Roses, in this climate, should be pruned early in the spring. For Roses that are grown as dwarfs, it is necessary to prune them down to a few buds; all the old wood, and the weak, last year's growth, should be taken entirely away The young woo generally produces the finest flowers, which, when properly pruned, are larger and much more double than when the bushes are suffered to grow at random.
In pruning climbing Roses, the operation must be different, as it is necessary to retain the whole length of the most vigorous shoots, cutting out all the old wood that will not be likely to produce fine flowers, and pruning down the lateral branches to one eye. The manner of pruning must, in a measure, depend upon the variety of the Rose, and more particularly upon the style in which it is to be trained. This must be left to the ingenuity and taste of the cultivator; and whether it is to be trained to a trellis, over an arch, pillar, or in whatever shape it is wanted, the proper way will generally suggest itself.
Propagation. - The Rose . is propagated in various ways. Some varieties succeed well by cuttings, as the China and many of the tender Roses; but, with most of the hardy kinds, this is not often resorted to except by skilful gardeners.
By Layers. - All the summer-blooming Roses may be propagated in this way. It can be performed in midsummer, and for several weeks afterwards. Young shoots, at least one foot long 'and well matured, should be selected for this purpose. The mode of operation is the same as in all shrubby plants. The soil should be well dug about the plant, and increased by a little fresh loam, well enriched with rotten manure, raised about it, so as to form a little bed. Proceed, then, with the usual process of layering, "by making a slit with a sharp knife just below a bud, making a slanting cut, upwards and length-wise, about half through the branch, forming a tongue from one to two inches long, on the back part of the shoot, right opposite the bud. A chip, or some of the soil, can be placed in the slit to prevent it from closing, and the shoot can then be carefully laid and pegged down at a point some two or three inches below the cut, keeping, at the same time, the top of the shoot some three or four inches out of the ground, and making it fast to a smal1 stake to keep it upright." The prepared shoot should be Duried about three or four inches deep. Great care will be necessary to prevent the branch from injury. The rose. 279 ground over the layer should be covered with moss, or coarse manure, or some substance to screen it from the sun. In some varieties, the layers will be sufficiently rooted in autumn; but in many kinds, particularly the hardy perpetuals, they will not be sufficiently established to separate from the parent plant till the autumn following.
By Suckers. - Many varieties of Roses are inclined to throw up suckers. With these sorts there is no difficulty in increasing the stock. These should be taken off with as much root as possible, every autumn, and planted out in nursery rows, or where they are to remain, if strong plants. The parent plant is also very much benefited by this operation.
Budding. - All the varieties of the Rose can be propagated by budding, and, to increase new and rare varieties, this mode isalways resorted to. There are some sorts, naturally weak, which flower much more perfectly when budded on some strong-growing species; but we hate a budded Rose-bush, and will not have one in our grounds if we can get them on their own roots. It requires much care and attention to keep them in order, as the stock is continually throwing up suckers, drawing all the nourishment from the budded variety. Where there are but few varieties, and.a skilful gardener to look after the plants, there is no doubt but that it is desirable to have some varieties on strong-growing stocks. We were not a little amused, a few years since, upon a visit at the house of a horticultural friend, who, by the way, was better acquainted with the management of his fruit trees than he was with the flower-garden. His garden was well laid out and kept very neat. He was taking me round to show the various plants, and getting what information he could out of one he supposed knew more than he did about them. Presently he came to a wilderness of the French Dog Roses. "There," says he, "is a lot of the choicest Roses that could be obtained in France." "Indeed," says I, "they certainly look very vigorous." "They do, to be sure," he replied; "but somehow or other they look very much alike, and the few that flowered this year were very single." "That is very prohable," i replied, "for Dog Roses have great resemblance to each other, and are always single." Great was his surprise, when I convinced him that the Roses he had imported and cultivated with so much care, were only suckers from the stocks on which his imported Roses were budded. He had planted them out, supposing they were on their own roots, and had not perceived the necessity of keeping down the suckers.
Tree Roses. - The Tree Rose is a beautiful object when in bloom. It is formed by inoculating the desired variety upon a standard, some four or five feet in height, generally the Dog Rose, as it is called in France, or the Eglantine. Many have been imported from France, and succeed well the first or second year; but from some cause they soon die. Either the severity of our winters, or our powerful summers' sun, causes their death.
New varieties are produced from seed raised from flowers, which have been crossed with others of opposite characters; but none but amateurs will attempt this, so this mode of propagation will not be dwelt upon.
Of the diseases of the Rose, and of the insects that infest it, we shall have something to say in another place.